The subject of control has generated enjoyment and interest from ancient times. Management has gained the attention of analysts' worldwide. When people think of leadership, images come to mind of powerful & vibrant personalities, who command victorious armies, form the nations' events, preach religions or immediate commercial empires. How performed a innovator build such great armies, countries, faith and companies? How does Gandhi become such influential leader? Gandhi was an exclusive man without prosperity, without property & standard title. He was neither commander of military nor the ruler of great land, even though he became the spokesman for country and everything mankind. Gandhi, man who made humanity and truth, more powerful than empires (Albert Einstein). There is no universal meaning for command because leadership is complex which is studied in various ways that requires different definitions.
In the starting of movie it offers mirrored that how situation can effect a person to become great innovator. Movie shows how a person discovers and sharps his capacity as a innovator with enough time. It also shows the leader's ability to find best answer to the problem. Gandhi's tools were non violence and peaceful protest for the genuine right of equality and freedom. Movie shown Gandhi's ability as a charismatic innovator to mobilize people from all religion, cast and gender for freedom have difficulty. Gandhi visited to rural villages for his followers and indentified the issues and tried to resolve it. He started spinning and wearing indigenous cloths. His impressive ways of protest and combat for independence like non cooperation, sodium march etc against the strongest empire in the world makes him a transformational and motivational leader. His activities were without any consideration for monetary benefits or self-gratification (need for power, achievements, and esteem) and his benefit different communities especially for untouchables build him as a spiritual leader. Gandhi possessed kept fast double protesting against violence and riots which displays the character of ethical control. Till his fatality he kept thinking about the welfare of mankind.
Gandhi reinvented the rule of the game to deal with a predicament where all the prevailing methods possessed failed. He broke the custom as he grasped that it's extremely hard to struggle for liberty with pressure. He decided to change the overall game in a fundamentally different way unleashing the power of ordinary people, inspired women and men of the country to struggle for a unifying goal. He used non assault and peaceful protest to combat the challenge for the country. Resource constraints did not bother him. His plan was full independence that motivated him. His management style was follower centric and one which took into account existing conditions before identifying the strategy. Gandhi management style was dependent on circumstances. By applying and understanding pursuing theory we can describe his identity and leadership style as well as the influence of environment on his management aspect.
The expression charisma comes from the Greek word 'charismata' meaning gift idea of elegance (Conger, 1989; Weber, 1947). The neo charismatic focus on the feature of the leader ignores "the type and severity of the particular threat, the content of the radical perspective and how it handles that threat, and the magnitude and persistence of particular changes that are achieved through charisma" (Beyer 1999). Beyer attempted to exactly delineate Weber's strategy into four necessary and different steps for progression of charismatic control is depicted in Table 1.
Gandhi was a charismatic innovator as he didn't impose himself on the people to follow him, but he succeeded to lead by his ways of life, like by using indigenous clothes, living simple life, non assault, love for total mankind etc. With no any tools or weapons or governmental electricity he was the individual who had the biggest power in the country and because of his charisma people implemented him. One illustration when he told masses never to buy British clothes, people ceased buying and they burnt British clothes. Whenever he began any movements people participated in it like non co-operation or civil disobedience. This characteristic of his demonstrated him as a way to obtain electric power where people submit their trust to outstanding.
He also succeeded in making a plan in the heart of individuals by encouraging then that they must struggle without violence to gain self-reliance of the country. He said obviously for no cause he'll support violence. He always maintained his assurance. He even halted Non cooperation movement when mob killed policemen. By rotating for himself he shown the example of self applied reliance and self job to his countrymen. Obviously, Gandhi is a charismatic leader for which people adopted him without thinking about consequences.
Mahatma Gandhi is a fantastic exemplory case of transformational command because he looked after the aspirations of his followers and rather than riding those must power, he continued to be sensitive to a higher goal. During non cooperation movement against British rule, violence possessed shattered out and being a proponent of non assault he was deeply troubled. He always said that for any cause he'll not support violence because he believed violence sets off more assault. He began his first fast to avoid the non assistance movements as he assumed individuals were not prepared to get independence. As a result of his fast, non co-operation movement was discontinued. In early part of movie he visited a small rural community on request of one of his follower where he chose to wear clothes manufactured from indigenous materials. He influenced Indian people to boycott English clothes as part of independence movement which led to burning of international clothes as a open public demonstration of Indian solidarity. He initiated sodium making campaign as a part of civil disobedience movements. After air and normal water, salt was considered to be most important for an incredible number of the indegent in India and the government was having monopoly over it. This movement was an work of defiant of British lawful restrictions which shows the courage & eye-sight of Gandhi. This movement got a massive support from people of India and it acted as a significant blow to Uk Empire. Gandhi was imprisoned immediately after the salt movement. But his followers kept breaking legislation and continuing making salt. People from different religions worked well together even in his absence and no assault broke out even though many were beaten by English soldiers. Gandhi's fans had courage to get this done because these were strong enough to do this independently and the courage was built in them from the strong beliefs of Gandhi.
3. 3 Spiritual Leadership
The explanation of spirituality includes two essential elements in someone's life (Fry, 2003, 2005) as shown and defined in Desk 3.
Transcendence of self
Manifest in a sense of contacting or future and the belief that one's activities including work have interpretation and value beyond being instrumental for obtaining economic benefits or self-gratification
Manifest in the need for meaningful associations and being linked to others in a way that provides sense of happiness and wholeness
Table 3: Components of Spiritual Leadership
Both elements entail altruistic love and beliefs. By doing things to help satisfy both essential needs for transcendence and fellowship at work, spiritual leaders increase their intrinsic inspiration, self-assurance and organizational commitment.
Gandhi could bring spiritualities into his command style. He promoted love and calmness at time when other leaders were getting in touch with for an vision for an eye. He did not hate any one. Rather he assumed in offering the other cheek if someone strikes on first. He highly believed that attitude of his will reduce the anger of enemy and increase admiration. He served the contemporary society and performed for the welfare of untouchables. As shown in the movie Gandhi always did the trick for his followers. While employed in South Africa as well as in India he worked a whole lot for the weaker portion of modern culture and empowerment of women which determined them and finally, they participated in the flexibility struggle.
3. 4 Servant Leadership
The service to follower is the principal responsibility of market leaders and is also the essence of ethical authority. Services include nurturing, defending and empowering followers. Servant innovator must pay attention to followers, learn about their needs & dreams and be ready to share & comfort in their pain and annoyance. Leader must stand for what is good and right. Community injustice and inequality should be opposed. Even fragile and marginal associates of culture must be cared for with value and appreciation. Leader must empower follower rather than using capacity to dominate them. Trust is establish by being completely honest and open up, keeping actions consistent with values, and showing trust in followers.
Gandhi worked for the empowerment of girl as well as for the lower castes. He put in whole of his life struggling with against injustice & sociable evils. He always looked after trust of his followers by striking to his main of non violence.
Larry Spears (1998), CEO of the Greenleaf Centre, concluded that Robert Greenleaf's writings included ten major features of servant authority. The Table 4 lists those ten attributes.
Commitment to growth
Table 4: Features of Servant Leadership
The below Diagram 2 depicts the composition of Servant Management and its interrelationships -
Diagram 2: Structure of Servant Leadership
4 Electricity and Influence practices of Gandhi
The Electricity and Influence techniques of Gandhi has been described in two independent sub headings as follows -
4. 1 Examination of Power
The term electric power is usually used to describe the absolute capacity of an individual agent to influence the behaviour or attitudes of 1 or more designated focus on person at a given point of energy (People from france & Raven, 1959).
Different sorts of power described by French and Raven are depicted in Table 5 as below -
The focus on person complies to be able to obtain reward handled by the agent
The concentrate on person complies to avoid punishment manipulated by the agent
The focus on person complies because he/she feels the agent gets the to make the need and the mark person gets the responsibility to comply
The aim for person complies because he/she feels that the agent has special knowledge about the best way to do something
The goal person complies because he/she admire or identifies with the agent and want to gain the agent's approval.
Table 5: Different types of Power
Gandhi did not have any armed service or economic electric power. Gandhi was a little man who despite repeated imprisonment refused to post to British authority and defeated the most powerful empire of this time with the assistance & support of his enthusiasts. Charismatic leader like Gandhi are usually perceived to own referent electric power. His main of non assault, satyagrah, civil disobedience was referenced as soft electric power. He was a man of character and integrity who refused to surrender against injustice. His integrity is reflected by his truthfulness and by group of values that he had. Even British accepted his vitality when they establish him clear of prison to stop the violence. He never supported violence for any reasons. He called back non cooperation movement due to assault outbreak. Because of his strong referent ability he influenced more and more people without the explicit effort.
4. 2 Research of Impact Tactics
Influence is the principal component in effective leadership (Covey, 1990; Malphurs, 1996; Maxwell, 1998; Yukl, 1998). The true measure of leadership is influence little or nothing more nothing less (Maxwell, 1998 p11). The type of behavior used intentionally to effect the attitude and behaviour of another person is usually called as affect tactics. The extensive categories of Effect techniques are depicted in Stand 6.
Impression Management Tactics
Influence visitors to like the agent or to have a favourable analysis of the agent. These practices can be employed by leader to affect supporters or by enthusiasts to leader
Influence organizational decision or elsewhere gain benefits for an individual or group. Political tactics are also used to guard against the opponents and silent problems. Some political methods include manipulation &misuse of power
Proactive Influence Tactics
Immediate task goal includes change in method used for current activity, provide assistance or support proposed changes, task conformity by using a simple request based on legitimate power
It resists an unwanted effect attempt to enhance the agent's request or proposal to become more acceptable to the mark person.
Table 6: Types of Influence Tactics
Gandhi was the most influential Indian leader. His not only influenced Indian politics but also the entire world. He affected his enthusiasts to mobilize and fight for their respectable privileges and against discrimination & inequality in India as well in South Africa. His influencing practices were proactive in character. He used logical argument and factual research to impact and motivate his followers. For example his idea about non co-operation and civil disobedience motion were very logical. His inspirational appeal influenced people enormously. In South Africa he struggled injustice for which British defeat him and imprisoned him but could not take his behavior. He also used pressure tactics with his supporters when assault broke out he opted to fasting to avoid it. The movie mirrored the power and influence tactics by Gandhi perfectly.
5 Innovator - Follower relationship
Leader- member exchange (LMX) theory describes the role making procedures between a head and each individual subordinate and the exchange marriage that develops as time passes (Dansereau, Graen, &Haga, 1975; Graen & cashman, 1975). The basic premise of the theory is that market leaders develop a split exchange marriage with each subordinate when the two parties mutually establish the subordinate's role. A head will probably establish a high exchange marriage or a minimal exchange relationship with each subordinate. The introduction of high exchange interactions occurs gradually over a time frame through reciprocal encouragement of behavior when the exchange cycle is repeated over and over again. The relationship starts with an initial testing phase in which the head and subordinate evaluate each other's motives, frame of mind and potential resources to be exchanged and shared role expectations are established. If the partnership proceeds to second stage, the exchange arrangement is sophisticated and shared trust, devotion and esteem gets developed. At third level wherein exchange was based on do it yourself interest is altered into mutual commitment to the objective and objective of the task unit. Relating to Graen and Uhi-Bien (1991) the 3rd stage corresponds to transformational authority.
In the movie there are many happenings which show how to develop interactions with the fans. Gandhi biggest follower was his own wife. She always adopted him in every walk of his life. She actively participated in every the movements started out by Gandhi. She even participated in community development program for the welfare of individual kind. She went to jail number of that time period as well as Gandhi and she even passed on in jail. Meera Ben is someone else in the movie who became a major follower of Gandhi. Even though she was a British isles and daughter of the British admiral, she arrived to India because she experienced deep trust & admiration for Gandhi's principals and triggers. Nehru was another follower who first evaluated the motive & frame of mind of Gandhi then exchanged his devotion towards him & then did the trick together on common commitment to the mission.
6 Advancement &Development of Gandhi as a leader
While heading to South Africa, Gandhi was traveling in first class and he was forcefully thrown out of first class just because he was an Indian even though he previously the right tickets. That was the beginning of transformation of a typical man into a great head. Injustice done to him made him aware about discrimination in the British Empire and he began raising his words against it. He started mobilizing people and made them alert to their rights. He started doing work for community development especially for untouchables and women empowerment as he recognized without unification of world revolution was not possible. He always thought that preventing with an bad is work. He advocated non assault as a weapon to fight Uk Empire. His main of non violence served two purposes firstly, he safeguarded his supporters from strongest army on earth & subsequently, this principal made his requirements more satisfactory to rest of the world.
This shows his vision power. When he returned to India, he began wearing Indian made clothes because he wished to get associated with common Indian man. Before taking any responsibility, he been to various areas of India and found various problems and their possible alternatives. He said minus the involvement of common men in the independence movement, independence is not possible. He kept on doing work for community development & girl empowerment in India & added magnificently to bring unity among folks from different religions. Little by little, he emerged as a leader because of his identity, principals and beliefs he assumed and was unanimously accepted by the complete nation. He went to Motihari, a rural place on question of follower and began rotating clothes and inspired to boycott British goods as part of freedom motion. He himself began rotating to lead the united states with an example. His activity like non cooperation and sodium march united the whole country & dented United kingdom image to rule India. He even retained fast till loss of life to avoid communal riots during India's partition after self-reliance.
Movie Gandhi shows the change of any common man into a legendary leader. It shows how situation can inspire a person to fight injustice and inequality. Gandhi's command style demonstrates that to attain a good end, means should be evenly good. Gandhi got a vision which was accepted by his supporters. His charisma resulted in Indian independence. His contribution for the weaker portion of society is unforgettable and unmatchable. His coaching of non violence is very much relevant even in today's world.
For the contribution and sacrifices he designed for the India's self-reliance, upliftment of weaker parts, woman empowerment and unity among different religions, he has been given the subject of 'Mahatma' by his region and is called as 'Bapu' that is Dad of the country.
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