Philippines - History of the East

13.3. Philippines

Geographically, the Philippines is part of the same island world of Southeast Asia. But, being an eastern and historically peripheral part of it, this archipelago developed at a much slower pace, which did not fail to affect the results. By the time of the invasion of the Spaniards in the Philippines in the XVI century. Only a small part of the population of the islands began to move from primitive to very early primitive state formations.

The population of the Philippines in principle was made up of the same components as the rest of the island world. On the ancient Negro-Australoid substratum in the II-I millennium BC. waves were layered by Austronesians of the South Mongoloid type. But these waves did not land inland, through Malaya, as it was in the west, but by the sea, sometimes through Taiwan, and all from the same Southern China. From the turn of our era, when Malaya and Indonesia in its western part were already indianized, the Indo-Buddhist culture began to gradually penetrate to the east, including the Philippines. Cultural contacts, however, were extremely slow. The ties with the Buddhist Srivijaya, and later with the Hindu culture of Majapahita, played a part in the development of the local population, but greater results were given.

Perhaps more significant in this sense was the historically relatively new Chinese migration. At the end of the first millennium, the Chinese began to arrive in the Philippines, but not the South China tribes of the Yue who, two millennia earlier, played the role of one of the components of the local population, and the inhabitants of a highly developed empire that carried a multifaceted and vivid culture. Archaeological data, in particular, indicate that at the beginning of the second millennium the material and spiritual culture of the local population was strongly influenced by both India and China. Since the XIV century. Through the southern islands, Islam began to penetrate the Philippines, and as a result, the first centers of statehood began to appear on the already prepared Indo-Hindu basis.

Recorded by the Spaniards in the XVI century. the data allow, although fragmentarily, to trace this process. On the islands there were communities -balgas, the power in which belonged to the elders. The average size of the community was from 30 to 100 families, but there were also larger ones, up to 1-2 thousand. The most developed of them waged wars with neighbors, and in case of success, yesterday's communal elder became the ruler of the pro-state protectorate. Leaders of this kind were initially called primarily Indian terms, most often raja , sometimes - dato (terminology in this case is an indicator of influence).

In the 15th and early 16th century, when the Portuguese expelled the Sultan and his relatives from Malacca, some of them migrated eastward and reached the Philippines. In the south of the archipelago, the population began to quickly Islamize, and the first state formations took the form of Sultanates, which at that time was already common for the entire island world, including Malaya and Indonesia. By nature, the early sultanates were still very primitive. Around the leader (sultan), elective or already hereditary, the social elite was grouped, who lived on account of the redistribution of income (rent-tax) from communities and labor dependent from among both captives and strangers, and ruined community members. All this form of sociopolitical organization already in 1433 was fixed in the judicial system, which defined the punishment for various offenses depending on the status of the person. The land was in the supreme possession of the ruler (sultan, rajah, dato), who acted as a subject of power-ownership and endowed with lands those whom he considered necessary to give. Some peoples under Western influence also had their own forms of writing on a South Indian graphic basis.

The expedition of Magellan, who anchored on the island of Cebu in 1521 on the way to the Moluccan Islands, led to the discovery and development of the archipelago by the Spaniards. The first attempt to subordinate local rulers and firmly established here was unsuccessful for the Spaniards. Magellan himself died on Cebu, and his winner Lapu-Lapu is revered to this day as the first hero in the struggle for independence. However, already in the middle of the XVI century. The Spaniards were quite firmly on the archipelago, which in 1542 was named after them in honor of Prince Philippe, the future King Philip II. Successful conquests and the development of new profitable areas, in particular the creation of the Port of Manila in 1570, led to the fact that in the late 16th century, Spaniards were not only full masters in the north and in the center of the archipelago, but also successfully Christianized the population of the areas they captured. Only the Muslim south, "the country of moro", the Moors, as the Spaniards called it, remained a rebellious periphery until the 19th century. And after that, even nowadays, it differs markedly from other parts of the Philippines.

The Christianized and the Spanishized parts of the archipelago in principle were not much different from the one conquered by the Spaniards around the same time of America. The same governors of the king and governors of the provinces, based on the apparatus of officials and rich layers of Spanish colonialists. The same all-powerful Catholic church with its frenetic monks-missionaries of various orders and generally very obedient flock to them. True, the methods of winning and maintaining order here were less cruel. In the Philippines, there was no gold that so kindled the passion of the conquistadors. In addition, to develop the country needed people who should be protected, since in the XVII century. the population of the archipelago was only about 500 thousand people (about 1% of the Spaniards).

The control system at first was also formed according to a common pattern for the Latin American colonies. In the Philippines, about 270 plots were transferred to the "Encomienda" (Spanish semi-proprietorship) to Spanish colonists, both private individuals from among influential landowners, and monastic orders or crowns. The guardian-encomiendoire usually collected a fixed tax, tribute from the population entrusted to his guardianship, through the elders of the communities, and demanded that the peasants perform various duties. Headed by elders -casics the population sometimes rioted against the new order, but without success. At the beginning of the XVII century. at the insistence of the Catholic Church, the system of encomiendas was abolished and replaced by the collection of tributo and other taxes directly in favor of the royal treasury.

Trade between the Philippines and Spain was limited, but in the Asian trade the archipelago occupied an increasingly prominent place thanks to the Chinese migrants huaqiao, whose number was increasing. At the end of the XVI century. Their colony in Manila numbered 10 thousand, and in the beginning of the XVII century. they were already 25 thousand. In time, the Chinese almost monopolized the entire Asian trade of the archipelago, which is not surprising. The rich and noble Spaniards were indignantly indifferent to this business (there was almost no Spanish bourgeoisie yet), and the local population, naturally, was not sufficiently prepared for this. It should be noted that the Chinese traders were not liked by either of them, although they could no longer do without their mediation. Taxes and duties the Chinese usually paid twice as much as other traders.

In the XVII century. complex international circumstances, including the wars in Europe, had an impact on the fate of the Philippines, being invaded by Dutch or English. The noticeable weakening of Spain in comparison with other colonial powers led to a slowed development of the archipelago. The colonial regime did not carry the country even what it had in some other colonies, as, for example, in India - the Dutch, and even more so in the British, even if it was agonizing, but fast enough and more or less successful economic development. On the contrary, primitive use of the labor of the population was strengthened. At the state corvee, everyone had to work 40 days a year.

Trying to somehow realize their colonial potentialities in the conditions of the vigorously developing world colonial economy, the Spaniards began to introduce in the Philippines a plantation monoculture of tobacco, the cultivation and trade of which was a state monopoly (local residents worked on these plantations in order of serving their duties). True, at the same time, the private commercial ties between the archipelago and the metropolis increased somewhat. However, until the end of the XVIII century. this did not lead to any noticeable economic development of the Philippines. Practically only from the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Spain had its own energetic bourgeoisie and the government could no longer resist the economic invasion of the archipelago of capital from other countries, the royal monopoly on tobacco and trade was abolished, and the private capitalist colonial economy began to develop. In the Philippines, began to grow sugar cane, hemp, indigo. The own national bourgeoisie, mainly Chinese and Métis of Chinese origin, gradually began to form. The formation of the national identity of the Filipinos, manifested in their desire to achieve formal equality in rights with the Spaniards, began to take shape.

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