As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
• The concept of statistics;
• types of statistical sources;
• features of collecting and processing statistical information;
• Features of studying statistical sources;
be able to
• Identify the complexes of statistical materials characterizing various aspects, phenomena and processes of historical reality;
• evaluate the potential of a statistical source;
• set and solve the task of extracting and analyzing information from statistical sources;
• The methodology of systematization and analysis of statistical data for the purposes of a specific study.
Key terms and concepts: statistics, types of statistics , source of statistical information, statistical information processing methods, statistical features, statistical accounting, statistical observation, statistical reviews , census, report, survey, demographic statistics, population accounting, agrarian statistics.
The concept of statistical sources
Statistics is a type of activity aimed at obtaining, processing and analyzing information characterizing the quantitative laws of society in all their diversity (technical, economic, socio-political, cultural phenomena and processes) in an indissoluble connection with its qualitative content. Thus, statistics refers to the collection of digital data, their generalization and processing.
As follows from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, statistics (German statistik, from Italy stato, latelat. status - state) is this:
1) the type of social activity aimed at obtaining, processing and analyzing information characterizing the quantitative patterns of society's life in all its diversity (technical-economic, socio-economic, socio-political phenomena, culture) in indissoluble connection with its qualitative content ;
2) the social sciences (and its corresponding disciplines), which outlines the general issues of measuring and analyzing mass quantitative relationships and relationships.
It is believed that the scientific term statistics was introduced in 1746 by the German scientist Gottfried Achenwelle.
The result of statistics as an activity type is statistics as a kind of source.
Statistics - a document containing a series of numerical characteristics describing some processes and phenomena.
Statistics - the final document, which is created according to certain rules based on a pre-collected large amount of material, i.e. based on the aggregate of primary sources. Sources of statistical information are a complex of mass documents, they are compiled according to the developed program of statistical research, have a uniform form and uniform principles of filling (for more details on mass sources see 3.7).
Statistics as a source is always a construct whose content is the result of processing statistical indicators and depends on the tasks posed in the analysis of data.
Distinctive features of the statistical source:
- the document is the result of a lot of preliminary work, usually a team of performers;
- contains quantitative information about the studied objects and mass phenomena;
- is created for the purpose of fixing, controlling and analyzing processes;
- Usually presented as tables;
- the information presented in the statistics is anonymous, not personified, often does not have textual support, which allows one to interpret the information of the source unequivocally or from the context;
- statistics are processed using a special statistical apparatus and mathematical statistics methods.
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