History Of Trinidad And Tobago History Essay

On Fri 27 July, 1990, the republic of Trinidad and Tobago acquired experienced a most regrettable series of happenings over what appeared as the longest six day period ever before. As a result of approximately one hundred and fourteen customers of the Jamaat al Muslimeen, an effort to overthrow the NAR Administration of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, was on the plan. With Yasin Abu Bakr as their wedding ring head, the Trinidad and Tobago television set train station (TTT) was used as a medium by Bakr to see the public of that which was occurring. The Jamaat customers stormed the Red House and performed the Best Minister at the time, Mr. A. N. R Robinson along with other people of parliament hostage plus they suffered at the hands of these Muslimeen participants by means of torturous acts. From the bombing of buildings, to acute cases of looting and even deaths of residents, the incidents of the 1990 coup will forever be a painful memory space in the heads of many residents as it the most serious event experienced by the state and though it is currently twenty two years later, the united states still hasn't recovered fully from it. The Muslimeen associates were tried on treason but were released due to a signed amnesty awarded by the case at the time.

Mr. A. N. R Robinson was one Prime Minister who was known for his "unpopular decisions, " There are plenty of factors that play a role in being the possible reason behind the coup. Included in these are:

People were upset by the fact that the Prime Minister had enforced a fifteen percent Value Added Taxes on the united states, although he made this decision to be able to bring economic stability to their state.

The fact that Abu Bakr's view that "society experienced become consumed by problem, prostitution, rape, incest, child and girl abuse, racism, murder, cigarette, alcohol, and cocaine craving, poverty and a deterioration of medical services and that the NAR authorities was doing nothing about any of it. " (Ryan, pg 53)

The possible erection of a $500, 000. 00 statue in honour of Gene Kilometers, someone who was instrumental in exposing "corruption through the PNM routine. " (Ryan 53) Abu Bakr cannot realize why in a country where the poverty rate was so high that the government at that time would choose to possibly erect such an expensive statue when " people have no food, shelter or medicine!" (McComie pg 78)

Abu Bakr acquired made an effort to assist the sector by importing therapeutic drugs from the country of Libya (Ryan 53) however the government refused his numerous attempts because of the fact that Libya is a dominantly Muslim status and Bakr's likely intention was to have the status of Trinidad be a model such as that as Libya. This might have given Bakr reason to want to arrest the Leading Minister.

The land dispute between the authorities and the Jamaat regarding the properties on the element at Mucurapo. The Jamaat claimed that they possessed the land and that the federal government refused to grant them the deed for the land. (Figueira pg 85) That is another reason behind the animosity between your Jamaat and the federal government. The following research paper would try to verify the impact of such a heinous work on the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago from an economic and interpersonal/psychological perspective. It would evaluate the causes for such an act and also the events that followed after.



According to Dennis McComie's "1990 THE NON-PUBLIC Account OF AN Journalist Under Siege, " an estimated $150, 000, 000. 00 was apparently looted and burned. Major complexes included the Police Head office, the Red House and TTT (Trinidad and Tobago television set station) which came with a price label of $50-$350 million to restore and repair. (Ryan pg 55)

Also, several properties were looted though Abu Bakr; ironically instructed the population never to loot. These properties included businesses in the Port of Spain area; which were not awarded settlement by their individual banks causing these to go bankrupt. There may be one particular circumstance of the Sant Family who had a business which was looted at the time the coup took place. Their son got on the responsibility of guarantor to lessen the amount of financial stress on his parents and grandparents. However, due never to being compensated by their standard bank, their child still owes the bank a sum close to one million dollars at present day. Other businesses suffered great losses and received little to no compensation by the government or their insurance firms. However the upsides that arrived because of this of the 1990 Coup include:

A increase in the engineering industry due to damage done to buildings. This harm required the work of companies as well as labourers.

The inspections on pots done by traditions became more extreme. At one time a container comprising ammunition appeared on the slot of which Abu Bakr suspected being responsible for. The weaponry were available for use and because of this, improvements were made in the system to ensure that no unwanted items whether it be ammunition or elsewhere, were brought into the country illegally.

In 2004, the firearms act was passed. It had been a monthly bill that stated that folks who wanted to own firearms must have a license to take action.

Although it was extremely costly, Interface of Spain was eventually rebuilt. The new face of the country's capital was a drastic change compared to the facial skin it used before. The Police Headquarters was restored and the Red House continues to go undergo repair and growth. Hotels such as the HYATT, was built with a waterfront. The HYATT happens to be a popular hotel which earns revenue for their state. Though the money spent was plentiful, it brought new infrastructure to the town of Interface of Spain. Many businesses were not rebuilt following the coup which made method for the extension that took place.


Mr. Wendell Eversely was an individual present at the Red House during the 1990 Coup. Since that day; annually on the anniversary of the 1990 coup he marches from "the dial" in Arima, his hometown, to the Red House in Dock of Spain where in fact the incident occurred. He was one man who was prolonged in the obtain a Percentage of Enquiry as to the reasons the attempted Coup occurred. Each year he composed a notice to the Leader so the Best Minister would offer the waiver.

However, his march could have discontinued in the year 2010, when the Payment of Enquiry finally commenced. Although Fee of Enquiry can be regarded as a necessity in Mr. Eversely's eye, it is constantly on the cost the united states thousands of dollars as they have finally started the thirteenth session and we are currently in the entire year 2012 which is merely two years later. The expense has been this high due to the British Council brought in by the federal government to aid with the Enquiry.


Due to the damage done to the properties that the Jamaat supposedly stated were theirs, Bakr submitted a constitutional movement against the state and he was awarded a amount of $2. 1m. However the state registered this same movement against Bakr and his supporters of the Jamaat for the devastation done to the authorities Head office and the Red House. An estimated $15m was the results, but only some of this money was repaid via the sales of properties around the Queen's Playground Savannah managed by Bakr. (McComie pg 10)



A reported 32 people were killed and these included Leo Des Vignes, the MP for Diego Martin Central and seven Muslimeen participants (McComie pg 9). There were other deaths, however they were not reported. The Best Minister then, Mr. A. N. R Robinson was shot in the knee by one of the Jamaat people and laid in excruciating pain in debt House. To this day, he's still interacting with the repercussions of him being taken in the lower leg. Also, there were people that have fallen sick and even died due to the aftermath of the 1990 Coup. This is anticipated to financial stress among other reasons. You can set a price on settlement for the loss suffered by companies in 1990, nevertheless, you could never provide compensation for the individuals that lost family members on that day.


There are two ways to view this individual. One as a guy who visited great extents in order to make the society in which he lived a much better place for everyone, or a man who ended at nothing in order to make himself along with his followers the most effective group in the population where they lived. Regardless of what way one chooses to see Abu Bakr, there is no justification for the unlawful function he determined.

Currently, there's a man by the name of Dr. Wayne Kublalsingh, who is on a hunger strike to be able to avoid the commencing of a government decision to create a highway in the southern end of Trinidad. Doctors lay claim his health is at serious risk because of the period he has been holding on this appetite hit. However, he refuses to give up unless the project is ended. Dr. Kublalsingh may be seen like Bakr, which is as a man who is going to extreme extents to see to it that what he thinks is not jeopardized at all. Whatever both men believe in, one would feel that there are different ways to get things done that does not involve a cravings for food hit neither an attempted Coup.

Abu Bakr determined a terrible function on that day 27th July, 1990. Matching to 1 particular article, Bakr wanted a good trial. There is a saying that should go, "there is absolutely no big sin neither small sin, sin is sin. " Maybe this was Bakr's point of view when he wanted a good trial. The unlawful function of overthrowing the federal government demands severe punishment, but Bakr didn't seem worried about this as he asked for good trial totally disregarding the scope of his activities. Also, he might well have viewed himself as being above regulations which is another reason for requesting a fair trial.


The 1990 Coup has affected everyone who experienced it in different ways. Finding your country's administration being overthrown by residents like yourself, would obviously build a great sense of stress. Another factor being that it was a specific group; Muslims that staged the action which would cause you to always have a feeling of fear it doesn't matter how small that sense is; of this group of men and women in your modern culture. Especially when the culture is one comprising a variety of religions, one of which being Muslim.

Another reason why people could have a dread instilled in them as a result of 1990 Coup is due to the actual fact that the term "radical" is utilized so loosely when discussing Muslims. People, who are of the Muslim trust, are usually extremely disciplined and are grounded highly in what they believe that. Their views are established solely on what "Muhammad" says them or guide them to do and that they will be rewarded for doing consequently. According to a particular website, the term "Jihad" is considered to be every Muslim's duty - whether it is the struggle to improve society, avoiding the exploitation of the poor and vulnerable or bettering oneself prior to the day of judgement.

Since this description includes the struggle to improve world and avoiding the exploitation of the poor and vulnerable, maybe Abu Bakr was wanting to fulfil the "Jihad. " He had not been a admirer of a few of the "unpopular decisions" made by the Perfect Minister at that time Mr. A. N. R Robinson and Bakr possessed ways of trying to improve the world; which regrettably included a Coup. On top of that, he spoke about the deterioration of medical services and at

often occasions when people listen to others mention that they are Muslim, you can find some amount of dread that creeps in.

Young Muslims are often those that are feared by some individuals. One may question why it is a feeling of age, but the younger the technology, the better to it become misguided and Bakr used to the to his benefit as he understood that younger men would feel a sense a belonging being in a "brotherhood" such as that as the Jamaat al Mulismeen. One journalist in particular, even stated that at the time the Coup took place, and the Red House was stormed, a few of the men did not even know who the Primary Minister, Mr. A. N. R Robinson was. There is just a sense of twisted ability being truly a young individual having the ability to control someone by using a gun.


Discrimination is never a enjoyable thing. Whether discrimination against religion, competition, gender or making love, no individual favours being discriminated against. Due to Abu Bakr and his fans' actions with respect to the 1990 Coup, it's the case of "Peter purchase Paul and Paul pay for all. " This statement is applicable because of the fact that whenever Abu Bakr and his fans committed the actions that they do, they managed to get very difficult for Muslims to have comfortably in the contemporary society of Trinidad and Tobago. Also, opportunities that might have been exposed to Muslims, would now be given with a slight increase of hesitation.

For instance, guide can be produced to the disorders of September 11th, 2001 on the United State governments' World Trade Centre. A number of the terrorists which were mixed up in problems, were students at some American airfare institutions learning how to soar aircrafts. Because of people knowing

that they were flight students and what these were involved regarding the attacks, they have managed to get extremely problematic for any other specific of the Muslim religious beliefs who genuinely needs to review at any particular American flight school. In some cases, whenever a person of Muslim qualifications or religion must travel abroad, there is always extra interrogation compared to a person of another faith.

The 1990 Coup has definitely still left its hallmark on the carpet of the time, however until the Fee of Enquiry is finished totally, the question of how and why the Coup happened will maintain the minds of many individuals in Trinidad and Tobago. In what of Anglican Bishop Calvin Bess in an article written on 29th July 2005 in the Express newspaper, "There was never justification for removal of an elected administration at all other than the democratic process also to me that is the note of July 27th 1990 and we should not forget it. July 27th has kept us with a land that is wounded. Trinidad and Tobago needs to learn the lessons of the past to show today's the way the future would be formed. " Though this affirmation was made seven years back, the wound that the Anglican Bishop spoke about is one which would continually be a bit more sensitive on the psyches of certain Trinidadians.

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