Industrialization was a significant chapter of the world development affecting cultural, social, economical as well as architectural the life of the prior post-machine 20th century individuals. Industrialization revolution possessed a great impact taking over depends upon, but its great expansion also demanded a regular increase of factories shaping the commercial personality of the era. The urban environment now was presented with new building typologies the factories building areas that have been acting like poles of interest, areas were working and living was put together. This radical development relating to the surge of big towns resulted to a pattern described as commercial buildings equal to the concept of a їЅcommunal condenserїЅ within the greater city network. Regrettably, incorrect management, and loss of profit many parts of the entire world resulted to the decrease or even the death of Industrial Structures in a worldwide size. Cheaper labor, less expensive of materials and relocation of industries closer to their resources was some of the main factors that result to this sensation.
The idea of these buildings generation was a result of an easy growing development developing a productive making system which triggered the socioeconomic system. Over time this system started to decline and slowly result to the fatality or deactivation of some commercial building affecting the total amount of the socioeconomic system. So these building by dropping their value as social condensers now they become neutral places preserving their ex lover їЅ activated storage area and identity within their encircling environment.
The need to protect their architectural traditions during the past few calendar year derive both from their state, that helps and promotes the process of re-establishment through generous financial and other motives, but also from the private architects that have learned to respect and improve the value of architectural forms of past. Additionally, the wider consumer, the inhibiters and the users of the buildings, not only start to see the intimate and nostalgic aspect of traditional architecture, but also its practical and economic contribution in the modern way of life.
The import of new users in an existing shell constitutes a concern for the architects and technicians. The blend of new and old, the respect to the history but also to the satisfaction of modern efficient need determine the grade of result. їЅWhat we need is continuity. . . historical preservation is not sentimentality but a mental health necessity. We should figure out how to cherish history and also to preserve suitable old buildings. . . we must learn how to preserve them, much less pathetic museum portions, but by giving them new uses. їЅ (Ada Louise Huxtable)
The industrial structures constitute a specific category of constructions. Manufactured to fulfill the needs of market in the past, have lost their real effectiveness that is owed mainly to the restructure of the overall economy and deprived from a alternative use for a long time. Abandoned and demolished they degrade the surroundings in which these are placed and the same time these are threatened with demolition.
The industrial structures tend to be neglected because their industrial aesthetics. Nevertheless, they are really service providers of important historical first deposit and with their presence they have shaped the metropolitan landscape of the region. In previous couple of years, their value of history as well as the potential clients of economic progress that they give has been reevaluated. (Kizis, 2007)
The awareness of work in the factories has engaged the rise of big metropolitan areas in order to it acts and it accommodates the economically energetic population. (Sullivan, 2009)
The employees should leave their family so that they come to work in arrangement and city where the industries are found. (Sullivan, 2009)
In the Industrialized societies is present a structure of several members family members that is extended a lot of years that remained probably in the same place for generations. In the industrialized societies the nuclear family, that is constituted from only by the parents and their increasing children, predominates. Children that reach in the adultness will be more mobile plus they tend relocate where the work is accessible. The bonds of several users family become feebler. (Sullivan, 2009)
Industrialization make a lot of health problems. Problems such as noise, air, the pollution of waters, the poor diet, the dangerous musical instruments, the impersonal work, the isolation, the poverty, having less rooftop, and the misuse of substances. The problems of health in the industrially nations it is really as a lot of this is caused from the economic, communal, politicians, and ethnic factors as from pathogenic. The industrialization has become a important medical question worldwide.
History of industrialization and deindustrialization: the case study of Cyprus
Industrialization in Cyprus was a term that was early on introduced to locals because of the agriculture work. Following the BїЅ World warfare development in Cyprus occurred in a such increase way damaged from Europe and the general development generally. This development had not been only a turn into the technology but also a sociopolitical change because of the urbanism that was occurring in the island. It really is now enough time for change in life and parallel in architecture with the first modern building learn to look from young Cypriot architects that examined in another country. ( Pyla, 2009)
Never less the most crucial step to the ongoing increasing development in the island was the independence of the Cyprus Republic and the finish of the British isles colonialism. It is then where Cypriot becomes 3rd party in all sections such as economical and sociopolitical development. This fast progress happen in many sections of the world such as tourism, agriculture, industry. The need for public complexes become more and even more essential where the same time for industry with the needs of the state become bigger. Then we start observed the great types of modern structures in all sorts of buildings and especially the huge progress of industry in Cyprus. (Fereos, 2009)
What cause the decline and fatality of Industrial areas and Complexes in Cyprus ?
Globalization and inexpensive labor in other regions of the globe has resulted in the decline
- Cheaper Labour
- Lower cost of materials
- Industries are nearer to their resources
Industrial zones was initially positioned in green areas outside from the towns. Due to the fast growth development of the domestic areas these zones become included and part of these areas forcing those to relocate their position one of the society for several reasons.
The cultural heritage as a meaning was created n the recent centuries which describes objects, building or even areas which are essential for the modern society. This characteristic define them as considerations that your either reveal or represent pieces of the culture itself. For instance this heritage could be the historic monuments, some art work or even territories where there importance is stated as necessary and their protection, recovery and conservation are guidelines that need to completed from the existing world. A overdue corporation called їЅUNESCOїЅ experienced recently placed the scope of the coverage of this traditions by defining this heritage as їЅthe entire corpus of material signals їЅ either artistic or symbolic їЅ handed on by the past to each culture and for that reason, to the whole humankind. їЅ (Jokilehto. 2009. p1) This declaration shows how we all have the duty to respect and protect the traditions that was carried from our predecessor and need to go on another generation. This heritage belongs to every person from the smaller to larger part and their importance is reflected to the society itself.
- Authenticity, Integrity, Originality
As we visit a brief record of how preservation and restoration of the ethnic heritage originated through age ranges but with most significant in 18th and 19th century we understand that people had a distinctive goal: they value their heritage and they feel the need to protect their memory. The fact that several views and ideas was developed was due to many condition and largely about the understanding of what's original and genuine. If we start evaluate the word authenticity we see again that is are based on the Greek term (ea?t??) which mean my personal and Latin (autor) which means originator and authority. So we can conclude that this does not imply regardless to duplicate or add something. From the artistic perspective writer express that їЅthe authenticity of your masterpiece of design is a measure of truthfulness of the internal unity of the creative process and the physical realization of the work, and the consequences of its passage through traditional timeїЅ (Jokilehto. 2009. p. 296). This assertion show the partnership of the a genuine piece of art and its passing through time, where an important part will never stop to reveal its importance and memory space. Never less authenticity is also talk about as the opposite of duplicate and mimesis so one can say that the better for a reconstruction is to find a way to maintain the historical monumental parts of the building is a sense that they will keep their historical research through memory retaining their social importance in the culture as it was the day it was build.
Even though then we should discuss the meaning genuine which stress the actual fact the by repairing a building you can succeed to preserve once its original style. Understanding the several so this means given from the booklet we realize that genuine mostly send for the exterior skin of the building and what is being viewing from the users directing the materialistic area of the building. The issue that derive is ways to bring back a building without duplicating anything and the same time make add on and attachments that will assist this building to restart its life. The answer is given again through another term called integrity corresponding to the use and the technique a conservator use in order to include a proper solution without disturbing the building monumentality. Unfortunately any recovery will influence is a feeling the original face of the building but this will never stop to affect the buildings authenticity if its carried out with a proper and genuine use of the materials. Authenticity should be related always to the memory space of the building not only in conditions of look but also other conditions like its use through time. Like this conditions are really important to be evaluated from a conservator to be able to understand the building itself and can carry on into a repair that eventually generate a fresh function the so called a building in new adjustments. Modern architecture and by extend modern life can be included with in monuments and co-exist in an equilibrium where one will feedback to other reminding and informing the modern life for the predecessor. (Jokilehto. 2009. )
Definition of professional heritage
їЅIndustrial heritage involves the remains of commercial culture which can be of historical, technical, interpersonal, architectural or medical value. These remains contain buildings and equipment, workshops, mills and factories, mines and sites for handling and refining, warehouses and stores, places where energy is generated, transmitted and used, transportation and everything its infrastructure, as well as places used for social activities related to industry such as real estate, spiritual worship or education. їЅ
їЅIndustrial archaeology is an interdisciplinary method of studying all the evidence, material and immaterial, of documents, artefacts, stratigraphy and buildings, individuals settlements and natural and urban landscapes, designed for or by industrial processes. It creates use of these methods of inspection that are most suitable to increase understanding of the industrial past and present. їЅ
Renewal of use
The inevitable deterioration in which the buildings are published leads to the abandonment and the depreciation of construction of the building but also in the wider region where is situate.
The repair, reutilization or the imposition of building concerning with the improvement and the renewal of interior arrangement and the look of open public historical properties, renew their use, that contributes in the improvement of quality of life of residents and users of region. It offers the opportunity for the historical continuity of traditional practices and sociable facts. Moreover, it constitutes the means of passage from the traditional life-style in the most modern expressions. (Louvi, 2007)
In order to keep a building, it is essential that it adapt a new use. In the case where the first use is not neither the feasible neither desirable, import of new use contributes not only in the maintenance of building, but also the rebirth of surroundings generally.
Moreover, the restored buildings the help increase the quality of life of residents, given that they enrich the infrastructure of region. The brand new users are fascinated in the region and the probabilities for the financial expansion and the new ventures are upgraded.
The increase of sector of tourism and the necessity for a consider the qualitative tourism, have resulted in the use of traditional structures and her historical environment generally. Nevertheless, the new uses that are brought in have to be balance well very much in order to lead to exploitation of overall economy with travellers as social product that will lead afterwards to the export of his ethnic value.
The new uses are established and simultaneously add in the demographic character of region. It is thus essential is achieved the total amount between the various types of uses but also between your socio-economic groups of residents and the users that live or are in captivated in your community by these uses. The sociable polarization, that is to say the amount of big number of individuals of particular groups of population can bring about the creations of ghetto or the interest of rich people that replaces the initial residents. The public and monetary cohesion is vital for the viable growth of region. (Louvi, 2007)
What is Adaptive Reuse?
The adaptive re-use is the process that old set ups are designed for reasons apart from them initially meant. When the initial use of structure changes or it is necessary more, since with the older structures than the Industrial Trend, the architects have occasion to improve the initial procedure of structure, maintaining certain from the existing architectural details that render the building uniqueness.
The adaptive re-use, with the re-establish Brownfield, perceives from many as factor type in the maintenance and the reduced amount of ground of sum of sprawl. It really is better and environmental responsible to reutilize the older buildings more close to metropolitan cores than to support the new structure in the faraway regions Greenfield. ( Cantell, 2005)
- The commercial areas and properties have impressive architectural value. The re-establishment of old urban commercial neighborhoods or buildings is a question in the first collection modern urban expansion in the United States. A successful adoptive program of re-use may bring the redevelopment, the tourism of history, and the new lease of life in a community. ( Cantell, 2005)
- Sustainable Aspect
1) їЅ Recycling is a fundamental act in establishing lasting development. Recycling and reutilization are actions which are progressively natural and necessary on an individual and collective level. їЅ (Sherepeklis, 2009)
2) їЅOne of the main great things about reusing a vintage building is the retaining of the їЅEmbodied energy withinїЅ. That means that the energy involved in all the associated techniques when building (sourcing raw materials, manufacturing of materials and equipment, labor, transfer). їЅ (Sherepeklis, 2009)
3) їЅBy keeping this energy by itself, an architectonic job of reutilization is more sustainable and ecological that any other new construction project and most cost efficient in the long run. їЅ(Sherepeklis, 2009)
In one palm the modern needs require technology, sanitary or other of installations of enhancements and the rearrangement of interior or addition of interval. In the other hand, the present day materials and the techniques provide the procedure of re-establishment easier and more correct. But these alternations have occupied to be able to can be found or cannot correspond in the modern requirements, undermine often the value of history of creating.
These two facts now bring to us front from a problem: in order to keep up the cultural heritage that is designed in the structure of historical building with any cost, or to allow the domination of new use. An equilibrium between the traditions and the financial and utilitarian value should exist and been successful. But where precisely this line is found ? Each building has another type of value, the problems and the days of heritage. Consequently, each individual building should be judged different. (??їЅ????:2004)
The alternations in the original buildings tend to be essential in the order achieve the better functional planning and the satisfaction of new use also for the transfer of modern infrastructure. These alternations shouldn't influence the structural sufficiency of creating or the hierarchy of preliminary intervals. In addition the alternations shouldn't overcome the exceptional traditional quality features.
In certain situations it is vital are added the new volumes of construction in the overseas of traditional building. Any addition should respect and harmonize with the traditional building while together is recognizable, demonstrating the modern development.
Any additions in the interior or exterior of the historical building should be easily reversible and recognizable. The new elements should show their amount of construction rather than replicate traditional forms. (Kizis, 2007)
1) First category is that of monuments, buildings as museums of commercial archaeology could continue their life.
2) Second category is the situation of transfer of new uses in the old factory that requires the cohabitation of new businesses with some part of existing equipment and line of production.
3) Third category is only limited in the reuse of the properties existing fabric, contributing often in the maintenance of industrial panorama that characterizes big parts of places that experienced in the past related activity and progress. (Kizis, 2007)
Monuments and museums of Industrial Archeology
There is no doubt a superannuated factory, still left abandoned, which it stop to be fruitful and affective because its technology stop to aid it have its architectural fascination because of its old equipment and its own fabric which mention of its historicity personal information. Never less this building changes its condition of creation and economy to memory space of cultural traditions. It becomes subject matter of exploration of commercial archeology. So long as it fulfills the standards and certain requirements it becomes part of the cultural heritage of any contemporary society under the safety of the state of hawaii. This will indicate the culture of the civilization and its evolution through enough time.
Although an professional complex which it was sub urban now it becomes part of the urban fabric because of the ongoing growth of the town. Once this building was a communal condenser, as an fascination point for the worker of the professional landscape, now it becomes peculiar to its new environment.
It will be stiffness and with no sense if we take as granted that all discontinued industrial building should be conserved as cultural heritage museums. The reason it isn't only financial. The analysis and the record associated with an industrial building, to become maintained, should be carried out under specified conditions that will result to the selection of few representative examples of each period with primary goal the preservation of the commercial equipment. This will likely result to a total chain of industrial archeology samples that constitutes the annals of a location.
Never less this chain of cultural samples should be filled with the preservation of industrial buildings and concentrate their interest as industrial museums with their technological and specialized equipment. As effect this building can inhabit only a specific use which could be only the їЅmuseum of themselvesїЅ.
Although the new use of professional building to an industrial museum this can be a preservation of the existing building this also requires a series of enhancements and improvements either to its structural system or even to its technology. This improvements will ensure and create the proper conditions for the building in order to accommodate the new uses, based on the todayїЅs requirements. A few of these changes could be the structural and antisismic support, architectural changes that will support not only the new efficient requirements but also the mechanical and generally provides to the building the support to function as a modern day museum which almost certainly is not supported by the existing situation.
The job of the architectural discussion to the prevailing textile of the building should be the district contrast with the prevailing and genuine elements of the building. In a way we treat the building as a monument to be able to attain any misunderstandings and confusions of the users and guests of the building in the future use between the existing and the additional parts.
We have a lot of examples across the world of industrial buildings become museums of themselves. But I came across most interesting to show some examples of a country in the idea of cultural string of commercial archeology. The precise projects attempting to reflect the annals of the building and the same time the production line of the factory and its own products. The main axis of the presented exhibition is a quest through production range along the mechanical equipment using combined multimedia. The architectural composition neither tried out to show the new enhancements of in the prevailing building differentiate them either in materials and style.
The first research study that interest me as an industrial museum of its home was the of the open air museum of hydrokinetic organic in Dimitsana, Greece aside of hydrokinetic corn mill, tannery and gunpowder mill located next to the river Lousios. In the delicate restored labs the tourists developed an experiential marriage with the area between the performing mechanical equipment. Motivated through the thematic of the museum the visitors have the opportunity grasp with their own hands the flour of the corn which is milled in front of their sight and then continue to the next places where they can watch several educational films for the control of the gunpowder.
In the other side, another approach of an museum is the factory of petrol Industrial Building in Lesbo, Greece. The purpose of this full repair was the social arrangement the peripheral olive oil industry by emphasizing in the digital productions of representation. The visitors is subjected to presentations that will enable him to comprehend and conceive the functional part of the machines, ( such as vapor boiler, steam engine motor, motion axis, pressure engines ) and the process of crushing and compressing of the olives and then your division of oil with the steamer olive press.
Last however, not least example is the mud brick and pan tile manufacturer in Volos, Greece which in this circumstance the thematic way of the museum comes after the production range begin from the collection of soil till the ultimate product. The trip interest that used from the visitors is dependant on the production type of pan tiles and mud bricks where parallel the trip is enriched with several discoveries from the area. The users have also the possibility to get inform through moving explanatory models for the overall function of the imposing space that surrounds the mechanised equipment, the inactive belts and the pallets with the natural mud bricks and pan tiles. The rest of the museum thematic related with the history of the building situated in a unbiased space with natural architecture.
Small Museum coexist with new uses
The luck of the abandonment industrial properties that cannot reutilized or even restored as museum is obviously architecturally questioned for their future in order to involved them again in to the urban cloth and modern day life. This is the most the instances where if indeed they become museums they'll repeat them selves in a uninteresting way and also it would very wasteful for the state to aid such a strategy for most of them.
Never less this cases are cured with a different way that attempts to balance between the museum and the new uses. The answer is given with the repair of area of the mechanical equipment in combination of the reuse of the building cloth with complete new uses. This cohabitation of these two components will give the result of a little museum that is furnished with the new functions within the area of an industrial building or the.
Criticism through circumstance studies
There several examples of treating an professional building with this way where is some situations the result is good plus some other not so successful of the co existence of mechanical equipment and the new uses.
The research study of the reutilization of the old manufacturing plant їЅStrihnokaprouїЅ in Volos, Greece with the enclosure for the activities of the handicap individuals creates several questions and miss understandings from the users and visitors of the area. The issue that produced from the users was the difficulties of understanding the production line of the stock and the connection between your several mechanised parts that they are spread surrounding the building. And not just that the way the machines are being used for stands for several masterpieces and materials discloses that this test failed and the equioment that kept there to bring the ram of the building is distracting than inspiriting the activities of the inhibiters.
In the other hands one experiment that be successful to coexist collectively the mechanised equipment and the new uses was the museum or їЅRoman Sculpture in Centrale Electrica Monte MartiniїЅ in Rome. This example shows the parallel cohabitation of two exhibitions where in one palm is that of sculptures and the other those of the equipment. This case of museum is the one which doesnїЅt have that of commercial archeology but utilize it as a history. In this qualifications we start to see the one can see the mechanical equipment of the central vitality station. The new uses then is shown in a successful way as the continuation of the old uses as a habitant who use again its house їЅfurnishedїЅ with the existing equipment.
This example shows the importance of the choosing the new uses for this kind of buildings and the preservation and coexistence of elements of the mechanised equipment. From the moment that these mechanised equipment is preserved just to enhance or supplement the new uses they become underestimated or even become burlesque. There are a lot of pubs, higher institutes and ethnic centers that use these mechanised equipments as attractive components for his or her spaces in transformed industrial complexes.
Reuse of industrial building fabric
Following these issues the other can wonder when there is any sense to truly have a pass on exhibition of mechanised equipment throughout the restored building were the practical approach ought to be the house of new functions these building may offer as a building cloth. The conservation of the building cloth could the previous chance to save lots of industrial properties in new uses. The explanation for not demolishing them to be able to give their spot to a new modern day building for the needs of the location is their architectural value and their importance as symbols of recollection, landmarks.
Therefore their architectural interest is targeted in their industrial landscape in addition to the buildings that give also the character to area around them that will usually recall to the memory and history of the creation with no need to educate them with museum techniques.
Thereby the reuse associated with an industrial scenery should try to the conservation of the ram of the place taking account that this place should work as a їЅlandmarkїЅ. But we have to be cautious again not replicate the above concern that may be created of restoring an industrial building and settle it as a attractive thing within its urban context.
Case Analysis Tate Modern
Importance of Technological and technical equipment in Industrial Buildings
Old industrial Complexes characterized as historical buildings when they may actually have great architectural value. Nerveless today is strongly believed and acknowledge that this complexes host also another important ethnical element, that of the complex equipment. This ethnic component reveal the continuously effort of individual resolving basic needs such as inspection on the answer and improvement of the grade of life. Technical culture is always interwoven with the individuals evolution and its own record and research is become area of the background of technology. We must realize that commercial models with great structures is the pot of a creation series with the support of this technical support and the individuals as the administrator and controller of these. This equipment then could be characterized as the living organism of the building that function with only goal the development of goods. If we remove this equipment from the building then is similar to we remove the soul of the building, building a neutral space which was originally shaped to hold this equipment.
The network of this scientific equipment then is becoming a great source of understanding of not only how this building was functioning and producing goods but also notify us for other activities such as politics, communal and financial conditions, working place, rights and legal content, environment and ecological conditions, geological conditions and key resources, etc.
Research on the technical equipment will go up several prices such as technological, technical, structural, cosmetic, ecological and financial.
- Scientific values, because of the investigation and application of modern-day knowledge on physics, mathematics, chemistry and other sciences.
- Specialized and structural values because each and every time we have technology of new materials, methods and techniques.
- Aesthetic values because of the appearance of machines that sometimes mimesis from mother nature ( snail ), were in the newer machines we have variation on colouring, minimization of scale, aerodynamic shapes or extreme styles that was prototypes for that period.
- Ecological values due to the concern of lessening the blare and emissions, overall economy on energy, use of dangerous elements and recycle materials.
- Financial worth with main aim the reduced amount of cost of creation that is actually the main issue for a product and general a small business to make it through.
- Locate and record of professional equipment
- Immediate security of equipment for further damage
- Research and documentation
- Analysis and additional proposals
The conservation of the mechanical equipment in their original settlement should the main aim in order to create a complete and successful image of an professional archeology building. Never less another similarly important target should be efficient restoration of the gear and therefore we are trying to reutilize them as much as possible. Where ever this isn't feasible we find choice ways to utilize them as educational components promoting the historicity of the space with choice ways such as pictures, digital representations and physical models.
- It is necessary that each higher institute should promote and inform the annals of technology and the nomination of the historical equipment in virtually any level.
- This can be achieved only with the interdisciplinary cooperation with primary goal the study and shaping of proposals that should focus only on the preservation and repair of professional archeology structures.
The circumstance of CharlieїЅs Delicious chocolate Stock like Energy Center
The selection for the research study was the special treatment and methodology that decide for the future luck of the building. The controversy formerly was if the Dangli Electricity Plant worthy of to being conserved or conserved ? This questions increased up due to the reason that the factory generators was build in several stages started in 1930s but do not continue to be at Dangli Vitality Flower, but there still stay the two 2 generators built-in 1969 and the last 1971. This generators will complete their life time as generators in 2012.
Never less the generators have sufficient architecturally attractive elements such as grid formed frames of structures and a active flow produced from the pipelines. And yes it is acknowledge the traces of the 3 prior generators, staying the bunk petrol petrol and the ceaselessly connecting pipelines.
The focus on was establish to be achieve was how this organic of industrial devices can be advanced and exactly how this value as living environment be boosted once ? The answer originated from the idea of how this building could be relate to history not as landmark of its environment but as landmark for real human kind. The proposal arrived of the crisis due to the environment change and the restrictions on the petrol usage and carbon emissions. In such a sense the most assured new function emerge as essential was the Danli Ability Plant as an energy centre that conducts thorough research, evaluation and production to handle problems of the nation.
As long as the need was to make a research energy middle in an existing power vegetable generator building this should also be created as a full time income space than can organically relate with the lives of the residents. This space should be altered into an area where people can view and enjoy the vitality production process. It is anticipate that Dangli Vitality Flower will be transformed into a full time income space obviously encapsulating the historical and ethnical environment, alternatively than becoming a cultural space without the regional orientation and historical contex.
The historical professional complexes constitute a unique sample of our own industrial heritage, from architectural, constructional and technological perspective, that they consist, the vital bits of collective memory of places. Therefore any design for the exploitation and their management should value and value their figure. The suggested uses must have multifunctional use and become addressed with active way in the town, so that becomes possible the reutilization of any monumental totality from the residents and results the desired continuity as їЅcultural condensersїЅ from the past through today's and the near future.
Case Analysis: EPA Brownfields Program Financing Opportunities
Case Study: Massachusetts Brownfields Act
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