Overview Of The Fall Of Muslim Spain History Essay

The green suggests the total amount of land captured by the MuslimsFor my record, I will reveal Islamic Spain because I used to be and am fascinated by the heights in which the Muslims come to but are far from today. In the beginning of the 7th century, a lot of Europe was in a state of darkness. While the folks of Arabia and Africa where prospering, those of Spain were under the oppressive guideline of tyrannical Visigoth ruler, Roderick. The original story is the fact in the year 711, an oppressed Christian chief, Julian, went to Musa ibn Nusair, the governor of North Africa, with a plea for help contrary to the bothersome ruler. The capturing of Spain was a simple process for the Muslims and the easily removed the tyrants from power. During the golden years of Islamic guideline, Spain was thought to be a beacon of light in the then dark and formidable medieval Europe. Spain was a center of learning and knowledge. It is stated that as much as 60, 000 treatises, poems and compilations were published every year in Al-Andalus (Muslim Spain). Compared, modern Spain posted 46, 330 catalogs per year by 1996. Muslims, Christians and Jews resided together hand and hand in tranquility. However, it had not been to last. Because of loss of faith, corruption and far injustice done to the non-Muslims of the land, the fall of Islam was hard and hefty.

The Conquest

By 711, the people of Iberia (current Spain and Portugal) were fed up with their rulers, the Visigoths (so this means Goths of the Western). Although Visigoths were Christians, these were brutal and unjust. Stories were told of murder and other severe injustice, which only further enraged individuals. It is stated that when the Muslim military came up marching through cities and villages, the people of the land cheered for their new market leaders.

Painting done by an mysterious artist of any struggle between Muslim and Religious forces When contacted by the Christian Main, Julian, Musa ibn Nusair, the then governor of North Africa, decided to send a young standard, Tariq bin Ziyad. Tariq led a power of seven thousand troops to the north. The location where they arrived on the Spanish seacoast, Gibraltar, was named after Tariq (Jabal At-Tariq meaning rock and roll of Tariq). The Visigoth army was easily defeated, largely due to the divisions amongst the Visigoths and their allies. This, subsequently, led to the demoralization of the fighters themselves. Through the battle, it is stated that Roderick, the first choice of the Visigoths, was wiped out but his body was never found.

The Muslim military continued to capture the majority of the Iberian Peninsula. This all continued throughout a seven year campaign. But when the Muslims attempted to conquer France, they were defeated by the Frankish Catholic Ruler, Charles Martel in 732.

The known reasons for the Muslims swift success in Spain were multiple. First of all, When the North African military defeated the last Visigoth king, the central authorities fell apart. Also, the Muslims provided nice surrender terms as opposed to the severe conditions under the Visigoths. Another reason could be that Mush of culture was already demoralized and needed change. At the time, the one ones who prospered and resided in luxury were the abundant. Much of the indegent lived as serfs (people bound to the land like slaves). The conquest proved to be a benefit for the serfs, who had been exploited for centuries by the Goths and Romans before them. However, the center class were probably the most detrimental off; not only do they make little money, nevertheless they also had to transport the responsibility of the fees used to fund population. People lost trust in the clergy (chapel) who would use this duty money and spend it for themselves and not at all aid the individuals.

The Golden Age

Though some may refuse this, the age where the Muslims acquired control over Spain was one of knowledge and enlightenment. There were many libraries and centers of learning. People researched literature, philosophy, structures, treatments, poetry and etc. Al Andalus was a center of learning for people of all backgrounds, Muslims, Jews and Christians. There have been many libraries, universities, and other centers of learning. People analyzed the sciences, school of thought, architecture, books, poetry and etc. People, for the most part, lived in tranquility and prosperity. They no more concerned about injustice and independence. As explained by Stanley Lane-Poole in his book, Muslims in Spain, "The conquest have away with the overgrown estates of the great nobles and churchmen, and changed them into small proprietorships; it removed the heavy burden of the center class and restricted taxations; land duty levied equally for Muslims and Christians; it induced a common emancipation of slaves and a radical improvement in the improvement of the unemancipated, who now became almost indie farmers in the service of the non-agricultural Muslim masters. "

However, even thought the Muslims (Arabs and Moors) overtook the land together, these were not united. The credit goes to Amir Abd Al-Rahman, who founded the emirate of Cordoba, and could get the various Muslim categories who possessed conquered Europe to pull together in ruling it. Because of this, stability was proven and lasted for centuries. This offered Al-Andalus a feeling of security and tranquility not within other areas of Europe at the time.

Inside the landscapes of the Alhambra Palace Al- Andalus experienced many great places, one of which was metropolis of Cordoba. This great city boasted a populace around 500, 000, compared to 38, 000 in Paris, France. It had been the biggest and most prosperous city in every of Europe. Cordoba was a respected literary and educational centre in the Islamic world since many important and influential scientists and philosophers came from Cordoba, such as Averroes (ibn Rushd), Abulcasis and Avicenna (ibn Sina), they could have had a huge impact on the beginning of the European renaissance. The economy of Cordoba was flourishing and a number of establishments were invigorated following the conquest. Such market sectors included agriculture, ceramics, metalwork, textiles and etc. , Tariffs and fees were a source of income for the affluent city.

Great Mosque of Cordoba Spain, now a Cathedral

Islam also greatly inspired the architecture and properties of Spain. Today you could find many cathedrals and churches that were once mosques. A good example of such could be the La Mezquita (so this means The Mosque). This great cathedral was once a great mosque in the location of Cordoba. It was considered an architectural feat at its time. Another amazing structure is the Alhambra in Granada. Alhambra originates from the Arabic word, Al-Hamra, indicating The Red One. It really is a lovely palace with streaming gardens. You can find many such set ups and feats in Spain which show the influences of Islam and the Arabs.

Society and Religion

Before the Muslims arrived, Spain was home to other groups of people, typically Christians, but also Jews. Since the Visigoths who ruled before the Muslims were devout Christians, many Jews needed to live in hiding to avoid their wrath. Also, the Visigoths imposed their version of Christianity, which was sometimes on the brink of cruelty. In the beginning, the Visigoths were good Religious rulers; yet, then they became corrupt, using taxes money to reinforce the church. Luckily, this was all to improve.

Islamic Spain is sometimes described as a "gold years" of religious ethnic tolerance and interfaith tranquility between Muslims, Christians and Jews. Non- Muslims weren't forced to live in poor areas in town nor in any other specific locations. These were not pressured into any form of slavery. Also, unlike a great many other nations, the Christians and Jews were not forced to abandon their religious beliefs nor were they stopped from exercising their religions.

Illustration of Muslims and Jews struggling together side by side in fight Jews and Christians were not stopped or avoided from making profits, but usually, they would have careers disliked by Muslims, such as tanning and butchery. But these careers were not automatically distasteful; there were jobs in bank and interacting with gold and silver.

However, Non-Muslims experienced to follow the rules set by the state of hawaii. A few of these rules were:

They had to simply accept Islamic power

They were required to pay a taxes called Jizya to the Muslim rulers and sometimes paid higher rates of other taxes

They averted blasphemy

They Cannot make an effort to convert Muslims

There were constraints on building synagogues and churches

They could not acquire an inheritance from a Muslim

They could not bequeath anything to a Muslim

They could not own a Muslim slave

A Non-Muslim man cannot marry a Muslim woman (however the reverse was satisfactory)

A Non-Muslim could not give evidence in an Islamic court

A Non-Muslim would get lower reimbursement than Muslims for the same personal injury

Many Non-Muslims became area of the Muslim culture in Al- Andalus. They commenced to dress and appearance like Muslims (some women even wore hijjab) and started to speak Arabic and take Arabic titles. Christians and Jews where tolerated for many reasons, Among which main reasons is the fact that in Islam it is decreed that Muslims must treat the people of the publication (Christians and Jews) with esteem.

Quran (29:46): Be courteous when you argue with the Folks of the E book [Christians and Jews), except with those included in this who do evil. Say: We have confidence in that which is exposed to us and that was revealed to you. Our God as well as your God is one.

Also, treating them very well also proved to be beneficial to the Muslims. They proved to be loyal because they had no affiliations with other Muslims communities they provided the federal government with workers who could easily be trained and removed if possible.

Unfortunately, there have been intervals in which this was not always the situation and Non- Muslims were cured harshly due to unjust market leaders. But overall, Minorities were cared for much worse after the street to redemption of the Islamic empire and under the control of Spain by the Christianity.

The Decline

Sadly, the era of Al-Andalus had not been to last. Little by little, yet surely, the great kingdom was broken into small bits and new rulers were caring for their princedoms. By the first 1000s, there were many divisions between your Muslim rulers. As a result, when the Christian army began to infiltrate the split lands, many rulers betrayed the other person and switched against one another.

The reasons for Muslim weakness were multiple. Of these, the main was that the leaders became corrupt and acquired lost their religious beliefs. Consequently, they were cruel, selfish and unjust. This resulted in the mistreatment of the Jews and Christians of Spain. These were not allowed to have taller properties than the Muslims and may not show nor practice their faith (any sign of religious beliefs was punishable by law). The result was distrust between Muslims and their Non-Muslim neighbours.

Rebellions and intrusions of Christians inside the united states and from beyond your land were commonplace and led to the genuine demise of Muslim Spain. The divisions between the people managed to get super easy for Christian states to take over the kingdoms, one at a time. This gives a complete new interpretation to the word, Divide and Conquer.

The Reconquista

Drawing of Crusaders preventing against Muslims The Reconquista (Reconquest) was the procedure by which the Catholic Kingdoms of northern Spain eventually managed to flourish in defeating and conquering the southern Muslim says of the Iberian Peninsula. The first great city to fall season was the city of Toledo in 1085. After, Toledo dropped into the hands of the Religious forces; it wasn't problematic for the Christian crusaders to overtake the rest of Al-Andalus. This is because Toledo was almost in the heart of the Spanish peninsula and its loss opened up the flood-gates for even more invasions from the north (were the Christian ruled).

After Toledo fell, most of Al-Andalus was captured except for the Emirate of Granada. Later, in 1482, the Christian forces began the Granada Warfare so that they can win over the town, the Alhambra and many other important landmarks. By 1492, the Catholic Monarchs, Queen Isabelle I and Ruler Ferdinand II possessed complete control over the Emirate of Granada. There is a treaty signed, which allowed the Muslims some religious freedoms. However, these freedoms were granted by the municipality in the towns and the interpreted these privileges according with their wish and understanding. The first Archbishop of Granada after the Catholic conquest took a fairly tolerant view.

Regretfully, this fleeting bout of tolerance didn't previous and was emphasized after the death of the Archbishop. Beneath the rule of the new Cardinal, mass conversions occurred and a large number of Arabic texts were burned up. Muslims received 1 of 2 selections: either become a Religious or leave the land. A lot of the Andalusi people decided to become Christian, but secretly applied Islam (Taqiyyah). To weed out the real Christians from the false ones, the Spanish Inquisition was made. By watching what they called "suspicious behavior", such as not wanting to eat pork or taking in wine, the Religious people of Spain hunted down and killed the Muslims. As a result, a Grand Mufti approved a ruling proclaiming that Muslims may do things that would otherwise give away their true faith, such as drinking and eating haram things. This secured the Muslims for a while.

However, no subject how genuine they looked like, the Arabs and Moors of Andalus were always deemed as second class citizens. Eventually, all use of the Arabic dialect was banned and everything Arabic text messages were burned up. People could not dress relating to Muslim or Arab culture plus they could not raise their children the Islamic way. When people rebelled, substantial slaughtering was completed and a lot of the Arabs and Moors were expelled using their company homes. Consequently, the country lost much of its competent people and fell once again in to the dark ages. Once the Arabs and Moors were banished, Religious Spain shone, like the moon, with lent light; then came up the eclipse, and in that darkness, Spain has groveled ever since.

Muslims in Spain Today

Typical Muslim family in SpainToday, the majority of Muslims moving into Spain are immigrants from North Africa, specifically Morocco. However there are still turns to Islam. Approximately, 2. 5% of the population is Muslim which makes it the second most significant religion in a mainly Christian region. Many Christians discover that they had ancestors who had been Muslim and get started to look at Islam in a fresh light. Also, some Spanish (and Portuguese) words could be found to own been derived from Arabic meanings. For instance, the Spanish term "oxala" means if god wills, nearly the same as the Islamic inshallah.


In finish, Muslims have to learn from their errors of days gone by. If you go through the world today, you'll realize that much of the leaders of the Muslim world and divided like the petty kingdoms of the fantastic Al-Andalus. Muslims need to unite and get back to their roots. They need to realize that inside, we all have been Muslims; we all have been the same, that we are one ummah, one nation. We must work hard to aid our brothers and sisters in need and triumph over all of our weaknesses. Sadly, though we all look back to the days of the great Islamic empires and reminisce, almost all of us do little or nothing to improve our situation. Al-Andalus was a great empire during times of spiritual scholarship and research, but when the folks began to reduce faith, it dropped to our enemies, permanently shadowed by the increased loss of intelligence, knowledge and enlightenment.

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