Dynamics of the historical process - History of the East

12.2. Dynamics of the historical process

So, at the heart of the historical process in the traditional East from the antiquity lay the most clearly expressed desire for conservative stability, which objectively hampered the adequate response of the non-European world to the challenge of Nature and thereby had a huge impact on the dynamics of the historical process. If in Europe there was a movement from the lowest to the highest, from the backward to the advanced, i.e. linear movement towards progress, in the East everything was not so. Of course, it is worth repeating, the East did not stand still, and therefore entropy did not comprehend it. Moreover, it evolved, albeit with reversions, but ultimately sometimes even progressively. And yet the dynamics of its evolution was fundamentally different. The difference here is not only that the eastern structure itself has resolutely rejected those innovations that could threaten its conservative stability, the desire for self-preservation, homeostasis. There are grounds to note other significant aspects of development, which were also closely related to the features of the structure.

• So, if in Europe the engine of progress and the active supporter of innovations was the individual, the citizen-owner, then in the non-European and, primarily, Eastern-eastern structures, only those innovations that were directly opposite in nature were selected and vigorously adapted i.e. corresponded to the norms of corporate ethics and the interests of the state. These were innovations aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of power, which is best seen in the example of the reforms of Darius I, or on the weakening of public relations (remember Shang Yan with its classical formula "Weak people - a strong state!" ). Something in the same spirit can be seen when acquainting with religious and philosophical teachings. Confucianism in China and Hinduism, which pushed back Buddhism in India, were innovations that contributed to the strengthening of corporate collectivism and the suppression (if they could arise) of private individualistic tendencies.

• A distinct tendency of the cyclical dynamics of the historical process should be considered a constant tendency to enlarge political communities. Despite the cycles, which have already been mentioned, the norm here was the tendency to the constant expansion of the size of states. Ambitious rulers have always sought to transform their countries from ethnically homogeneous to ethnically heterogeneous, after which they led to the emergence of giant empires, world powers. In the course of such a more quantitative, although in some sense also qualitative, changes in the orbit of states and empires, many backward peripheral countries and peoples were drawn. This led to the fact that the oikumene was constantly expanding due to the introduction of new and new primitive formations to the achievements of civilization.

• The dynamics of the historical process is visible in some changes in relationships within the framework of giant superstructures. With the transformation of ethnic heterogeneity, the previously important traditional notions of the cardinal opposition of their and foreign disappeared, which in practice meant that the slavery of foreigners lost its original role . Captured prisoners no longer turned into slaves, in any case, all. And in general, foreign slaves played an ever lesser role in society, but slaves and criminals became increasingly slaves.

• Finally, developing, however, not everywhere, and spiritual intellectual capacity of the society, that was reflected in various kinds of ideas, in the development of scientific knowledge (mathematics, calendar, astronomy), in technology, not speaking of practical skills in agriculture and crafts, as well as about a culture of work based on centuries of experience and constantly improved, including agriculture, craft specialization, construction art and much more.

Summarizing, we can say that the ancient Eastern societies from the point of view of the historical process did not stand still. But in any case, the dynamics of this process in the traditional East did not lead to radical structural changes. This is its main feature. However, this process - for all its uniformity for the East as a whole - was different in each of the large regions that went back to the great centers of the ancient Eastern civilization.

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