Sumerian Empire And The Akkadian Empire History Essay

The age change dividing the Sumerian Empire and the Akkadian Empire was a turning point in the aspects of unlawful justice and current regulations. The creation of the Code of Hammurabi became a long enduring, severe code of laws and regulations developed during King Hammurabi's reign (1792 - 1750 B. C. ). Although Code of Hammurabi was developed after the fall of both empires, many rules were brought from those eras plus some lead way to laws and codes in criminal justice today. Development, current effect, social regulations, religion, and crime are addressed to the full extent.

Literature Review

Between 2900 and 2350 B. C. , the Sumerian Empire thrived in Southern Mesopotamia. This time became known as the first Dynastic. There is a distinct politics division between competing city-states. These city-states were under the control of a whole dynasty of rulers. In about 2350 B. C. , the town of Agade, of Akkad, brought down competitor Sumerian city-states by means of conquest. Semitic monarchs of the spot united these city-states.


During the time of the Akkadian Empire, there started out to be always a strong concentrate on certain rules and laws. We were holding a very tight set of codes place with punishments for the folks of the Akkadian Empire who did not obey. These laws and regulations were known as the Code of Hammurabi. Although were visible in Akkad, the Code of Hammurabi was not developed through the peek time of the Akkadian Empire. The Code of Hammurabi is thought to be the oldest group of known law rules. The code was written by a Babylonian king, Hammurabi, at the beginning of his reign (1792-1750 B. C. ).

Akkadian Empire

The Akkadian Empire succeeded from around 2350 - 2150 B. C. The empire peeked to it's highest point under reign of Naram-Sin (around 2260 - 2223 B. C. ). The empire extended as significantly north as Anatolia, east to Iran, south to Arabia, so when far western as the Mediterranean. The Akkadian Empire became known and known for its new creative imagination and an art form that would reflect harsh ethnical continuity,

After the death of Naram-Sin, the empire was handled by his successor, Shar-Kali-Sharri. This occurred around 2223-2198 B. C. Shar-Kali-Sharri appeared to have a solid control over Akkad before end of his reign. Challenging for vitality of the throne seemed to happen. This downfall helped bring upon a re-establishment of several independent cities in Southern Mesopotamia. The empire that once seemed to continue to grow shrank back off to Akkad and the cities directly surrounding areas. The Sumerian city of Ur revolted as the Akkadian Empire dropped and Sumerian city-states started to reappear.


The Akkadian Empire is generally thought to be the declare that grew around the town of Akkad. The Akkadians were a Semitic speaking group. The Akkadian Empire was located on the Arabic Peninsula. There language became the main words for diplomacy and commerce through Mesopotamia. The town of Akkad was located immediately north of Sumer, where the Sumerian Empire was proven. The Akkadian Empire was located on one of the very most fertile planes on the world. It was located on the alluvian simple of Southern Mesopotamia. Ruler Sargon of the Akkadian Empire proven all people from Southern Mesopotamia into one strong central talk about. This empire business lead for an important role in the building of culture, commercial routines, and public organizations of the whole region.


The terminology of the Akkadian's became the terms of commerce and diplomacy for the millennium after Sargon's reign. The Akkadian dialect gave way to an understanding of certain translations of the Hebrew of the Bible. Akkadian artifacts have helped in a few ways to contextualize Hebrew religion and society. Documents have been recently found out from the Akkadian period on cuneiform clay tablets. The change to pictographs and hieroglyphics from cuneiform was an important change that's not usually obvious at first glance. Cuneiform aided in the enlargement of literacy, federal government regulations, and power for a open public that was becoming more and more literate. These articles have helped track down the Hebrew religious beliefs and culture in a larger context. It's been stated the Akkadian's thrived for a more peaceful single world in which discussions and trade would help all get-togethers prosper.


The Akkadians worshipped a temple of several Gods. The Akkadian gods were considered to have a human being form, meaning they had some-what human thoughts. They were thought to be wise, foolish, and sometimes even furious. Each god played out a new role in the Akkadian Empire. Each could be related to a part of nature and in the end got complete control over the times of year. There was a sky-god, an air-god, sun-god, a moon-god, etc. King Sargon was regarded as the agent of the gods plus they ruled through him.

People were created in the Akkadian Empire to serve the gods. It's been mentioned that ethics were not a concern by any means for Akkadian gods. Girl seemed to play a large part in Akkadian faith and really should have been reputed for it. It is also been said that Sargon's mother was regarded as a temple prostitute. One of the most dazzling of gods and goddesses is Ishtar, she was thought to protect prostitutes and alehouses. Some even described her as "Queen of the Universe".


The Akkadians became an intelligent group, taking into consideration the era of time in which they existed. Akkadians developed a street system that bound together the complete empire. A postal service originated for the empire employing this very system of streets. Instead of stamps, however, a clay seal would be there and on that seal could be the labels of both Sargon and his son. It's a possibility that the first collection of astronomical observations also came from a catalogue that Sargon himself developed.

Collapse of the Akkadian Empire

The fall of the Akkadian Empire appeared to be as sudden and unpredicted as its surge. Naram-Sin known of the battle the Akkadians struggled the people of Ararat. Many facts of the collapse of the Akkadian Empire are mysterious. It's mysterious if Sargon and Manishtushu fought alongside Naram-Sin in the conflict. Multiple wars were noted by Naram-Sin prior to the street to redemption of the Akkadian Empire. Very little is known from the time of the fall of Akkadian Empire until around 2100 B. C. E. . The Babylonian Civilization followed the Akkadian Empire.

Lex Talionis

After the development of the Code of Hammurabi, it's punishments became more dominant and required. The Code of Hammurabi was predicated on a need for punishments to match the crimes that were committed. This is when the lex talionis became popular, which translates to "eye for an eye". However, the code provided different punishments for different communal classes. Such as in the code 8 it's mentioned, " If anyone steal cattle or sheep, or an ass, or a pig or a goat, if it belonged to a god or to the judge, the thief shall pay thirty collapse; if indeed they belonged to a freed man of the Ruler he shall pay tenfold; if the thief has nothing at all with which to pay he will be put to death". This is a prime example of the effects interpersonal class got on punishments in the Code of Hammurabi.

Not only do the Code of Hammurabi use the eye for an eye idea, but also teeth for a tooth etc. It came out the code was created to be good and identical by matching offences with and equally horrible punishment, however, there is still a huge inequality when facing communal course, gender, morality, and overall equality. Many thought of the code by have Sumerian soul but acquired such a harshness to it that must have been Babylonian influenced.

Code of Hammurabi and Western Virginia State Laws

Almost every code mixed up in Code of Hammurabi seems to be over whelming and very tough. Lex talionis (eye for an attention), is very relevant in this code of laws and regulations. In a few ways, the attention for an eye concept is still found in the judge and justice systems today.

In the Code of Hammurabi, Code 14 mentioned, " If a guy has stolen the son of your freeman, he will be put to death". In the United States, kidnapping is also still taken very seriously, perhaps not very seriously enough, but a loss of life penalty for this crime is exceptional if at all possible. The general abuse for kidnapping in the express of West Virginia is one to fifteen years in a state correctional facility.

In the Code of Hammurabi, Code 152 expresses, "If from enough time that that girl entered in to the house of the man a personal debt has come upon them, both collectively they shall answer the merchant". This code is a lot more sensible than others in the Code of Hammurabi. However, West Virginia state legislations 6-49 claims, " The legislature shall pass such regulations as may be essential to protect the property of married women form the obligations, liabilities, and control of their husbands". These two codes seem to look hand-in-hand by proclaiming that when there is a debt along after matrimony you are both liable, otherwise it isn't your responsibility for just about any previous debts that may have happened.

In the Code of Hammurabi, code 21 state governments, "If a guy has broken into a residence, one shall destroy him before the breach and bury him in it". Western Virginia presently has a legislation in effect for Burglary ( 61-3-11) stating that punishment shall be one to a decade in a restricted penitentiary.


The climb of the Akkadian Empire proved to be a turning point in world history. The Akkadians shown a new away look on religion and art varieties. The Code of Hammurabi was which is a crucial area of the legal justice system. The lex talionis, eye for an vision, played an enormous role in the Code of Hammurabi. Although they aren't a similar, many of the Codes of Hammurabi can be harmonized with current Western Virginia express and USA laws. The Code of Hammurabi is one of the initial known law rules. It exhibited a harsh new way of willpower where every abuse must match the nature of the criminal offense. For instance, if a guy were to take off someone's arm, his arm too will be cut off. The methods of the code were an efficient and effective form of consequence for quite some time. However, other codes and laws were eventually developed which were less harsh and required fewer loss of life penalty's for petty crimes. This helped condition and mold the criminal justice system we have in place today. However, I really do consider there may be things to learn from it in the criminal justice and courtroom systems today.

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