Is Southeast Asia A Center Or A Periphery History Essay

This document is about Southeast Asia region. It sits on the east of the Asian sub- continent. As the planet systems approach goes that divides the world into Primary, Peripheral and Semi- peripheral parts, Southeast Asia comes in the Peripheral region as of today. Its difficult to decide the division in which may Southeast Asia may show up as the whole region has many countries, some of them have affluent economies, some growing and more in extreme poverty. There are plenty of factors which determine this status. Besides this, many physical factors of the spot such as politics, physical, economic and ethnical geography are discussed briefly in this. Other significant topics such as geo-concepts, appearing issues and strategic implications for future business tactical planning are also taken into consideration to be able to have a total understanding of the region. Political geography covers the countries, boundaries etc. Physical geography is more about rivers, mountains, gulfs, volcanoes amongst others. Economical geography talks about the market of the region whereas Cultural geography is about the ethnic categories, languages, religions, fine art etc. Many of these can help in attaining competitive about the spot I decided to go with as the foundation of my term end job.


Is Southeast Asia, a Central or a Periphery?

The 'center' nations will be the highly financially developed countries with them reaping benefits from the economy of all of those other world.

The 'peripheral' countries are the third world countries which are still in the producing stage with an extremely low quality lifestyle.

The 'semi-peripheral' countries are those that are between your 'center' and the 'peripheral'. They are the stabilising factors on earth system.

Southeast Asia is a mixture of peripheral and semi- peripheral countries. Some of the countries have shown good degrees of development but snooze are still attempting to be financially 3rd party. The region's economy greatly depends on agriculture but production and services are fast catching up. Many of the countries which come in the Southeast Asian region are demonstrating large amount of monetary development.

While Indonesia, an growing market, is the major economy in your community, Singapore and Brunei already are viewed as affluent developed economies. Whereas Thailand, Malaysia and Philippines are considered as newly industrialized countries. . However the recovery, such as East Timor, Papua New Guinea, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos are still considerably behind in being economically uplifted. Agriculture is mainly the main profession of the region and Vietnam is working towards producing its industrial industries. Also, textiles, electronic digital high-tech goods are produced here with reserves of essential oil bought at some places.

Tourism has made economies of many countries take a high stride. It offers boosted the income of locals with many people from worldwide approaching for holidaying in locations like Thailand, Cambodia, and Singapore etc.

Almost 50 % of the countries that are categorized as the Southeast Asia have most of its people below poverty lines.

They work hard towards making their ends meet.

So, it won't be difficult to assume and declare that Southeast Asia has both Peripheral as well as Semi peripheral countries but as most of them are peripheral so the whole Southeast Asia, will be taken to be one of the Peripheral regions of the world which, in couple of years, is defined to be between the " semi peripheral" regions of the world.


Political Geography:

Southeast Asia produced its name from it location in the world atlas. It lies in the south eastern area of the Asian continent. It really is bounded about by China on the north, Pacific Ocean on the east and India on the west.

Southeast Asia involves two geographic regions


Mainland section includes








Peninsular Malaysia


Phnom Penh




Kuala Lumpur


Maritime section consists of



East Malaysia

East Timor



Papua New Guinea

The Philippines


Kuala Lumpur



Bandar Seri Bhagwan

Port Moresby


City of Singapore

Southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau are sometimes grouped in the Southeast Asia sub region geographically. Vietnam is culturally and historically linked with East Asia somewhat than Southeast Asia.

ASEAN i. e. Association of Southeast Asian Countries was founded on 8th August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the putting your signature on of the ASEAN Declaration by Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, Malaysia and Thailand, also known as the Founding Fathers.

It work towards betterment of the spot.

Physical Geography:

Southeast Asia's almost whole region falls within the humid tropics as it is located on the equator.

In the past, the region possessed considerably lower population density than major Parts of asia like India, China and Japan however now many countries have dense populations.

The development of two different sorts of Southeast Asian states are based on the kind of job i. e. inland claims, predicated on rice agriculture, and maritime areas, based on trade and raiding.

Mountains characterize a large portion of the region with the tallest being Borneo's Mount Kinabalu but the most influential mountain is Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines. Position only 4, 874 foot large, this volcano's eruptions experienced a major effect on the country.

The geologic panorama is ruled by earthquakes and volcanoes, the Pacific Rim being the "Ring of Fire".

There are numerous major rivers in the region. Some of them are

The Red River: Hanoi, the administrative centre of Vietnam is linked via water with North Vietnam.

The Irrawaddy River: It's the key river of Myanmar. It connects the international shipping and delivery ports through the Andaman Sea.

The Chao Phraya River: It is Thailand's key river and supports intensively settled area around Bangkok.

The Mekong River : Passes through southern Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and China. It is the main river of the region and helps in connectivity and transport between your mainland countries.

Southeast Asia is the most complicated maritime boundary network on the planet.

The gulfs, bays, straits, inlets, and shipping routes form the region. Due to presence of bays, inlets, gulfs, straits in your community, conflict has used shape. China takes the largest part in the South China Sea though every country desires to possess stake in these important shipping and delivery lanes.

Cultural Geography:

Southeast Asia is highly influenced by China and India. Vietnam is reported to be the most Chinese influenced. Traditional western culture affect is easily seen in the Philippines because of the Spanish rule.

For example, people who eat with the fingers are much more likely affected by the culture of India. The culture of China, where people eat with chopsticks and tea, as a beverage, can be found over the region.

Arts of the region have proximity to the arts of the encompassing areas. In some elements of Southeast Asia, arts and literature is quite affected by Hinduism, brought into the region many ages ago.

Dance forms:

Southeast Asia is highly influenced by Indian party forms, specifically of Hinduism. There are many dance forms such as Apsara Boogie, strong hand and feet activity and Wayang, known for its shadow and puppetry plays which are quite famous in the form of entertainment.


Indonesia, Brunei and Malaysia have Islam as their faith. It creates up to 40% of the full total society practising Islam in Southeast Asia.

Besides this, there are enthusiasts of many other religions such as Buddhism, which is greatly utilized in Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Singapore, Thailand and Myanmar. People in Singapore and Vietnam are into Confucianism and ancestor worship. In eastern Indonesia, East Timor and Philippines, Christianity is prevalent.

Vietnam has many ethnic similarities with China. As Islam is opposed to certain varieties of artwork, still in Indonesia which is a Muslim dominated country, they may have retained methods, arts, culture and literatures of Hinduism. Ramayana holds true example of literature having foothold in the region.

Lao, Thai, Cambodian and Burmese cultures have Hindu gods, arts, dance moves fused into them.


Cultural stresses such as trade and colonisation has inspired the region to own many dialects.

There are numerous languages spoken by people in the region but countries have their own official languages. Due to diversified religions, people know one or more languages apart from their native language. For e. g. a Malaysian, may speak British, China, Tamil as well as Malay as another language.


Music is as diversified as the ethnic and linguistic variety. Music has its existence in form of court docket music, folk music, music varieties of smaller ethnic organizations etc. String musical instruments are incredibly popular in your community with many other court and folk genres.

Economic Geography:

Southeast Asia has experienced swift growth of current economic climate since last few years. Referred to as one of the "East Asian Tigers", Singapore is a developed overall economy till night out. But soon finding their place among the East Asian Tigers are Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. Southeast Asia has been viewed as a good example of globalized capitalism as the main reason behind the expansion of the economy is foreign immediate investment in local market sectors by giants like US, Japan.

The islands in the region are major source of Petroleum and also for Logging.

While Malaysia is the world's largest exporter of Engine oil Palm, Singapore has foothold as the world's 2nd busiest Interface and a significant Bank and Financial hub.

The region is a combination of affluent as well as poor countries. On one hand, Singapore is highly developed whereas on the other hands, countries like Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam face extreme poverty. That is mainly because two of the above stated countries are still under communist guideline and till lately having experienced wars.

Tourism plays a key role in producing the market of the region. In recent times, there's been immense upsurge in the expansion rate and the major contributor is tourism. Hard efforts are put into publicising and marketing the place to present the scenic beauty of the region. There have been huge footfalls in form of holidaymakers who generate money and in return boost the market.


They are prospering economies. Malaysia has a captivating oil industry. It is one of the very best exporters of natural palm oil and plastic, which as well as cocoa, pepper, pineapple and tobacco contribute towards the growth of the sector. Palm essential oil is also a significant generator of forex.


Thailand is the second largest market in the southeast asian region after Indonesia. This will depend intensely on exports. Rice and Shrimp have been major products exported in the world. Other vegetation include corn, coconut, soybeans, silicone, sugarcane and tapioca.


It has a developed overall economy. Services provided alongwith export of electronics and chemicals form the key source of revenue for the current economic climate, which helps to purchase natural resources and uncooked goods for the united states.


Exports of crude engine oil and gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector add towards the tiny but wealthy economy of the nation. It is the third-largest oil company in Southeast Asia also the fourth-largest designer of liquefied gas on the globe.


It is the 5th largest economy of the region. Agriculture and industry, electronics and vehicle parts, textiles and garments are the key sectors. Exports of minerals also add towards the economy.

It is one of the newly industrialized appearing economies of the world.


It is one of the very most raising economies of the world. Mining and minerals exports help. Petroleum and coal are the primary mineral exports.


Indonesia is the member of G-20 countries as it has the largest overall economy in Southeast Asia and is one of the growing market economies of the world. Food, travel and leisure, apparel, footwear, mining, concrete, petroleum and gas, textiles, chemical substance fertilizers, plywood, rubber, will be the major economy sectors.

Geo principles:

There are several similarities throughout the spot as in local climate, plant life; dog life etc. Many sea and jungle products are located in this region which is rare otherwise. The complete region is afflicted by monsoon winds. There are various species of animals and birds. High levels of biodiversity is seen in the shallow waters of the coral reefs in your community. There are various varieties of fishes seen in the water. Such as the whale shark, which is the world's major species is seen in the South China Sea. Cambodia and Vietnam have said to have the richest freshwater angling resources on earth. Mekong River is home to the massive Mekong catfish which is about 3 feet long. Large snakehead and the Giant Bagarius are also found. The spot is very rich in natural resources. Indonesia is considered a huge in world angling business. The region is near to be completely exploited thus degrading the overall environment. Illegal sportfishing has gained momentum which is showing dangerous due to already diminishing fish stock.

Emerging Issues:

Southeast Asia has many emerging issues which needs immediate attention. Many countries in your community are facing financial downturn. Countries like Thailand and Philippines are experiencing hard time as their economies 're going south. Importing essential oil has taken an enormous toll as the rates are set in US dollars and their currency is weak as compared to the US money. A couple of other emerging interpersonal, environmental and security issues as the position of the region in conditions of health is really disappointing. The spot has turned into a hub of diseases after group of natural disasters. Real human rights need immediate attention.

Security of the region is negligible as the variety of islands makes it difficult to have complete security cover. Forest deforestation is making its way to the region. Environmentalists warn that it may have an enormous impact on otherwise very much green region. Natural resources are being exploited and fatigued. There many traditional and non traditional issues to be attended to.

Strategic Implications for future business proper planning:

Young, well-educated and increasingly affluent populations, growing GDP, high forex reserves and low federal government borrowing are among the main element factors. Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines will be the leaders of the load up, but Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are also seeing reasonable FDI

net inflows at around 10% of GDP The strong saving patterns of Asians have been hailed within the reason the spot may not go through the same degree of downturn as European countries and the united states. Malaysia and Indonesia in particular are experiencing increasing activity in terms of spin-offs of non-core divisions by foreign MNCs.


Southeast Asia is a peripheral region on the planet systems theory. Though it consists of developed, producing and under developed economies, still, when the density of the region along with populace is taken into consideration then the underdeveloped but still developing nations dominate the small but economically developed countries. Having an eagle eye's view and prioritising all the things of the region, Southeast Asia continues to be a Peripheral region. But it surely has potential of getting into Semi - Peripheral regions of the world. They have lot of still untapped potential which can take the economies of the spot to unmatched heights.

Southeast Asia is a combo of many cultures, dialects and religions. It really is highly influenced by the Indian and Chinese cultures. Many key rivers, mountains, volcanoes, gulfs, straits etc. form the physical region. There are lots of islands. So, in every, Southeast Asia is an area of diversity with great leads.

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