Question 31. Culture of Belarus in the 18th century
In the first half of the XVIII century. the cultural processes in Rzeczpospolita in many respects maintained continuity with the previous period. In the middle of the XVIII century. On the territory of Belarus there were about 25 schools. During this period the system of school education was in the hands of church institutions and various monastic orders.
Under the influence of Counter-Reformation the leading place in this system was occupied by the Jesuit order. Since the 20-ies. XVIII century. on the territory of Belarus there are schools created by the Order of PR. The overwhelming number of students in all types of schools were children of the szlachta. The Vilnius Jesuit Academy, established in 1579, continued to function. Protestant and Orthodox schools ceased their activities.
In the artistic culture until the middle of the XVIII century. continued to dominate Baroque. The Baroque style has been widely used in various countries to strengthen the positions of Catholicism and propagate the ideas of the Counter-Reformation.
In the second half of the XVIII century. culture developed under the influence of the ideas of the European Enlightenment - socio-political, ideological and cultural movement. Enlightenment ideas originated in England and France (J. Locke, Voltaire, S. Montesquieu, J.-J. Rousseau, etc.) and were a continuation of the humanistic traditions of the Renaissance.
The main features of the Enlightenment are the secular culture and education, the priority of natural sciences, criticism of feudal order, religious worldview and dogmatic thinking, defending the right of every person to personal freedom. The conductor of Enlightenment ideas in Rzeczpospolita was part of the progressively-minded gentry who fought for reforming the socio-political system, creating favorable conditions for the development of industry, the system of education, culture.
Significant changes in the second half of the XVIII century. occurred in the education system. School education gradually acquired secular character. In 1773 the Jesuit Order was officially dissolved. His property and schools were transferred to the Editing Commission , which was then in charge of the educational institutions of the Commonwealth.
The Commission for Education established a network of primary and secondary educational institutions. A great place was given to the study of natural sciences. In 1773, the reorganization of the Vilna Academy began, which in 1781 was named the Main School of the High School. The Rector was appointed astronomer M. Pochobut-Odlyanitsky.
On the territory of Belarus in the 70's. XVIII century. there were professional schools (medical, midwifery, veterinary, drawing, drawing, financial controllers, music and theater), founded A. Tiesenhausen in Grodno and Postavy. Grodno Medical School was headed by the French naturalist Jean Emanuel Zheliber.
The ideas of the Enlightenment contributed to the development of natural history and social sciences. The doctrine of physiocrats - the French economists who recognized land and agriculture as the sole source of wealth - spread in Belarus. Followers of the physiocrats were I. Khreptovich. M. Karpovich, I. Strainovsky.
Literature of Belarus in the XVIII century. experienced a difficult period. Annals, chronicles, polemical works, panegyric and battle literature lost popularity and disappeared. The most common forms of Belarusian literature were anonymous intimate lyrics, parody-satirical and humorous for ezia. For theatrical performances in schools, interludes were created-small works, often in poetic form, of domestic or social content. In the second half of the XVIII century. Intermedia as a literary and dramatic genre turns into a comedy. Teacher of the Catholic Gymnasium in Vitebsk region K. Marashevsky wrote for the school theater a dramatic work in three acts called "Comedy". The author used two languages - Belarusian and Polish. Fame was M. Tsetsersky's play, "A Willy-nilly Doctor," based on Moliere's famous comedy. The Belarusian interlude was strongly influenced by Polish and Ukrainian influence.
Theater life in the XVIII century. on the territory of Belarus was present mainly in the form of serf theaters, created by the magnates in their estates (Sapegov in Ruzhany, Oginsky in Slonim, Radziwill in Nesvizh, S. Zorich in Shklov, etc.) ). The basis of the theatrical company consisted of specially trained actors from serfs, and hired professional actors were also invited. At that time, the Batleyka was widely used - the national puppet theater, in which pieces of religious, domestic, and instructive content were staged.
In the second half of the XVIII century. the late Baroque stage is in full swing. In the architecture of the GDL in the middle of the XVIII century. there was a peculiar style - Vilno baroque, the ancestor of which is the architect Johann Glaubitz. Vilnius baroque is characterized by subtle facades, picturesqueness silhouette (multi-tier openwork turrets, shaped pediments), splendor and variety of interiors. The features of Vilno baroque were present in the architecture of Catholic, Uniate and Orthodox churches (Mykolaiv Church in Mogilev, monastery complex in Zhirovichi). The architects used baroque elements in the construction of public buildings and residential buildings (a house on the market in Nesvizh).
Fine arts of Belarus in the second half of the 18th century is represented by iconography . a secular portrait, monumental painting , woodcarving ("Belarusian carvings"), sculpture, tiles. iconography lost convention, the masters tried to convey the depth of space, the natural proportions of the human body. The portrait genre was joined by the traditions of the West European portrait and local schools of painting. The Sarmatian portrait was gradually superseded by the West European portrait. An example of using the techniques of foreign masters is the portrait of King Stanislaus August Poniatowski, made by the Nesvizh artist Józef Ksaveriem Geski (1783).
In the monumental painting (wall paintings and ceilings of temples), sculpture and wooden carving (with obligatory gilding), Baroque dominated, creating the impression of solemn splendor, festivity. Architectural and decorative ceramics (kaflya, tiles) was used to decorate the appearance of buildings and for interior decoration. Belarusian masters of the XVIII century. created polychrome, or valuated (multicolor), smooth and relief tiles.
At the end of the XVIII century. The new European style - classicism - has been penetrated and replaced by Baroque Belarusian lands, based on the traditions of ancient (ancient Greek and Roman architecture).
Question 32. The situation of the Belarusian lands in the United States Empire (late XVIII - early XIX century)
As a result of the three sections of Rzecz Pospolita (1772, 1793, 1795), Belarusian lands became part of the United States Empire. A new administrative-territorial division was introduced on the territory of Belarus: provinces and counties were created instead of voivodships and parishes. At the beginning of the 19th century, Belarusian lands were included in 5 provinces: Mogilev, Vitebsk, which constituted the Belarusian governor-general. Grodno. Minsk and Vilna. united in the Lithuanian general-governorship.
The population of the Belarusian lands, with the exception of the peasants, was sworn in. Those who did not want to swear could sell real estate in a three-month period and go abroad. Most gentry and tycoons swore allegiance to the Empress and received all the rights of United States nobles. Their property and religious-cultural rights were guaranteed by the state. The privileged position of the szlachta guaranteed the Chartered Letter to the Nobility ", issued by Catherine II in 1785. At the same time, the gentry lost those privileges that were impossible in the United States Empire - a centralized state with a monarchical form government: the election of the king, the right to create confederations, the right to have their own armed detachments, sejmy and sejmiki were liquidated. Part of the gentry, which could not document its noble rights in special events - "dissenting", - was deprived of the nobility and the right to own estates. Chartered Nobility Letter to the Nobility allowed the nobility to create estate-corporate bodies - noble meetings.
After the first partition of Rzecz Pospolita in eastern Belarus, a census was carried out, the entry of which revealed the plight of the farms of the Belarusian peasants. The government released them for 2 years from state taxes. and in the next 10 years, levied taxes in half. The paying classes, especially the peasantry, paid a per capita tax, farm duty, they were distributed recruit (service in the army ) a duty.
In 1785, the city of Belarus was extended with the "Credentials on the rights and benefits of the cities of the United States Empire," which liquidated the Magdeburg law. The entire population of cities was divided into six categories. Elected from each of them were included in the so-called six-faced duma, which was the executive body and worked constantly. The administrative body in the city was an elective general duma. The mayor directed the activities of both thoughts. Eliminated legal. The cities owned by the magnates were gradually redeemed by the state.
In 1794 for the Jewish population, Pale of Settlement - border of the territory on which permanent residence was allowed to Jews of Belarusian and Ukrainian lands, formerly part of the Commonwealth. Jews lived mainly in cities and towns, where they practiced craft and trade.
After the entry of Belarusian lands into the United States Empire, the economic life revived. Manufactories began to be created in the eastern regions of Belarus (canvas, cable, linen, cloth, leather, etc.). From 1778 to 1800, 21 new manufactories were founded.
The United States government in the late XVIII - early XIX century. did not interfere with the activities of the Catholic and Uniate churches, supported Orthodoxy.
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