STUDYING HISTORY AS A STUDY OF CULTURE
As a result of studying the material, the student must:
• The reasons for the conversion of historical science to the study of culture;
• features of the emergence of various directions for studying culture and intellectual history;
• what constitutes the subject and content of cultural anthropology, intellectual history, memory studies and other directions;
• what affected the impact of related sciences on the study of culture;
• The relationship between history and historical memory
be able to
• determine the place of the directions described in the research practice of representatives of the New Historical Science;
• Disclose the notion of discourse;
• explain the relationship between historical science, historical politics and public history;
• explain the problem of the hermeneutic circle;
• explain the dynamics of development of these areas in the development of modern historical knowledge;
• principles of critical comprehension of the methodology of these directions;
• the basis of hermeneutical interpretation of texts;
• The basics of using public history.
Keywords: cultural anthropology, evolutionism, functionalism, thick description, discourse, historical concepts, intellectual history, history of ideas, history of philosophy, intellectual heritage, intellectual complexes, memory studies, historical politics, public history, historical hermeneutics, hermeneutic circle.
By cultural anthropology is understood the scientific direction that studies the life and history of people in the context of culture in a broad sense, primarily as a system of ideas, attitudes, values and norms, perceptions, patterns of behavior and perception of the surrounding reality.
The key principle in cultural anthropology is, first of all, the consideration of all processes through the prism of their perception by man and society. At the same time they are both sources of culture, and an object of cultural influence. The main goal of cultural anthropology is to reveal the meanings, meanings and causes of people's behavior, the origins of the formation of their assessments and landmarks, their attitude to the surrounding cultural environment. In American science the term cultural anthropology is adopted, in the European (especially English) the term social anthropology is used in a similar sense.
In connection with different approaches in national historiographic schools, various interpretations of the concept "cultural anthropology" arise. For example, there are discussions about how it relates to the ethnology of the science of studying ethnic cultures. These scientific directions can be identified (both there and in the center of attention - cultures and their influence on the society and the individual) or considered completely different directions (cultural anthropology studies universal human cultural institutions, and ethnology - local ethnic cultures).
The time of the emergence of cultural anthropology as a separate direction is considered to be the 1870s. (since 1879 it is taught at US universities, since 1884 - at Oxford University in England). During this period, it was closely associated with ethnology and the study of primitive cultures. It grew out of evolutionism, which will primarily study primitive, primitive societies. For example, the British anthropologist Fraser (1854-1941) wrote 12 volumes of fundamental work "The Golden Branch" (The Golden Bough), collecting a huge amount of material on primitive magic, religious beliefs, folklore and customs of different nations.
Levi-Bruhl (1857-1939) created the theory of primitive thinking, defining it as a prelogical one. This was a principle discovery: before Levi-Bruhl, the thesis was dominated by the thesis that human thinking, once born (together with a person), did not change in principle. Levi-Bruhl proved the existence of primitive people of a different type of thinking - mystical, based on the symbolic perception of the world. From the concept of different types of thinking followed the fundamental for cultural anthropology position on the difference of cultures, the need for their comparative analysis, the dialogue of cultures.
The following theory, which had a great impact on cultural anthropology, became functionalism - understanding of culture as a collection of elements, each of which performs its function (the formation of values, motives, communicative abilities, needs, etc.).
In the second half of XX century. cultural anthropology is influenced by new theories and approaches. One of them can be called imagology - a scientific direction that studies the creation, functioning and interpretation of images of "other", "other", "foreign". Learning about your and foreign was closely connected with the study of human identity - social, political, cultural, national, etc. There were, as mentioned earlier (see paragraph 2.3), the concepts of endoidentity (self-identity) and exoidentity (ie, stable representations of others about the identity of a social object).
A special role here was played by the research of Edward Said (1935-2003), who demonstrated the prospect of studying the notion of "another" as ideas about himself. His book Orientalism (1978), in which this approach is applied to the study of the formation of the image of the West (self-image) through the image of the "other" - the image of the East, beginning with the Crusades and ending with the era of colonialism. "Recognizing the East is the process by which the West recognizes itself," Said claimed. In the other image At the same time, all negative characteristics that do not want to see themselves are placed. The image of the other is formed as an anti-image of himself, for example, the East as an image of Antiepropy.
At the end of XX century. The concept of thick description , the "rich description", whose appearance is associated with the works of the Englishman Gilbert Ryle (1900-1976) and especially the American Hyrza (1926 2006) a special direction of interpretative anthropology. Hirz's views are reflected in a series of his articles that can be grouped thematically into blocks: "Religion as a cultural system", "Ideology as a cultural system", "Art as a cultural system"; and "Common sense as a cultural system". Hirtz proposed in the study of culture to create the most dense, rich description of the cultural context of human existence with an analysis of the symbolic meaning of all objects of material and spiritual culture that are part of this context. Then we get a whole picture and we can hope that we have not missed important factors that affect human behavior and the development of culture.
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