India Implemented A PEEK East Policy Background Essay

India implemented a glance East Policy (LEP) in the early nineties, aimed at strengthening relations with the Relationship of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member claims. Commensurate with its bet for a leadership role in Asia and outside of, India seeks greater integration with ASEAN and is striving to make an Asian Economic Community. Looking back again, it can be said that the Insurance policy has been reasonably successful as India-ASEAN Free Trade Contract, signed in 2009 2009 (operationalised in 2010 2010), is a tangible end result of India's LEP.

Notwithstanding these positive advancements, what are the potential customers for India-ASEAN relationships over another 20 years? Doubtlessly, LEP has provided the building blocks for rapid growth of India-ASEAN relationships within the next 20 years. An objective research of the LEP has shown that its full potential has not yet been realised.

A major shortcoming in India's LEP has been the absence of deep proposal with Myanmar, which isn't just India's neighbor, but also a gateway for India to ASEAN. Just how India engages Myanmar in the future will greatly make a decision the success of India's Look East Insurance plan.

Statement of the Problem

LEP has been in existing for last two decades yet no major headway has been made up to now. There are many issues which need to be addressed to get this to policy successful. Absence of deep proposal with Myanmar, which not only stocks land boundary with India-but is also a gateway for India to ASEAN is one key concern. Deeper engagement with Myanmar will give a boost to India's LEP.

Another key impediment has been the comparative lack of development in India's North-East region. Up to now the Indian northeastern expresses are not a completely essential part of India's LEP, it needs to be seen as both an integral drivers and a staging post for the Policy.

To combine the North East will require resolving the insurgency issues in the region to cater for India's security concerns. Considerable progress has been manufactured in this regard lately especially with improvement in India-Bangladesh relations, which helped in slowing the ULFA insurgency. Likewise, increasing ties with Myanmar will help India in working with the Naga and Manipuri/Kuki insurgencies.

The North-East region gets the potential to become developing hub for interesting Bangladesh, Myanmar and ASEAN in general. This might require better connectivity with Bangladesh & Myanmar to further connect with the ASEAN region and beyond. That could entail building infrastructure-roads, railway lines, river move, airports, tourism infrastructure, border check-posts, educational and health infrastructure to name a few. Most of these issues are being attended to on top priority basis. For instance policy on development of infrastructure and relations with Bangladesh is clearly laid out and adopted. What remains to be viewed really is the insurance policy in relation to Myanmar. Although an obvious policy exists in relation to Myanmar, the challenge is the relationships with the armed forces regime which rules the united states and the likelyhood of transition of the government to a democratic form.

The transition to democracy in Myanmar is a development of great relevance for Indo-Myanmar relations. It will impact the spot all together. The civilian federal government which emerged to electricity in March 2011 under Chief executive Thein Sein, initiated political and financial reforms. This helped in lowering Myanmar's isolation to the level US and the European Union are also contemplating engagement with Myanmar. The geo-strategic location and natural resources, of Myanmar also provides it a significant advantage.

The race for Myanmar has recently started. Given the dynamics of the spot, India has waivered in its procedure towards Myanmar and has lost out to competitiors such as China. This newspaper seeks to spotlight the critical role of Myanmar in the look East insurance plan and the strategy India should choose to activate it successfully.


It is important for India to activate Myanmar irrespective of the changeover of the Governments implementing a realist approach to ensure success of Indian Look East Insurance policy and ensure its expansion and security needs.


The study specializes in discovering of exact role of Mayanmar for bolstering India's Look East Insurance plan, in light of its Socio-Eco and Geo-Pol importance, and suggest an appropriate approach idea for India to activate Myanmar consistently even during move of governments.

Justification for the Study

The change to democracy in Myanmar is a development of great relevance for Indo-Myanmar relations. It will impact the region all together. India implemented a Look East Policy (LEP) in the early nineties, aimed at strengthening relations with the Relationship of Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN) member state governments. Commensurate with its bid for a authority role in Asia and further than, India seeks greater integration with ASEAN and is also striving to make an Asian Economic Community. Looking back again, it could be said that the Insurance plan has been only moderately successful.

The international isolation of Myanmar put India behind China to exploit the spot. Where India faltered is at its primary support to the democratic leaders of Myanmar thus alienating the military rulers and then participating the military services junta since 1991 in doing so alienating the democratic people. This wavering Indian procedure towards Myanmar since 1991 has had a negative effect on success of the appearance East Policy. The analysis is aimed at identifying if realist strategy is indeed the the way ahead.

Methods of Data Collection

The information and data for this dissertation will obtained through study of various books, military services and civilian publications and newspapers. Furthermore the internet was utilized to accumulate information.

Chapters. The research paper will be protected in five chapters as under.

Chapter 1. Indian foreign coverage & India's Look East Plan.

Chapter 2. Myanmar: Record and Internal Dynamics.

Chapter 3. Why Myanmar is crucial & how India skipped the bus for Myanmar?

Chapter 4. Need to participate Myanmar.

Chapter 5. Most suitable choice to activate Myanmar.



During the time of the Freezing Battle India lead the non-alignment movement and thus played an isolated role in world politics. The international system after the breakdown of communism obligated India to developed strong bilateral ties using its neighbouring countries as well as to global powers. Participating international organizations became the necessity of the hour. The depressing economic condition of India during the period forced India into strong monetary liberalization in addition to revised Indian foreign insurance policy.

The bipolar world has given way to a non-polar world in which several new power have emerged. The centre of gravity of power is shifting into the Asia- Pacific. The simultaneous climb of India and China is a development of great value. The traditional idea of national security has been broadened gradually to add individuals security concerns, non-military issues like environment change, energy security, competition for scarce resources, food and water security, pandemics, migrations are few issues that are being considered.

Some major developments in the last few years are listed below:-

The monarchy in Nepal has vanished.

LTTE has been militarily defeated.

General Musharraf has been ousted and compelled to live in exile in London.

A democratic authorities has been elected in Maldives.

Sheikh Hasina has come back with a far more than three-fourths majority.

China has become India's number one trading partner.

What will this change imply for India's neighbourhood coverage? While India's Neighbourhood several new avenues for assistance among countries of the region are likely to start, fresh security problems will also happen. Dominated by security concerns going back six ages, India's insurance policy towards its neighbourhood will require a makeover in the light of the great political, economical and sociable changes that are taking place. The idea of national security emerged largely because of the arbitrary borders drawn by the English colonial masters. The answer to the countless security issues facing India lies in resolving the cross-border issues like migrations, normal water sharing, transport, trade, etc. Non-military concerns will need to be incorporated inside a broader understanding of nationwide security. The neighbourhood concerns should be included with India's overall security and developmental regulations. This will be a major challenge for India's foreign and security plans in the arriving decades.

The future cannot be predicted specifically. Our policy designers are alerted to think about such low possibility but high impact cases and think of coverage options in advance. Many such illustrations can be dreamed. There are several challenges for India.

With respect to Pakistan, the question posed is: how will Pakistan's internal situation pan away and how will it impact India?

With regard to China, it was important from the plan makers' point of view to understand the impact of China's rise on Sino-Indian relations.

Sri Lanka is getting into the road of high monetary expansion. Hence the question being posed here is: Will this be ecological, and how will it impact Indo- Sri Lanka relationships?

Other questions being viewed in this review are: Is there anti-Indianism in Nepal? If so, how will it impact relationships with India?

How environment change would impact migration from Bangladesh and how India would cope with it? Likewise, in the case of Maldives, the problem was climate change, its effect on the country and relations with India.

For Myanmar we need to develop relationships by infrastructure development in India's Northeastern state governments and Myanmar, the increasing influence of China in the united states and its implications for India.


To study the relationships with Myanmar in isolation will be a fitness in futility. There is a need to review the influences of other countries on the Myanmar. China has recently overtaken Japan to be the second most significant economy on the planet. However, China encounters numerous internal troubles which raises uncertainties about its climb.

For India, the key effect of China's go up will be two-fold. First, India will own an unpredictable superpower at its borders. Cooperation and a friendly relationship with China cannot be overlooked although that is the direction in which India's insurance plan should move. China has indicated its disapproval regarding the presence of Indian oil companies in the South China Sea. It offers undertaken large modernisation of infrastructure in Tibet and has produced railway routes and airfields near the borders with India. The motives behind Chinese language action vis- -vis India within the last two years aren't fully understood. The game changer within China is actually a slowdown of economical growth leading up to internal instabilities and changes in overseas policy behaviour. Similarly, the exit of the Dalai Lama could usher in a new stage in Sino-Indian relations as the Tibet concern assumes greater salience.

Second, with the surge of China, its affect in South Asia will develop. This is already visible, especially in Nepal, Pakistan and Myanmar. India will come under pressure to restructure its neighbourhood plan to ensure that India will not get attracted into an unsavory competition with China. The trajectory of Sino-Indian relationships- will it be confrontationist or collaborative, or will it have an element of both? The response will have a decisive effect in South Asia.


Myanmar's geo-strategic location, as situated at the tri-junction of South Asia, South-east Asia and East Asia, improves its tactical relevance to India. Myanmar also occupies a pivotal position in the strategies of China, Bangladesh and ASEAN countries. As Myanmar has an alternative path through the sea to landlocked and under-developed North-eastern claims, India is keen on furthering its bilateral relationships with its neighbour. China's increasing impact in Myanmar pose a potential security challenge to India which can't be taken softly. Myanmar's hydropower and hydro-carbon potential have invited the interest and investment of various countries which increases Indian leads of entering into joint venture with international companies. Moreover investment in both the sectors is crucial for India's increasing demand for energy security. Myanmar also retains the key to the ongoing insurgency in the North-east specifically Manipur and Nagaland. Several insurgents are thought to be working from safe havens in the western provinces of Myanmar.

During its many years of isolation, China's affect in the country has grown while India's engagement has reduced. Myanmar is also aware of the increasing Chinese language influence and wishes to avoid over-reliance on China by diversifying its defence procurements and other investments in infrastructure of high relevance. The armed service junta has cautiously implemented a policy which is rooted in the sensation of nationalism and individuality which India needs to understand, especially the home determinants of Myanmar's insurance plan towards rest of the world generally and its own neighbours in particular. The next twenty years will see higher conversation between India and Myanmar. The politics changes in Myanmar are slow-moving but promising. In a proclaimed departure from the past trends, the US Secretary of Talk about, Hillary Clinton frequented Myanmar in November 2011 and in April 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi participated in the fledgling democratic process in Myanmar and earned the by-elections to become member of the countrywide legislature. Myanmar is abundant with natural resources and has a superb geo-strategic location. China has spent considerably and speedily in Myanmar and there's a perception that it could seek to drive India out of Myanmar.

The task before India in the next 20 years is to ensure that it invests in Myanmar, contributes to its expansion and attracts it into the various regional cooperation projects. The development and connectivity of infrastructure jobs between Northeast India and Myanmar is of critical importance. The game changing event that may take place in the not too distant future is the completion of the petrol pipeline from the Bay of Bengal through Myanmar to China. India must deal with this situation. Myanmar could be more integrated with the globe and its isolation will end. This may start fresh strategies for Indo-Myanmar relationships.


Global tactical and economical paradigms had altered with thecollapse of the Soviet Union. The Indian current economic climate was growing at a mere 3 % credited to protectionist and interventionist policies of the Govt. The nation experienced balance of obligations crisis and had to pledge 67 tons of gold as part of a bailout offer with the International Monetary Account (IMF). Despite the fact that a few of the IMF stipulations

were not integrated, Leading Minister P V Narasimha Rao arranged into movement a slew of

economic reforms through his Fund Minister Manmohan Singh. India implemented a glance East Plan (LEP) aiming at strengthening relations with the Association of Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN) member areas. Looking back, it could be said that the Plan has been reasonably successful. India's relations with ASEAN and its own member states have developed significantly over time. The India-ASEAN Free Trade Arrangement, signed in 2009 2009 and operationalised this year 2010, has been a tangible final result of India's LEP.

On the one hand India has substantially increased its affect in the ASEAN by its steady integration in to the association. Recently, this has even resulted in the signature of a Free Trade Agreement. On the other hand, India's regular membership of sub regional cooperation community forums such as BIMSTEC and its close bilateral ties to several ASEAN member countries constitute two additional pillars of its Look East Strategy.

The key highlights of the LEP include :-

India has summit-level relationships with ASEAN, is a full dialogue spouse in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and it is a member of the ASEAN Defence Ministers Assembly (ADMM+). Another India-ASEAN Commemorative Summit will be placed in New Delhi in 2012.

India is a founding member of the East Asia Summit (EAS).

India and ASEAN own an FTA functioning.

India-ASEAN trade has been increasing lately quickly. According to Authorities of India (GoI) data, India's trade with ASEAN in 2010-11 was US$ 57. 9 billion; of this, exports accounted for US$ 27. 3 billion, and imports accounted for US$ 30. 6 billion. Trade with ASEAN constitutes about 10 % of India's global trade.

Indian assets in the ASEAN countries are increasing.

More plus more Indian professionals are working in ASEAN countries.

ASEAN welcomes cultural proposal with India. As part of this, the international Nalanda School is being set up in Bihar.

While these are positive developments, what exactly are the potential clients for India-ASEAN relationships over the next 20 years? Absolutely, the past two decades of LEP have provided the foundation for rapid development of India-ASEAN relations within the next 20 years. Yet, a critical and objective evaluation of the LEP would show that its full potential hasn't yet been realised. Some of the key issues where we have failed are listed below.

Connectivity between India and the ASEAN region is still poor.

The trade is below potential, especially if seen in contrast with ASEAN's trade with China or Japan.

Investments in each others' economies remain low.

People-to-people contacts continue to be at a minimal level. Visa limitations continue steadily to prevail, and travel and leisure is below par.

BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Effort for Multi-Sectoral and Technical Co-operation) and MGC (Mekong-Ganga Co-operation) are performing much below their potential.

New areas of cooperation have not been tapped. India should spend money on capacity building, strengthening of democratic institutions and proposal with civil contemporary society. The potential of assistance in health, education and tourism also need to be utilised.

ASEAN counties are not yet more comfortable with the thought of enhancing assistance in defence and security areas because of the China factor.

Cooperation on counter-terrorism hasn't reached a critical mass.

Flagship projects like the Nalanda College or university have made poor progress.



A mystical country, as it is, in order to a develop relationships with the united states we have to have a specific understanding of the Myanmar's history and the historical connection with our country. The trade, religious connection and the power struggles of the sooner dynasties will have effect on our relationships with the country. More important to note is that customarily there have been no invasions to Burma from India when compared with the Northern and the eastern neighbours. Major expansions of Burmese kingdoms were towards western world i. e. into India. Certain suspicion against the Indians may be existing in the Myanmar because of the Chettiar effect being protected in this chapter. Burma has been getting support from the Communist Chinese language since long which includes an effect on the psyche of the individuals. Why don't we explore the history of Burma.


The Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu got into the Irrawaddy valley from present-day Yunnan, in the next century BCE, and went on to found city areas throughout the Irrawaddy valley. During this period, Burma was part of overland trade course from China to India. Trade with India brought Buddhism from southern India. By the 4th century, many in the Irrawaddy valley experienced changed into Buddhism. Of the many city-states, the greatest & most important was Sri Ksetra, southeast of modern Prome (Pyay).

It was a long-lasting civilization that lasted practically a millennium to early on 9th century until a fresh group of "swift horsemen" from the north, the Mranma (Burmans) inserted the upper Irrawaddy valley. In the early 9th century, the Pyu city state governments of Top Burma arrived under constant attacks by the Nanzhao Kingdom in present-day Yunnan. By the 13th century, the Pyu acquired assumed the Burman ethnicity. The histories/legends of the Pyu were also designed to people of the Burmans.

Trade with India during the Mon Kingdom also sustained through the 6th century. The Mon applied Theravada Buddhism. The kingdoms were prosperous from trade. The Kingdom of Thaton is thought to be the kingdom of Suvarnabhumi (or Fantastic Land), referred to by the tradesmen of Indian Ocean. Trade with India to including the Cholan dynasty also continuing for many years.

There was a turbulent age among with divorce of the kingdoms. Nevertheless the later kingdoms completed enlargement by conquering Ava in 1555, nearer Shan claims (1557), Lan Na (1558), Manipur (1560), Farther/Trans-Salween Shan states (1562-1563), Siam (1564, 1569) and Lan Xang (1574), and providing much of traditional western and central mainland Southeast Asia under his rule.

A new dynasty rose in Shwebo, that was highly militaristic dynasty continued to generate the most significant Burmese empire under the Konbaung. By 1759 Konbaung causes had reunited most of Burma to add Manipur and marginalized the Mon-led Hanthawaddy dynasty once and for all. In addition they drove out the Western european capabilities who provided hands to Hanthawaddy, i. e. the France from Thanlyin and the British from Negrais.

Westward Development and Wars With Uk Empire

Subsequently the rulers conquered Arakan in 1784, Manipur in 1813 and Assam in 1817-1819, leading to an extended ill-defined boundary with United kingdom India. Bodawpaya's successor King Bagyidaw was left to put down Uk instigated rebellions in Manipur in 1819 and Assam in 1821-1822. Cross-border raids by rebels from the British covered territories and counter-cross-border raids by the Burmese led to the First Anglo-Burmese Warfare (1824-1826).

First Anglo-Burmese War was the longest and most expensive conflict in United kingdom Indian history finished in a decisive English success. Burma ceded all of Bodawpaya's european acquisitions (Arakan, Manipur and Assam) plus Tenasserim. Burma was smashed for years by repaying a large indemnity of one million pounds (then US$5 million). By 1852, the British seized the Pegu province in the Second Anglo-Burmese Battle and alarmed by the consolidation of French Indochina, took over the remainder of the united states in the Third Anglo-Burmese Conflict in 1885, and directed the previous Burmese king Thibaw and his family to exile in India.

British Empire: Indian Connection

Burma was made a province of Britain India in 1886 with the capital at Rangoon. However resistance continued in north Burma until 1890. The English suppressed the resistance by systematic devastation of villages and appointing of new representatives to finally halt all guerrilla activity. The major fallout of the English rule was that demand for Burmese rice grew in Europe for which farmers were compelled to convert new land for cultivation, by borrowing money from Indian moneylenders called Chettiars at high interest levels plus they often lost their land and livestock. Most jobs also visited Indian labourers. Sometimes villages became outlawed as they resorted to 'dacoity' (armed robbery). As the Burmese overall economy grew, all the energy and wealth remained in the hands of several United kingdom businesses, Anglo-Burmese and migrants from India. The civil service was largely staffed by the Anglo-Burmese community and Indians and Burmese were excluded almost totally from armed service service. Though the country prospered, the Burmese people didn't enjoy the rewards. Throughout colonial guideline through the mid-1960s, the Anglo-Burmese were to dominate the country, creating discontent among the neighborhood populace.

In 1920 the first school students strike proclaimed the commencement of Burmese flexibility struggle. The next university students hit in 1936 was triggered by the expulsion of Aung San and Ko Nu, market leaders of the Rangoon University Students Union (RUSU), for refusing to expose the name of the author who had written articles in their school publication, making a scathing invasion using one of the older university officers which multiply to Mandalay resulting in the forming of the All Burma Students Union (ABSU). Aung San and Nu consequently joined up with the Thakin movements progressing from university student to national politics.

The British segregated Burma from India in 1937 and awarded the colony a new constitution getting in touch with for a completely elected set up, but this became a divisive issue as some Burmese experienced that was a ploy to exclude them from any more Indian reforms whereas other Burmese saw any action that removed Burma from the control of India to be a positive step.

Independent Burma

In the first few years of Burmese freedom observed many insurgencies by the Red Flag Communists led by Thakin Soe, the White Flag Communists led by Thakin Than Tun, the YЁbaw Hpyu (White-band PVO) led by Bo La Yaung, military rebels phoning themselves the brand new Burma Army (RBA Arakanese Muslims or the Mujahid and the Karen National Union (KNU).

But for the early years of recognizing foreign assistance for rebuilding the country in these early on years, Burma rejected most foreign aid, refused to join the South-East Asia Treaty Group (SEATO) or support the Bandung Meeting of 1955. This was primarily credited to extended American support for the Chinese language Nationalist military existence in Burma. Burma generally thought we would be impartial in world affairs and was one of the first countries in the world to identify Israel and the People's Republic of China.


The relations between India and Myanmar continued to be mostly strained during this period due to Standard Ne Win's isolation plan. During this period Myanmar refused the regular membership to Commonwealth and withdrew its account from NAM. The complex inner rifts were further worsened with the military services coup. The expert Chinese strategy and anti USSR stance of Myanmar further irritated India.

Continuing in the series of ups and downs a young personnel official called Captain Ohn Kyaw Myint conspired with a few fellow officials in 1976 to assassinate Ne Be successful and San Yu, but the plot was uncovered and the official tried out and hanged. Later In 1978, a armed forces operation was conducted contrary to the Rohingya Muslims in Arakan, called the Ruler Dragon operation, triggering 250, 000 refugees to flee to neighboring Bangladesh.

Crisis and 1988 Uprising

Ne Gain retired as leader in 1981, but remained in vitality as Chairman of the BSPP until his immediate unexpected announcement to step down on 23 July 1988. In the 1980s, the market began to grow as the government relaxed constraints on foreign help, but by the later 1980s falling commodity prices and rising debt led to an economic crisis. This led to economical reforms in 1987-88 that comfortable socialist settings and encouraged overseas investment. In September 1987, Burma's de facto ruler U Ne Win instantly canceled certain money notes which triggered a great down-turn throughout the market and wiping out the savings of the vast majority of people. The main reason for the cancellation of these notes was superstition on U Ne Win's part, as he considered the number nine his lucky number-he only allowed 45 and 90 kyat records, because they were divisible by nine.

Hundred students and civilians resorted to widespread protests and demonstrations in March and June 1988. The armed forces, under the nominal control of General Observed Maung then staged a coup on 08 August and enforced martial legislations under their state Rules and Order Repair Council (SLORC) with Found Maung as chairman and prime minister.

Way to Democracy

This period noticed a solid democratic motion under the authority of Ms Aung San Suu Kyi. India backed her party Country wide League for democracy by promoting Ms Ki and providing safe haven to the Anti SLORC activists in India. After her house arrest in 1990 India appealed to the military junta release a her, thus frustrating the junta. Further in 1990 India released a Burmese national accused of hijacking a Thai airliner. Some of the major irritants for the military services junta are the following :-

In Jul 1992 the Myanmar opposition party was permitted to wide open office in India.

Open criticism of the Armed forces Junta.

Setting up bases for the Mayanmarese refugees in Indian place.

Permission for use of Indian All India Radio by Mr U Nu, for pro democratic messages and appeals.

The Indian position and world view obligated Myanmar to tilt towards China and made the Myanmarese command highly anti India.

Post 1991

In 1991 India initiated its Look East Coverage which marked an obvious transfer towards Myanmar. By this plan India had acquired shelved its high idealism towards pragmatism powered by its nationwide pursuits. Few major attempts during the initial years are the following.

Visit by Foreign Secretary Mr JN Dixit in 1993.

Signing of MoU boundary trade and controlling of medicine trafficking.

MoU to keep up Boundary Tranquility.

This policy was although a perplexed one. For example India conferred the Jawahar Lal Nehru honor to Ms Kyi in 1995, infuriating the junta which suspended the counter insurgency cooperation Procedure Golden Bird with India.

The relations upgraded later with the concerted initiatives of India since 1998. Both major institutional work carried out by India will be the establishment of Bangladesh-India-Myanmar Sri Lanka-Thailand financial Co-operation in 1997 and the Mekong Ganga task. Several important assignments under these initiatives are the following :-

Inauguration of 160 Kilometres moreh-Tamu Street in 2001.

Kaladam Multimodal Transfer project attaching Mizoram to Bay of Bengal.

Commitment of $ 120 million for up gradation of Sitwe Slot.

Up gradation and development of railway lines such as Jiribam-Mandalay.

Defence ties to include supply of armed service hardware training and joint exercises.





Myanmar's Role in India's Look East Policy

Myanmar's geo-strategic location, as situated at the tri-junction of South Asia, South-east Asia and East Asia, enhances its tactical relevance to India. Myanmar also occupies a pivotal position in the strategies of China, Bangladesh and ASEAN countries. As Myanmar has an alternative road through the ocean to landlocked and under-developed North-eastern state governments, India is keen on furthering its bilateral relations using its neighbour. China's increasing influence in Myanmar create a potential security task to India which can't be taken casually.

Energy. Today India rates 6th on the globe energy demand. As up against the domestic production of 65 mcm the projected energy demand of India in 2020-2030 is reported to be 5. 6 mn bpd. Asian energy demand is projected to be double by then.

The existence of large gas reserves as well as potential untapped reserves in Myanmar means that India could be assured of substantial long-term gas imports; The primary attraction for the 'Myanmar gas rush' lies not in the gas reserves becoming exploited, but in what exactly are speculated to be mainly untapped reserves. Estimates on the scope of its gas reserves varies from a conservative 11. 8 trillion cubic ft by English Petroleum, to 22. 5 trillion cubic toes by Myanmar's Energy minister, to 90 trillion cubic toes by some sections of the Myanmar government; this last estimate would make Myanmar the country with the world's 10th major gas reserves. This fact is of essential importance to India keeping in mind the requirements into the future. Indo-Myanmar cooperation in the past has been marred by delays and uncertainty. These delays have cost India successful cooperation in the hydrocarbon sector, where China has been the gainer.

China Factor. China already has a compliant Pakistan in India's western world and a China compliant Myanmar behaving such as Pakistan will increase more problems on India's Eastern front side. Chinese plans to construct roads through Yunan and Myanmar gives China quick access to the Bay of Bengal and Indian Sea which is considered by India as mare nostrum (our sea). These plans are being seen with suspicion in the Indian strategic circle. A street network provides China an alternative solution path to the Strait of Malacca, where Indian Navy has a solid foothold. Eighty % of Chinese energy supply will depend on the Strait of Malacca. If China's rising economic and tactical stakes are not well balanced in Myanmar, New Delhi will be left with little if any choice. Taking a cue from Chinese language aggressiveness in seizing available opportunities, India has implemented a pragmatic and realist way towards Myanmar. India is not only eyeing the huge just offshore gas areas but also investing in infrastructure development like the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transfer Project Myanmar. There is great potential and the sky is the limit as it pertains to promoting bilateral trade. However compared to China, Indian talk about is negligible. Even in the bilateral trade between India and Myanmar operate balance has always continued to be in Myanmar's favour.

Nuclear Power. There's been an unmistakable spurt in development and acquisition of nuclear weapon capacities by the military services junta in Myanmar. Given the amount of progress in this respect, it is reckoned by various firms that this functionality would be realised by the entire year 2014. This task is happening in active collaboration with North Korea under the aegis of China.

Myanmar is a signatory to Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and also to the Nuclear Weapons Free Southeast Asia, India cannot find the money for to have yet another nuclear electric power in its vicinity, even if its probability is lean. Therefore, India needs increased engagement in Myanmar through bilateral and multi-lateral frameworks including ASEAN, Mekong-Ganga Co-operation and BIMSTEC.

Insurgency. Myanmar also retains the key to the ongoing insurgency in the North-east especially Manipur and Nagaland. Several insurgents are believed to be functioning from safe havens in the american provinces of Myanmar.

Counter-insurgency assistance and boundary management are two important areas where India needs Myanmar on its part. It the case of Myanmar, it will always be the military services junta which chooses to activate with a international country and not the other way around. Fortunately this time Myanmar has extended its hand towards India to enhance security cooperation. There are several issues that India has been witnessing from over the border. Steps are being taken to address the common problems faced by both countries including demarcating the 1643 km shared border.

India's North-eastern expresses discuss 98 per-cent with their border with the neighbouring countries i. e. international borders and have only a two per-cent linkage with mainland India. This unique feature makes the spot more susceptible not only in conditions of security, but also usage of basic amenities. The pace of development in the North-eastern expresses is significantly slower than the national average. India through its Look East Policy has attemptedto focus on these problems including; insurgency and under-development in the North-east and higher connectivity with South-east Asian nations, certainly through Myanmar.

Refugee Problem. According to the UN Myanmar is the 3rd biggest contributor of refugees after Afghanistan and Iraq. The refugee problem has afflicted Myanmar-Thailand relations and may affect relations with other Southeast Asian countries. India too is afflicted by this issue.

India also needs to be fast in its methodology while seizing the investment opportunities in Myanmar. There can be found enormous opportunities however the first comers will get the better package. Strategically Myanmar has been and can remain very important to India as it contains key to balance in the North-east, financial and trade linkages with the South-east Asian markets and stemming China's increasing impact in your community.

Drug Trafficking. India needs Myanmar's support in combating this menace given the fact that Myanmar is the next largest producer of opium on the planet. The presence of cross border ethnic linkages, criminal sites and Moreh trade has given rise to this menace since 1994.

How India Missed the Bus

Indo-Myanmar relationships have witnessed pros and cons moving through various stages from "close cooperation" through "idealism" and "realism. " Strong personal relationships, first between Jawaharlal Nehru and Gen Aung San later U Nu, contributed to good relationships between your two countries.

Relatios with Myanmar started out souring in the 1950s when the Indian Chettiyar community was dispossessed of their land by Gen Ne Get following his armed forces coup which required 350, 000 Indians to return to India. At this time, critical industries like the railways, general population services, banking, insurance, inexpensive retail, trade, and business, were all taken back from declared foreigners, including Indians.

A region where its inhabitants idealized India for its support for democracy possessed the military services junta leader highly anti India. Confronted with world isolation and looming economical crisis Myanmar was still left with no choice but to reject its isolationists insurance policy. India skipped this indicator that was immediately exploited by China.

At the same time, Myanmar was facing regular difficulties of insurgencies from its cultural armed groups on the peripheries of the country. The task was to keep Political unity despite insurgencies. Here again with China's help, Myanmar managed to get the majority of the ethnic equipped groups to hint Arms for Serenity and ceasefire agreements.

India reacted much later and gradually with some political exchanges like the visit of the then Indian Primary Minister, Rajiv Gandhi, to Myanmar in 1987. On the other hand, relations between Myanmar and China started out increasing as they found themselves on a single aspect of ostracization: Myanamar for the military takeover post-1988 elections and China for the Tiananmen Square occurrence in 1989.

Where India faltered was, in let's assume that the durability of the military services program was limited, which proved to be wrong. Having neutralized the insurgencies by ethnic categories, the junta tried to bring together the civilians and cultural communities. When it understood that this routine was here to remain, New Delhi started out its constructive proposal insurance plan with Yangon.

Despite initiating its Look East Policy India and normalising relationships with Myanmar India infuriated Myanmar by bestowing Ms Aung San Suu Kyi with the Jawaharlal Nehru Prize for International Understanding in 1992. The Chinese language to advantage of this and made inroads in Myanmar around the same time.

The alleged support of Indian Cleverness to Country wide Unity Party of Arakan and the Karen National Union since 1995 for their struggle from the Burmese armed service junta in trade of information on training camps of north-eastern Indian insurgents inside Burma do also have a poor effect on bilateral relationships.



Since Freedom India has tended to neglect its east, within and outside the national boundaries. Inside the east, we shied away from meaningful diplomatic dialogue with Myanmar since its Generals got charge of the nation nearly six decades ago. In fact, despite our historical relations, a 1600-km-long undisputed common boundary and many geo-strategic passions, India became a persistent critic of the armed forces rule in Myanmar until the mid-1990s.

Due to ideologicpolitic plans followed during this period, Yangon drew close to Beijing for politics and monetary support and then for armed forces weapons, equipment and training. China developed road communications and trade links from Yunnan (China) to North Myanmar which triggered heavy influx of Chinese immigrants (about 1. 5 million) and their financial influence right up to the Irrawady River. Secessionist gangs from India's Northeast could actually create and operate using their company safe sanctuaries in North Myanmar. Gunrunning and drug traffic from the Golden Triangle into Northeast experienced increased substantially.

In 1999, several proposals on India-Myanmar cooperation were under consideration, but there was no progress because of the lack of politics contacts. Primary Minister Vajpayee and Country wide Security Adviser (NSA) Brajesh Mishra then decided to utilise armed service diplomacy to complement India's foreign policy objectives.

In November 1999, Ambassador Shyam Saran (later International Secretary) suggested to the military services federal government in Myanmar that l, then Key of Army Staff, have a "tranquil" ending up in General Maung Aye, Vice-Chairman, Government of Myanmar, Deputy C-in-C, Armed Forces, and C-in-C, Myanmar Army. This may then lead to my appealing Maung Aye and older military officers in charge of relevant ministries for a meeting with Union ministers in India. On January 5, 2000 Ambassador Shyam Saran and then Main of Army Staff Gen VP Mallik seen Myanmar for the convention. Maung Aye and his acquaintances never spoke about China but quite seemingly were thinking about enlarging civil and military services ties with India.

To keep carefully the momentum heading, an India-Myanmar Foreign Secretary-level conference happened in August 2000. Political exchanges increased considerably. This, it was hoped, would lead to greater and more practical and meaningful co-operation in the financial and security domains.

These attempts have however began floundering credited to political inhibitions, diplomatic disregard and makes an attempt to align ourselves with US and European Union human rights and environmental procedures. While India has been sluggish in establishing political and economic foothold, China has managed to access Myanmar's waterways, harbours and territorial waters and dominate its important jade and gems trade in North Myanmar. Myanmar is getting attracted into China's orbit increasingly more.

It must be reiterated that strategy and diplomacy in international relationships are based not on sentiments but the art of the possible and the advancement of national interests. Kautilya had mentioned, "Once the interests of the united states are participating, ethics are a burdensome irrelevance. "

We have observed that India waited for too long for the right form of authorities to come in and enough has been lost already. Regardless of the type of international theory which is propounded to be existing, or the proper execution of the Government in Myanmar, what matters is the actual fact that people need to activate Myanmar.

Military Junta

In the next chapter we have seen that folks Myanmar have a tendency to be led by strong military services leaders. Should it be the militaristic rulers of Konbaung in 1759 or the offer of U Nu himself to the then Military Chief of Personnel General Ne Get to take over the united states in 1958. The politics leaders too have preferred themselves to be called as generals (Gen Aung Sang). Since their self-reliance the armed forces of Myanmar, Tatmadaw, offers accustomed the capabilities it has been enjoying.

The certainty remains that with the first signals of pressure either economically or scheduled to politico cultural frictions, the present Generals or aspiring Basic, who've been waiting for too long for taking in the reigns of the country, will level a coup and Myanmar will be under military services rule again. It makes full sense for India that the military diplomacy stations are kept open and fully effective. Even when there is a democratic administration in Myanmar, the regulations will be greatly influenced by the armed forces leaders. We have to engage the military services leaders of Myanmar no matter what.

Democratic Government

On 1 April 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi as get together head of, the Country wide League for Democracy, released that she was elected to the Pyithu Hluttaw, the low house of the Burmese parliament, representing the constituency of Kawhmu; her get together also earned 43 of the 45 vacant seats in the lower house. Myanmar resurfaced as a democratic region after generations.

Democracy is an eventuality for any military led condition. While this is a fact, we cannot make the earlier mistake of ready things to happen. Regardless of whether democracy has come into Myanmar, we can not take it for awarded. What needs to be kept in mind is that we now have nearly 50 politics people in Myanmar today. The parties involved in the freedom struggle of Burma are pretty much defunct. What it means to India is that, we have to identify the new leaders, their future potential customers and inklings. The ethnic politics plays important role in the culture of Myanmar. Days gone by associations of the edges areas with Manipur or Assam never have been too pleasing. This is due mainly to the cultural similarities and the historical raids or episodes from either aspect. Assam has been a victim of refugees from Myanmar, may it be the Chettiars or the Rohingya. It will be prudent for the government to address these issues concurrently toimprove the visitors to people contact. It must be appreciated that historically the Burmese people will be more averse to the invasions from the north and the east.

Evidently it can not be said for sure that military routine will never keep coming back in Myanmar. Neither it can be said that the democracy will not do well. What can be said for sure is that the stabilization of the country will need long. India however doesn't have the luxury of that much of time to wait and watch. Participating one kind of administration has the threat of alienating the other. India must be very strong in its approach towards Myanmar. If that be so what ought to be the procedure of India, an equilibrium of power approach, idealist way, pragmatism or realism?


The Indian administration although normally an advocate of democratic ideals, on the question of Myanmar, has followed a contrary basic principle. Democracy communities in Myanmar have often appeared to India for support but India has been steadfast in its refusal to be straight mixed up in country's interior affairs and carries on to keep financial and military services ties with Myanmar. India's security considerations have seemingly overshadowed its ideological rules. That is a reflection of any confused way towards international relations. This is related to the weakness that India experienced through the area.

India cannot find the money for to disregard the Chinese threat in turning Myanmar into a buffer area. Furthermore to counter China, India has stepped up its multilateral engagement in your community, taking Myanmar in the flip of regional community forums like the Mekong-Ganga project and BIMST-EC, where both countries can work jointly on common grounds.

The importance of Myanmar to India in the neighbourhood has averted India from going for a vocal stand from the plan. The hushed shades where India urges the promotion of democracy in Myanmar do not speak well for India's image as the champ of democracy. Alternatively, India's Machiavellian methodology in prioritizing security concerns that would gain India in coming years are also lauded by many. In this strategic game however, democracy is the clear loser.

Notwithstanding that, for this reason policy India overlooked the bus in the overdue 80's when Myanmar was beginning to the worl. The void still left by India was immediately exploited by china. India needs to be very clear that in dealing with any federal in Myanmar, Idealism does not have any significant role that can be played.


Pragmatism generally keeps that practical efficacy is a standard guide to what holds true and right; pragmatists are led by what works. At the face than it such a policy would be the most effective policy. Nevertheless the dynamics of the spot would demand a very advanced of sensitivity to smallest of developments. India so far does not gets the full understanding of the problem in the east, LEP being relatively nascent. Hence, it is recommended that this strategy is not used for now.


The idealist period of India with the Myanmar lasted for three decades since General Ne Win came to electricity in 1962, where India had very little to do with the armed service dictatorship. Myanmar then existed under a self-imposed isolationism. India's rethink on its romance with Myanmar (then Burma) times from the uprising and coup d'etat in 1988 and the influx of refugees into North-east Indian camps. Between 1988 to 1992, the idealist period lingered on as our policy vacillated between support for the democracy movement and carrying on with diplomatic isolation. 1993 was the year when the "realist U move" from Nehruvian idealism to realism.

The policy may well not have paid dividends, as is being debated by many, but what needs to be considered would be that the attempts towards this end never have been all out so far. Lot of floor has been protected and things have better. Once the essential infrastructure arises in the northeastern region (NER) of India, Indian realist realist strategy begins bearing fruits.

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