New Historical Science - History of historical knowledge

New Historical Science

The principle of interdisciplinarity became leading in the research strategy of the early "Annals". Since the 60's. XX century, with a change in the notion of the nature of the relationship between history and the social sciences, begins the "golden age" interdisciplinary interaction, in which prevailing attitudes toward equal cooperation in the formation of the "new historical science" on the basis of an integral interdisciplinary approach to the study of society.

"New History" (la nouvelle histoire), or "new historical science" XX century, was born as an intellectual movement, critical of both positivism and Marxism. She opposed the event-descriptive history and the explanation of events of the past by the action of universal laws. Leading role in its formation belongs to the French historians, grouped around the magazine "Annals". The "New History", in fact, revolutionized the historical profession. The followers of M. Blok and L. Febvre resolutely opposed the historians of the mid-twentieth century deeply rooted in professional consciousness. the idea of ​​the full dependence of the scientist on the document, placing the creative activity of the researcher and the scientific problem at the center of his attention, which determines the selection of sources and the angle of their study.

The basic principles of Blok and Fevra were developed within the problem fields of the "new historical science". New History the first post-war decades is associated with the name of the largest French historian, the recognized leader of the "Annals" school, the founder of the "House of Human Sciences" (1962), the center for interdisciplinary research in the humanities - FERNANA BRODELA (1902-1985) and his fundamental synthetic works "The Mediterranean and the World of the Mediterranean in the Age of Philip II" (1949) and "Material civilization, economics and capitalism: the XV-XVIII centuries." (1979). In his works, the interdisciplinary orientation of the "new historical science" was revealed in its entirety. The ideal of Braudel is the systemic global ( total ) story with its limitless possibilities. He showed that economic history does not boil down to studying the mechanisms of production and exchange, abstract commodity-money relations, but goes far beyond their limits. The scientist considered and "almost motionless" the history of human relationships with the environment (geohistory), and the structural history of the "slow changes" (development of the economy, society, state and civilization), and an event history, commensurate with the time of human life. He himself declared himself a structuralist and rejected the history of "ephemeral events". The material culture and structures of everyday life encompass, in Brodel's opinion, everything from which human life develops, including the relevant relationships, desires, ideals, values ​​and rules governing individual and collective behavior. The main task of the researcher is to discover the invariant of human consciousness and social behavior, present in all forms of everyday life, exchange, marriage and family, religious cult and political organization.

The concept of total The history of Braudel had a huge impact on Western historiography, gained a lot of followers in France and throughout the world. Its powerful influence was manifested in the search for new ways and methods of historical research that were conducted in the 1970s. led by DONING OF DUBAI and ZHAKE LO GOFFFOM representatives of the so-called third generation "schools" Annals ", not satisfied with the structuralist version of the" new story " and believed that it was necessary to return not only a person, but also events in the sphere of the historian's interests. Within the history of mentalities, the study of the cultural mechanism of social interaction and the problem of the relationship between historical reality and its representation - the world of the imaginary - are brought to the forefront. The history of mentalities has highlighted the reconstruction of world paintings of different epochs - the study of specific features of the world perception of people, their way of life, mass consciousness - ideas, beliefs and value orientations of individuals and society as a whole.

The novelty of the interdisciplinary situation of the 1970s. was that it was not just the use of data and methods of other disciplines, but also the integration of the objects of their scientific interests at the level of objects, and moreover, the construction of interdisciplinary objects. Thus, the "new historical science" in which the central subject of research has become a man in society is already an interdisciplinary history in the full sense of the word, but its cognitive priorities and, accordingly, the main counterparties in the social sciences, to which historians have addressed in the search for scientific methodology, have changed over time. The period of the 1960s and early 1970s, key to the formation of the "new history", was held under the banner of sociology, social anthropology, demography and quantitative methods. At this time, along with polemics about the old and new ways of history, about getting rid of the priority of political and event history and overcoming the methodological crisis in traditional historiography, a wide discussion began on the relationship between history and sociology. The tendency towards rapprochement was in fact mutual, but in different countries the initiative was manifested from different sides: in some cases it belonged to historians, in others - to representatives of the social sciences. If in France the active side in the dialogue between history and sociology was historians, in the USA this role undividedly belonged to sociologists, while historians stubbornly resisted calls for a rapprochement between the two sciences. The same situation has developed in the UK, where the debate has taken a protracted character. On the whole, during the discussion, a turn of a part of the new historiography to a theoretical history and a search for a general model that would allow linking individual studies, compare and generalize them, revealed history in the position of social science was revealed. However, the complexity of interdisciplinary communications was aggravated by notable differences in the positions of the historians themselves.

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