Philosophically, the complete Earth is a mosque and by this rule namaz will be complete wherever performed. Primarily there is no specific building to disperse the note of Islam. The Muslim Arabs, being nomads, possessed a minimum procedure and preclude the utilization of permanent structures and everything they possessed needed to be demountable and lightweight. Thus there was no specific edifice consequently. Only a rectangular area designated out with a line used the sand was sufficient for communal prayer. Really the only basic necessity was that one part of the square experienced to handle Mecca to indicate the route of the prayer.
Knowing the importance of the mosque to the faith of Islam today it is quite unusual to listen to the ironic report behind its evolution. Right away, monotheistic religions like Islam were against the idea of building specially designed to house the faithful for prayer.
The mosques (practically meaning host to prostration), are the Centre of spiritual life throughout the Muslim World and evolves among the major types of religious architecture. In another of its most evolved forms, it has a number of minarets, arches, domes and is also often furnished with intricate tracery and Arabic calligraphy from the Koran. The evolved mosque varieties are regarded as some of the finest structures in Islamic architecture. The mosque is the sole building type, which includes spread throughout the entire Muslim world, from the beginning of the faith in 610 A. D.
A mosque is a building, where Muslims congregate to pray. Mosques can be small, at a neighborhood range or large, at the town/ city level. Such as a area mosque or they can be large and utilized by Muslims of a large town, or city. The large mosque is called a Jami Mosque. Jami means Juma or Friday. All Muslims are required to pray mutually every Fri at midday and the large mosques were designed for this function. Mosque is utilized for worship usually for which there's a hall and open up court, but could also have other functions like this of a Madarsa, a school for education and a community middle. It contains many architectural elements like, minaret, arch, dome, color, calligraphy and other ornamental forms ornamenting the areas.
Like all the liturgical edifice, the mosque has a standardized set up of components, which differ in accordance with how big is the prayer (i. e. whether it's for prayer for a person or congregation-small/ large). There's a demarcated space, partly roofed and partially open to sky, varying in proportions and form, from region to region depending on the harshness of the local climate. The roofed part is the prayer hall, rectangular or square in plan, supported by a trabeated framework or arcuated framework.
The Prayer hall must have one wall facing Mecca (Qibla wall) with a niche or group of niches (Mihrab), which is the central & most decorated part of every mosque. The pulpit (Minbar) consisting of steps of varying elevation is stationed to the right of the mihrab and the imam during Fri prayer delivers the oration (Khutba) from it. The minbar is however absent in smaller mosques. A wooden system (dikha) of sole storey height is positioned based on the Mihrab. From there the respondents (qadi) of the mosque do it again the ritual postures of the imam and present their response. Next to the Dikha, the lectern (kursi) is positioned which the Quran rests.
Another most necessary feature of several mosques is this particular pool or fountain designed for the approved ritual of ablutions (wazu) prior to the prayer. The five times daily demand prayer (azan) is observed from the minaret, a tower like framework, originally portion as more of a local landmark. A site is created as a general attribute of the structures of the Islamic world as the concealment of the interiors of your building from outside the house view. Thus, most mosques are ornamented by high wall surfaces.
With reference to architectural elaboration, the art of writing is taken up to more impressive range of visual appearance in mosque structures. Certain calligraphic scripts are being used in the Qibla wall and direct concentration, aiding substantiate the religious importance of the mosque. The writing often estimates from the Quran or is information about the contractor of the mosque.
Another function is geometric habits and vegetal forms used in monitors (jali) and as surface ornamentation. Geometric habits result from taking a simple form and replicating/ stretching it in a variety of directions to arrive at the final. The patterns in their dizzying and unending configurations connote unity in God.
In the present time, modern mosques designs have been changed according to newer systems and simple building construction. How big is mosque has been decreasing due to lack of space in locations. The main components of the mosque have been reduced and elements have lost their original interpretation and serve as icons. The geometric patterns rich with interpretation are devalued to mere design.
The architecture of mosque has been changing to modern, to modern-day but to what end?
1. 2 Research Question:
How do local/ regional/ vernacular architecture affect mosque architecture in the past and how/ how come the modern day mosque differ from the traditional mosque?
1. 3 NEED IDENTIFICATION
In society the mosque dished up as the solitary most important obvious representation of identification and value. More mosques are being built today than any liturgical edifice of other religion. However for a framework representing one religion and a specific body of people, it is strange that it should be so varied however you like and divergent in beauty. The reason for this lies in the mosque located in various parts of the globe representing different perspectives of different clients. Each mosque is differing in customs, weather, building materials, local condition of character and diverse visual and communal requirements.
As students of architecture and representing a Muslim region from India, I promote a keen affinity for Islamic Structures. And since the mosque lies at the very heart of Islamic architecture, there's a feeling of a good greater need to review this specific composition. Due to time and space constraints, there are certain limitations; hence, I am going to focus on modern Mosques Delhi parts as primary case studies.
The structures of the modern mosque is much at variant in comparison to the mosque of days gone by scheduled to globalization, advanced technology, trend to go towards sky scheduled to insufficient ground space, the utilization of architectural elements as icons and reduction of patterns as surface adornments.
1. 4 OBJECTIVES
To track the development and follow along different proven types of mosques, beginning with Early Islamic period in the 7th century times.
To identify the basic principles behind the precise vocabulary of the mosque.
To review symbolic and practical attributes of the mosque and its own evolution.
To review various differences in space settings, built expression, materials, elements /components and technology between modern and traditional mosque.
1. 5 SCOPE
This dissertation is not planned as a historical review of Islamic mosque architecture and therefore will not include all the fine monuments, which exist. The foundation and development of the mosque would be understood only to have the bearings to analyze contemporary cases. The general record of the introduction of Islam in Arab, India and the mosque varieties that advance henceforth would be reviewed briefly to create a context.
From vernacular mosque form, the switch is to, what is built now- what's the vernacular of today? And therefore what goes on to the mosque and is also the utilization of symbols necessary to have the ability to identify the building as a mosque?
1. 6 LIMITATIONS
It is not possible to study all the mosque structures of all Islamic parts under the given time frame. Therefore, the analysis is limited to mosques in India concentrating on the Northern region with a brief analysis of the modern mosque outdoors India.
As result of time and space constraints, mosques of the entire Indian sub-continent will not be discussed at length but only to form the entire context, with quick analysis of mosques of the South, East, Western world, and North. Detail bank account of the history of the main one region is beyond the scope of the dissertation, thus only relevant bits of their history will be pointed out.
The focus will be on determined mosques, which indicate the most prototypical form of particular intervals of the respective region. Thus, just a few mosques will be reviewed which become indicators of that particular architectural form.
1. 7 METHODOLOGY
The first rung on the ladder is to investigate the topic and determine what course this dissertation can take, and what the author wants to come up with at the end of it, the outcome may be documents, a detailed examination, or a couple of solutions. The locations selected for the study are not easily accessible and this dissertation will rely mainly on books survey from secondary sources rather that from most important data for major sections of the work.
Primary data would be gathered through site visits limited to mosques in Delhi and discourse with experts. Extra sources include books survey.
This entails data collection, reading and understanding books from various resources like SPA (New Delhi) libraries, Jamia Milla Islamia Architecture catalogue and the internet. Analysis of aspect of open places, the role of wide open places in the mosque and role of shut down spaces is known. Following the collation process, another level would be, organized representation of data.
Interaction With Experts
This involves judgment of varied architects, discussion in what is happening in India and contact with other related issues, along with discourse on primary case studies. Identifying issues, talk on various issues and examining their opinion could be the major tasks.
Primary Data collection
Methodology for the study of Delhi mosque structures:
A brief bill of the mosque architecture in Delhi is vital to contextualize the primary studies, as these were the immediate sources for what is going on now. The first mosque developed in 11th century in Delhi by the Slave dynasty. Each changing stage will be examined by firmly taking the significant mosque of that period. Though an individual visit would be produced to these sites, information will be obtained through books survey also. The mosques of modern-day times would be the principal study, with an entire research of the determinants of form. The procedure for case studies:
Selection of circumstance studies of new mosque buildings.
Collection of information- basic plan and maps demonstrating site encircling areas, site boundaries, built mass and visible readings of mosque as landmark, materiality and building elements.
Analysis of the chosen case studies.
IV. Survey technique for circumstance studies
Few case studies of modern-day mosques of Delhi are considered- you are under construction and the other mosques have been around in use for significant amount of the time. This dissertation includes review through conversation with the people who are users of the mosque.
The drawing and other important data would be accumulated from the architect's office. All images are taken at the site.
After doing all circumstance studies final result are drawn and recommendations are made for design strategies of the future mosque structures.
With the help of three types of mosques, which are built in different schedules, I want to illustrate that architecture of mosques is in a process of complete transformation because global culture and technology is constantly impacting it, along with highlighting what helps maintain steadily its identity.
V. Examination of circumstance studies
Built /wide open spatial - spatial configuration (due to basic needs of religion itself)
Purpose and use of space.
Visual expression of mosque- includes massing, elements, surface elaboration and materiality.
Chapter - 2 EARLY ISLAM
2. 1. Background OF ISLAM TO BE A RELIGION
Islam started in Arabia, where the revelation was initially received by the Prophet, but distributed rapidly one of the Persians and Black colored Africans, and soon thereafter among Turks, Chinese language, Indians, and a great many other ethnic groups.
Muhammad was created in the location of Mecca in 570 CE. At that time, people were active using their business, market segments were congested with nomads and residents similarly, investing goods. His parents passed on when he was 6 years old. He cared for by his grandfather, and uncle, Abu Talib and finally became head of the Hashim clan.
Young Muhammad was a camel drivers and roamed the peninsula along with his uncle, to learn about various civilizations and religions including Christianity and Judaism. As idol worship had come to dominate Mecca, this contact turned out to be significant for later times. The Ka'bah itself housed many idols, including those representing the three main goddesses.
He continued travelling in Arabia, encountering different faiths and customs, but riches didn't meet Muhammad and he developed foes in Mecca. Therefore, he made a decision to leave Mecca. And he started a quest. This quest was known as the Hijri.
Muhammad found its way to Medina as the new head, bearing tremendous tasks. While getting communication from God and instructing his devotees, he had to safeguard Islam from opposition and find a peaceful answer to the local feuds. He was able to unite the feuding clans through his teachings - the Jewish and Muslims prayed collectively.
First time the prayer was read in the course of Jerusalem, and after some years the prayer was read towards Mecca rather than Medina, as Muhammad instructed. For this reason some followers turned against Muhammad, plus they created another group. Violence erupted, stopping in the expulsion of some Jewish tribes from Medina.
He established a fresh community along with his followers and commenced raiding caravans destined for Mecca. These sorts of raids weren't uncommon at that time, and they provided sustenance for the Muslims. This angered the Meccans, and a series of battles adopted. Despite a few setbacks, the Muslims gained electricity and recognition. After destroying or transforming his tribal foes, Muhammad controlled the whole Arabian Peninsula.
Finally, in 629 CE, Mecca published to the Muslims. Muhammad joined the city and headed right to the Ka'bah. After circling it seven times, he smashed the stone idols. He spoke of the oneness of God, or Allah, and proclaimed himself a prophet.
The pass on of Islam took place in waves. In less than a century following the establishment of the first Islamic culture in Medina by the Prophet, Arab armies conquered a land stretches from the Indus River to France and brought with them Islam, which, contrary to popular Traditional western conceptions, had not been, however, compelled on the folks by the sword.
Periods of Islamic history
Mosques were built outside the Arabian Peninsula as Muslims resolved in other parts of the world. Egypt became occupied by Muslim Arabs as soon as 640 AD. Islamic architectural record can be around divided in to three main cycles, during which one or more traditions were dominant: the first Islamic (650-1050), which may be called the age of Arab Dominance; the center Islamic (1050-1450), the age of Iranian Dominance; and the later Islamic (1450-1850), the age of Turkish and Indian Dominance.
2. 2 Origin and development of mosque
It is a peculiar face of record that the Muslim custom of architecture, productive of some of the world's exceptional monuments, was first patronized by a people, the Arabs, who had none but the crudest notions of building. For them the best possible architecture was a tent. Inside the starting of Islam, the Kaaba possessed only four walls in 608. In age the orthodox Caliphs (632-661), the eras brought little or nothing architectural to the conquered countries beyond what would serve their orthodoxy than by their preference. The building of their own time ware utilitarian, without architectural pretense, and contains mosques (Basra, 638-639; kufa, 638-639; and fustat, 642) and administration buildings.
The first mosque was built-in Mecca. This area was encircled by pre Islamic structures. The Kaaba mosque is the holiest structure of Islam. The initial mosque is Prophet Mohammad house in Medina which was built in 622CE. This qibla wall structure was facing toward the course of Jerusalem. Mohammad house is situated left part of the qibla wall. There have been three entrances into the courtyard. The courtyard area was roofed, and the prayer was performed here. After one or one and half years, the qibla wall direction was changed, and was designed to face in the direction of Mecca, as it is today.
The Medina mosque acquired social, political and judicial functions, in addition to being the home of the Mohammad family. The religious functions were merged with other functions. Rules of the accomplishing prayer were not decided that point. And in the Koran, the guidelines was not given till now.
In addition to early on mosques of Medina and Mecca, now the cities have modern mosques, which are more complex as per the requirements and needs of folks and their religious beliefs.
After the fatality of Muhammad, mosques became important symbols of Islam. The Muslim conquerors founded mosques everywhere you go. They built the mosque first and later built the military camp about the mosque. The Muslim conquered Medina or Mecca city and built mosque in the place. This became the center of the region of Muslim conquered people. Muhammad's house was split into hall and courtyard, that was ornamented by the columned verandah. This was a great mosque where the faithful conjunct for prayer, but also one for sociable assembly and political deliberation. A building without architectural pretensions, it was a hypo style hall and was profound, obviously having three aisles, divided by three rows of nine columns each. The most important aspect this house offers to Islamic architecture of later was that it provided the orientation (Qibla) of praying area to the sacred city of Mecca.
The Masjid as a type of architecture designed for congregational prayer didn't are present at Mecca before the hijra. In Medina, the stronghold of Islam, however, both principles of Musalla and Masjid came to receive particular interpretations. The controversy among the traditionalists on the performance of prayer in either the Musalla or the Masjid was bounded around the actual fact that they were structurally different.
Kaaba mosque was the first recently built mosque of Islam and Abraham aided by his child Ismail, when he found the order of Allah, built the existing basis. They performed prayers together with their followers at this site. The website of Kaaba was also believed to be place of angles of Adam, erected by Allah and used for worship.
The orthodox Caliph leaders were been successful by the caliph dynasty of the Umayyads (661-750), who had been presented by many Muslims to be upstarts. After this the philistine people started the taunt type structure. The kaaba was rebuilt in 684 AD and was furnished with mosaic marble, which was collected from Yemen churches. Iranian architectural elements were also found in the building.
The located area of the mosque was chose by Prophet Muhammad when he have the very first time Friday prayer there. He lived beside the masjid in Medina, that was use as doubled goal as both a religious and political center for the first Muslim community.
The Umayyad Mosque is an example of the proper execution of mosque derived from the Prophet's house, and was built in (705-715) in Damascus. In the 10th century, different types of mosque started to develop because of influences of local traditional materials and techniques of creating. Distinctively different types of mosque developed in the several countries.
Mosques are usually ornamented with natural stone, marble, timber carving, patterned brick, mosaic, a glass, murals. Fashionable mosques are designed using new systems of construction, and are followed in most parts of the planet, but it is remains traditional in design.
When Islam spreads from the deserts of Saudi Arabia and in to the metropolitan areas like Damascus and Cairo, the speedily expanding Muslims inhabitants required house for worship to meet their spiritual and public requirements. The mosques that adopted are innovative and magnificent examples of architecture, original in their own way with reminensces of these culture.
2. 3 Concept of mosque
The Space: The mosque consists of a demarcated space, partially roofed and partly available to sky. This proportion of covered and open up space varies from region to region with regards to the harshness of the weather. The available space is a courtroom used for accomplishing prayers for large gatherings on events.
Local community mosque
Chapter 3 Local culture and Variation in the Mosque
3. 1 Vernacular variant across the World
The Islamic world extents its boundary from Spain and Western Africa eastwards to as far as China, in south- East Asia. It is therefore not surprising to listen to that Muslims comprise around one fifth of the world inhabitants and constitute a majority of more than forty nations of the Middle East Asia and Africa. Islam keeps a strong position in the world. The religion should never only be powerful by beliefs and logic but also have allure and beauty to attract such an tremendous audience to brace the religion and look after it with awe. There is absolutely no other more desirable edifice to depict this style and act as sign of the faith as well as the mosque.
In the early day, Islam borrowed features from existing religious and cultural properties. They provided them tranquility with the existing and yet originality and turned out beyond doubt that Islamic leaders not only own the power of assimilation, but that of corporation and adaptability as well. These lent styles were recognizable initially but the new styles that changed started creating their own architectural id and style.
In the various new lands, the mosques were built by discovering local practices and materials available. Each region possessed with its own craftsmen, their own building methods. Coupled with extreme dissimilarities in climate, this gave climb to highly disparate styles and each region presented to the earth a diverse design of structures of their own. Thus it sometimes appears that despite an important feeling of ethnical unity which pervades the whole Islamic world, there is an investable diversity in the varieties of architecture of every region.
Generally, the Islamic world got divide into the eastern and the european areas where one gets influenced by the other. The eastern part of the Muslim world looks to the Persian Dialect and culture for enthusiasm. Iran was one of regions which is covered vast area including Central Asia and Afghanistan and disperse into the Indian. Primarily Iran possessed accepted American architectural varieties and stemming from Arab style. However with the introduction of local dynasties recognition was created.
These divergent styles may be grouped in to five basic types of mosque. These are
1. the hypostyle hall with a set roof and possibly a number of small domes (as seen in Arabian and African Examples)
2. Building with a very large central space often covered by massive domes provided with lateral support by the weight of hall domes (such as those in the Ottoman style) or having pyramidal pitched roof covering (as in Indonesia)
3. The layout with an Iwan (vaulted hall) placed each side of the bi-axially divided central rectangular courtyard (as developed in Iran and Central Asia)
4. The triple - domed mosque with courtyard (typical of Mughal architecture in India).
5. And lastly the walled Organic with lots of pavilions set in the enclosed landscaped areas (as found in China).
Case review of vernacular mosque
1. Great mosque of Djenne in Mali, Africa. Inexpensive Approach (Regional Resources) -1907
The Djenne mosque of Africa is the largest mud brick mosque of the world. This is actually the famous mosque of Africa and features of impressive mud structures.
Mud building is an agreeable environment material.
Mud is suitable according to the climate and it is less expensive to generate with, as it is locally available.
Easy construction to produce mud mortar and plaster. Hand timber use for the scaffolding and roofs. The wall surfaces are thick in proportions and tapered and provide protection from heating.
During the day, the wall consumed the heat of the sun that is released throughout the night time time; this helps to retaining cool environment throughout the day time.
It also has roofs vents with ceramic cover, which is removed during the night to ventilate the interior parts and places.
2. Traditional Kampung Hulu Mosque, Malaysia - (1728AD)
The traditional mosque design of south- East Asia has influenced the easy pyramidal layered roofing, which becomes an important factor of design. It depends on the roof structure over hangs with open serambi and the recessed walls to respond to local local climate - high rain fall excellent rainfall water discharge.
Wall openings are crucial in the mosque design. The wall structure openings are at the bottom floor and segmented roof's wall membrane level of four-and-a-half storey building. These opportunities induce natural mix venting and stack effect. The emphasis is on cross air ventilation.
Recessed wall help tackle the condition of direct subjection from tropical sun rays, luminosity, solar radiation and this concept only is effective to prevent high angle sun rays however, not low angle sunlight.
VERNACULAR TYPOLOGY IN INDIA
Islam found its way to India via the Malabar Coast in 600 AD. It had been just about once that it was growing into Arabia. This is not surprising, considering the proximity of both coastline trade links from pre-Islamic times. Arab stores bought and sold Indian spice with other areas of the known world. Many of them set up households in the Malabar as well, which is through them that Islam was introduced into the Indian subcontinent.
According to the star, Malik-ibn Dinar- Mohammad's note come to king Crangannur in AD 642-643 on Hijri 22, and the Chera king, Cheraman Perumal to accept Islam.
Malik-Ibn-Dinar built the first mosque there. This was accompanied by eleven more across the coast. These mosques are a few of the oldest to be proven, not only India but within the Islamic world.
Kerala is in the middle of a mosque-building increase. Proposals for new mosques and the redevelopment of aged structures have consequences on the urban landscape of the west coast state. Pan- Indian and skillet- global affects sweeping across Kerala fuelled by migration to the rest of India and overseas may be the explanation of this activity.
Traditional mosque of Kerala (vernacular mosque)
The traditional mosques in Kerala are different from those in the imperial and provincial Indo- Islamic architecture. In Kerala built form of the mosque produced enough from local local building traditions. In traditional dwellings like Nalaketts, the concerns of torrential rainwater and the necessity for the air flow found appearance in remarkable rooftop and wall membrane elements, performed in abundantly available timber. In Kerala, the temple, churches and the Mosque (palli) take from the neighborhood architecture developed from local local climate, materials. The mosque was built under the assistance of religious market leaders whose requirements were practical and simple, using the model of existing places of worship.
A traditional mosque in the Malabar comprises of a rectangular prayer hall with a mihrab on the american wall structure (qibla) and enclosed verandah on the attributes that serve as spill over space. A forward verandah facing the street becomes a space that often contributes to a entrance hall preceding the key prayer hall. An ablution fish tank is accommodated on one side. The complete structure is elevated on a high plinth/ base, like the adhisthana of the temple. The tiled roof structure has elaborate covered gables. The structural system for the hall is of timber articles, beams, and brackets and often the columns are square or octagonal as in the temple mandapa pillar. Nakhudas or dispatch contractors sculpted the mimbars in many Mosques, representing the very best skills in wood-carving.
Mishkaal mosque - Kuttichira
Most of the Malabar mosques built-in the 6th hundreds of years are in Kozhikoda(Kalikat), Mallapuram, Thalassery and cochin. This time the essential building construction materials was bamboo. A brief research study of two mosques in Kuttichira, a Mappila area in Kozhikode is presented here.
In Kuttichira, centered on the sacred Kuttichira tankand all mosque of Kuttichira was construced with local timber material. Miskaal palli mosque is having a major rectangular hall and tiled roofs at fourth levels- real estate subsidiary space. The existing building is dated as 1578. It rests in close relationship with the container. Not very significantly is the Jamaat Palli, the Friday mosque, on the far side of the tank. That is smaller in size and at am awkward perspective to the small street, proclaiming a precise orientation to Mecca. Its forward porch is designated by the intensely carved gable; matched by an exquisite timber ceiling, with floral, geometric and calligraphic motifs. It offers two light wells, one over the ablution tank and another in part in the prayer hall. The kinds of light wells remind us of the four edges. The oldest inscription in the mosque dates from 1480-81 covered on a real wood lintel on the ante chamber.
CHERAMAN JUMA MASJID, KODUNGALLAUR.
This is the first and oldest mosque of India. The first renovation of the mosque was completed in the 11th hundred years. And later in 1974, the masjid president P. A. Mohammed Sayed added the extension, after demolishing leading portion of the old mosque during restoration. The oldest part of the mosque, like the sanction sanctorum, was still left untouched. It was renovated again in 1996 and 2003, with the addition of extension to accommodate more capacity of 3000 people. While the oldest part will be restored, the desire for a grand size still remains.
Surrounded by outlets and homes. And a community organization is situated within the building.
The original composition did not look like the mosques of the west and alternatively resembles vernacular structures. This was dual stored with sloping tiled thatched roof covering. This mosque also will not not look like the mosques of north India, without calligraphy used on the wall no minarets found with the mosque. The access gate is simple and welcoming.
The main room is area of the original structure. That is an extremely small area for the mosque. Only 15 people can stand within a row for prayer. The primary room was constructed with old timber, with a big brass lamp clinging from the roofing, which may have been a Hindu temple light fixture.
JAMA MASJID OF AHMEDABAD
This is the vernacular mosque of Ahmedabad. it is constructed of yellow sand natural stone. This is the oldest mosque of Ahmedabad, built during in 1424 the reign of Ahmad Shah. This mosque is laying in the Mahatma Gandhi Highway of teenager Darwaza, in old area of the city. The mosque was probably major mosque of Indian subcontinent. The major designed plan was desired by the emperor Sultan Ahmed Shah. The mosque is located south of the processional axis that runs from the Maidan -i-shah at the entranceway with three arches.
The masjid is a blend of Jain, Hindu and Islamic structures which is noticeable of from the carving of kalash and bells are usually observed in Hindu temples and lotus usually seen in the Jain temples.
hahi Jam-e-Masjid, Ahmedaba'- Royal Category of Ahmed Shah Badsha's performed prayer here. Ahmedshah Old jama Masjid, on the list of medieval mosques and tombs is remaining in Ahmadabad. Amed Shah and his successors ordered the dismantling and adaptation of Hindu temples in order to build mosques. The all mosque was designed in combination type of architecture. This mosque was design for the prayer. And in the present time it is an excellent place for visitor. It easily accommodates 3000 worshipers in its courtyard
Open and built space
The mosque is divided two parts-(i) open up courtyard and close prayer hall.
Built over many years, the mosque organic is centered on a huge paved courtyard
he wide open courtyard, floored with white marble, which is approximately 75mt x 66mt wide. It really is ringed by a colonnade decorated with huge Arabic calligraphy. The mosque and arcades are built of beautiful yellowish sandstone and carved with the complicated details. The courtyard is came into from three gateways, one at the center of each area. There is a long rectangular ablution container in the center. It is twisted by the colonnade on three factors, with the prayer hall occupying the american side
The prayer room is also rectangular and included in four domes. In its Indo-Saracenic architecture, the mosque also includes many syncretic elements not necessarily clear to the audience: a few of the central domes are carved like lotus bouquets, strongly related to the typical domes of Jain temples; and some of the pillars are carved with the proper execution of any bell hanging on a string, in mention of the bells that often suspend in Hindu temples.
It is a platform sitting on pillars and enclosed up to the rooftop with beautiful rock work. The whole mosque is supported on 2 hundred and sixty columns. This space split into fifteen bays, each with a dome and furnished mihrab along the qibla wall structure. Its courtyard faade has a stepped roof range, with a extra tall portal at its center. The north and south chambers will be the lowest, which can be open up onto the courtyard through five pillared bays of unequal size. The taller central chamber is flanked by two shorter archways and it is inserted from the high arched portal with a final bearing dome. Perforated stone monitors are pierced into the pillars of both framing bays. The site is framed by two columns, which are the remains of two lofty minarets ("shaking minarets") whose shafts were destroyed by the earthquakes of 1819 and 1957.
Visual elements-Some of aesthetic element has within this mosque. But we cannot say that this is the natural factor of Islamic structures. There are different kind of elements have used in the mosque, which is from Hindu and Jain structures.
The mosque is having 15 big and 56 small domes, which is recognized on the stone pillars. The interiors of the domes are intricately in beautiful design.
The stone chop work is shown in the home windows, the radiance of the sun light filtration systems in and light the prayer place.
It is having 2 principle minarets flanking the primary arched entranceway. It had been collapsed in the 1819 earthquake, the low section still stand.
Surface Elaboration- the complete building is made up of yellow sand rock. The structure is supported on rock column. The qibla is well adorned. it is finish with calligraphy and floral patterns.
III. NORTH INDIA MOSQUE
MOORISH MOSQUE - KAPURTHALA
Kapurthala is a district of Punjab. It possessed a Sikh ruler with a heterogeneous people that comprised predominately Muslims and Hindu with Sikhs in a minority. Maharaja Jagatjit Singh commissioned the mosque in 1917 AD. The Kapurthala mosque was predicated on an brought in Maghribi model of the Mediterranean region of North Africa notably Algeria and Morocco.
Maharaja Jagatjit wanted to build a large mosque which was the several from other Indian mosques and asked his team to market research the Qutubia Mosque of Marrakech. In the display of amazing internationalism, Maharaja Jagatjit Singh didn't only reject conventionalism in the mosque's architectural conception, but also chosen an architect of European origin to create a spiritual building of Islam in Kapurthala. During the course of his travel to Paris, and he was influenced by a French Jami mosque Marrakech's Qutubia Mosque which was designed by the Architect Messieurs Manteaux, who was appointed to do the Kapurthala mosque.
The Kapurthala Jami Mosque was commissioned in 20th century with construction commencing in 1927 and supervised by an Indian engineer, Lata Lekh raj. The construction cost was four lakh rupees. The full total site was 8 acres and included besides the mosque proper, a garden and orchards of citric fruits and peached that added some earnings for the sites upkeep. The Jami mosque was consecrated in a grand wedding ceremony organised on March 14, 1930 in the existence of large congregation with the maharaja in attendance and the ruler of Bhawalpur express.
This mosque is a brilliant master little bit of Moorish style architecture. The mosque has a huge marble paved ingredient with a landscaped garden. Beyond your garden stood the mosque, its toned roof lines much like its archetype, cracked by the tall square minarets to the north. The entire structure grew up on the plinth and accessed by a broad airfare of steps put centrally in the eastern face. The whole mosque was textured with calligraphy inscription and stucco. The entry has two symmetrically set up small courtyards, each with a pool and the Sahn. The sahn is projecting east and western world side of the end than it, recalling the access, each also providing as ancillary entrance with an ached cloister and flights of steps with a central -panel articulated with an arched area of interest and ablution through. Both projecting bays were provided with a marble basin and flanking pools sunk into the floor for ritualistic ablutions. These published for the `ablution pool that always developed the Sahn's centrepiece in the Subcontinent mosque. After the confining the ablutions to the sided, the complete Sahn could be utilized for prayer. Water for the private pools originated from a nearby well.
Shallow pitched roofs with glazed clay tile was used in the entire composition, similar to the Mediterranean character, with a cloister completed with a blue inexperienced surface. The mosque walls are done with ornamental corbelled and stucco. The sanctuary has fenestrations in the Qibla wall structure flanking the Mehrab symmetrically with ornamentation restricted to the second option. Two doorways at the both ends of the shorter sanctuary wall membrane opened into a tiny courtyard provide with eight pointed superstar pool and fountain. The habits were designed by the students of Mayo University of Structures. The Mihrab bay is crowned with an octagonal pyramidal roof structure. Internal finishing was done with timber and relaxing on a drum pierced with openings three to a aspect, to let a light. Externally the pyramidal roofs and the minarets roofs were topped by finials designed as three spheres of diminishing size that recalled the finial crowning of the Qutubiya Mosque. This mosque has a singular minaret rising from a rectangular plan recalling the bulkiness of the original and pierced with small openings framed by ornamental rings. Post -self-reliance the mosque lost its worshippers, as large numbers of Muslims have migrated to Pakistan.
This mosque represents a substantial endeavour of seeking creativity for religious architecture beyond the subcontinents.
Aali Masjid Srinagar
This is the next major mosque of Sri Nagar. This mosque is done in the vernacular building ways of Srinagar. This mosque was designed by the Sultan Hassan Shah in 1471 AD. The building was substantially renovated by the Mughal emperor of Kashmir Ali Mardan Khan and extended through the region of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. There after the structure got burnt in 1801. The original birchbark roof covering of the mosque was improved to three tier CGI roof structure under the very perspective of sir John Marshal of the Imperial English ASI.
This mosque is now under INTACH and is a traditions mosque of Srinagar. The mosque is one of the better types of vernacular timber architecture of Kashmir and it has a abundant historical background. The history of mosque corresponds to four politics intervals of Sultanate, Mughals, Afghans and the Dogra period.
The framework is the most significant existing traditional mosque made within the premises of any Eidgah in any area of the Islamic world. This two times storeyed building shows a synthesis between central Asian and local traditions of wooden structures. The region of mosque is 1844 sq. m. The roof over the hall and dalan is reinforced on 151 deodar column. This mosque doesn't have a minaret. A small domical structure is utilized in the primary access of the mosque for the azan. You will discover chattries on all corners of the mosque and arch designed wooden glass windows for the ventilation.
Full elevation windowEast
Adina mosque of western world Bengal
This is one of the vernacular mosques of the western Bengal region and is the largest & most important Muslim building within the state. Based on the inscription the mosque back wall was built-in 1373 Advertising by Sikanda Shah Son of Ilyas Shah. Once the new Muslim capital was established in Pandua, the ruler Sikandar Shah (1358-89) the second of the Ilyas shahi dynasty followed the traditional technique of building a congregational mosque as its center point, which he started out in 1364.
The Adina mosque confirms to the time honoured rectangular plan, confirmed by great mosque of Damascus (8th century). The mosque cover rectangle of 507ftx285ft (155m. x 87m. ) and contain with in it an enormous courtyard measuring 400ft. x 154ft. (122m. x 47m. )2. The longer part of the court face the western world. The three and face aisled enclosures across the courtyard are reinforced over some 260 pillars of basalt and when complete was roofed over with no less than 378 brick domes. The 12 mt. large cloister on the north, south and east of the courtyard are three aisles deep. The prayer chamber is having 5 chambers and it is 24 m in breadth which is roughly 18 m high, and is currently fallen.
The prayer chamber starts onto a courtyard ornamented on the north, east and southern sides by a covered verandah. It is split into two symmetrical wings by the central chamber, formerly covered with a pointed barrel vault.
Barrel vaulting in the central bay allowed for an unimpeded view of the wonderful central mihrab area. This qibla wall membrane is confronted with dressed dark basalt to three quarters of its elevation, the remaining portion is brick. In the centre of the wall structure, there's a large mihrab and a minbar. The Mihrabs on the prayer chamber's part wings are made of recessed niches. The predominant motifs of the ornamentation in the central mihrab wall structure are interlocking designs; attractive frieze, lotus medallions, triangular tympana and Arabic inscription. On the south west part three of the archways are available to the outside and constitute the primary entrance. There are three other entrances in the american wall membrane towards its north ends. The surface western wall is the best preserved, underneath half is stone- encountered and the very best is brick embellished with brick comfort work in niche categories. The domes was backed on pendentives and is also dropped. This mosque is divided in the nave and aisles. The nave is higher than the cloisters and is also protected with a barrel vault roof. The upper account is of stone platform. A lovely ornamental piece of architecture within the nave to its northwest nook and on the right side of the rule mihrab, a rock pulpit covered by a hooded part speaks of the delicacy of the artisans work.
The mosque is now in ruins. The sole parts of it that withstood the test of that time period are the segments of the west wall, like the rear of the vaulted portal. The subject concerns of other non- calligraphic surface ornamentation are vegetable motifs of local variety, rosettes, and abstract arabesque designs, geometrical patterning and designs of indescribable complexities.
It may be presumed that the Adina Mosque was a distinctive architectural experiment of its kind. To never be repeated in the Bengal Muslim architecture.
chapter 4 Components of mosque
The common practice of creating minarets was initiated mainly to make it noticeable in a settlement so that the people can know where the mosque is situated. And symbolically the present mosques have minarets may be to symbolize the faith of local populace. The minarets were used for call of azan. Early mosque did not have minarets; the azan was called from any high point of the mosque. Minarets are always attached or separate to the mosque. They differ high, style and decoration. Minarets may be round, circle, octagonal and are usually covered with a domical composition. Every mosque is having one or more minarets. In modern times, microphones and speaker often used for the azan. Minarets continue to be common elements in mosque architecture across the world and design of minarets rely upon the local weather, material, traditions, and the Muslim community.
4. 2 Dome
It is generally recognized that dome may be found in any Islamic building in one or multiple and is also a significant feature in Islamic structures. The dome improved into many different designs and size in various places. Mosques were roofed with a dome from very early time. The dome is always placed on the top of the prayer hall. Dome allows for a very large space without using any columns in the prayer hall. Although domes normally took on the forms of a hemisphere, the Mughal people acquired used the South Asian onion form dome. Some of mosques have multiple domes in the large central space. This architectural aspect has no spiritual or symbolic relevance in Islam, and can be used for purely efficient aspect, as it includes large roof course and also provide sense of grandeur to the mosque. The inside of any dome is usually highly embellished with geometrical, floral and other patterns.
4. 3 Arch
It was a common practice of earning arches in the mosque from an extremely early period. An Arch is capable of bearing more load than a horizontal beam in the same size and same material. It was used purely for practical purposes in mosque to provide large arcaded opportunities for proper light and venting. It is a simple element that come in various forms which range from directed to four centered arch in the mosques worldwide.
4. 4 Development of Elements
There are various factors, which are in charge of the development of these elements in mosque structures.
Technology & materials
4. 4a) Function
This is an important aspect for the development of minarets, domes and arches in the mosque. The minarets were used to give demand prayer (azan) in the absence of microphones and loudspeaker, whereas the domes were developed to provide much larger clear spans for the roof covering without any column in between. Domes assist in bringing down down the heat of the insides space in mosque. It also really helps to stop the reverberation and echoes in the prayer hall. Arches were used to provide opportunities in the colonnaded verandahs and support the heavy load of the walls and roof top above it. In addition they provide proper light and venting to the prayer hall.
4. 4. B) Icon
Earlier the mosques were cared for as iconic structures and were generally created by the royal people. There were hardly any mosques in a city or town and were developed by the kings and their personality is depicted in these structure, that's the reason most of the mosque were monumental in scale with huge minarets and domes. You will discover group of arcades in the verandahs on east, north and south side. As the western area is getting the prayer hall with an enormous arcaded verandah in front of a central 'iwan' in most of the early mosques.
4. 4. C) Aesthetic
Since the royals developed the buildings, large sums of resources was involved in the structure of mosques. The target was on the grandeur, looks and beauty of the structures. The size of the minarets and domes was in a way that they could be seen from a longer distance. Many kinds of arches were found in the mosques worldwide depending upon the local development. Mughals have used four centered and multi foil arches in almost all of their mosques in northern India. The arches have sensitive carving in them as the minarets and domes were having beautiful flutes with silver or brass finial at the top.
As mentioned prior the mosque were developed but the royal people, therefore the option of land space was never a concern. They built-in large places with huge central courts having fish tank at the heart for ablution (wazu). The domes, minarets and arches were in the monumental size to complement the scale of the site.
4. 4. E) Technology & materials
The early on mosques were designed with arcaded design of development with arches encouraging the load of wall space and roof top. The jack arch or vaulted roof top was used in the development of mosques and the central part of the mosques was covered with domical roofs, with squinches encouraging the dome. In a few mosques domes of smaller size were also applied to the either aspect of the central bigger dome. The spiral staircases were constructed in the minarets to climb up. Lime mortar was found in both brick and some masonry and lime plaster was done above it.
4. 5. Cause of reduction of elements from mosque
Modern technology & materials
Lack of traditional knowledge system
4. 5a) Functional modification
With the advancement in technology, the use of microphones and loudspeakers has taken out the minarets from mosques and the mizzen (one who demand prayer) simply phone calls (Azan) by using mike and loudspeaker. Big minarets have changed into small and modern minarets "purely symbolic" that are slowly getting taken out from the mosque. The dome and arches have ended up away from the mosque way back when credited the change of the structure technology and materials.
4. 5b) Budgetary constrains: - Money is a very important parameter in the elimination if the aforementioned elements from mosque. The earlier mosques were mostly built by rulers or royal people and they were hardly any in amounts and money had not been a constrained for the coffee lover, therefore tiny detailing was done in the mosques of early on period. But in the current circumstance the majority of the mosques are built by collective cash from people residing in a 'mohalla' or community and huge amount of money is required for the engineering of arches and domes in any structures. Therefore the focus is more on the efficient aspect of mosque i. e. prayer hall for namaz, rather than on the aesthetic of the composition.
4. 5c) Land Crisis
Land allocation for the development of mosque was not an issue in the development of earlier mosque, since they were developed by land lords, however in the present time because of the rapid increase in human population and faster rate of development in the urban areas there is a land crisis in locations. The land cost is high which is difficult for local people to purchase a larger land in locations to develop mosque for themselves. Therefore small spaces are developed vertically to satisfy the need of mosque in any area. Basic amenities and facilities are targeted upon while developing multi-storeyed mosque. Since they are fully covered, they don't really have open up verandahs or arcades in them. The function of dome got itself eliminated with the multi- storied framework.
In some mosques brief minarets or burji's are provided at the roof structure corners to give it a symbolic character of mosque.
4. 5d) MODERN TOOLS & material
The early arcaded style of construction with arches, vaulted and domical roof structure has been replaced by the trabeated (Beams and columns) design of construction with the launch of cement as a binding material. RCC flat roof have substituted vaults and domes roof as it could cover a lot longer spans without support. The electrical power, digital and acoustic equipment's have resolved the issues of being attentive the prayers inside the halls and they have broadened vertically instead of horizontal enlargement.
4. 5e) Insufficient traditional knowledge system
Due to the modernization of building technology we are burning off our traditional knowledge system of creating construction. Another reason of reduction of arches, domes and minarets from mosque is having less skill of development. The masons and skilled labour that can construct brick arches or domes in mosque are very less in number and is decreasing daily. The sooner technology is getting obsolete due to skilled labour in the said field and being that they are not getting the correct wages because of their work, were losing this time old approach of building.
4. 6 Inferences
The arches minarets and domes in the Mosque structures were developed as a reason behind function and were the necessity of technology and material of this time. But as time passes they play an important role and be the part and parcel of the religious structure. Arches, minarets and domes have become the theme of any building that may be easily identified as mosque. With the help of these elements it was identified very easily and was visible in any kind of settlement, so that people can recognize where the mosque is situated. But due to the above said reasons the mosque has been going through an "identity crisis".
Although the progression of technology and material has removed the efficient use of the elements but their prolong utilization has made them an integral part of mosque. They are not only the icons but they became the character of the mosque.
Chapter 5 CASE STUDIES
Contemporary mosque over the world
The mosque is Islam's most emblematic building, as well as an expression of collective personal information. By checking out the built form of mosques throughout the world and prevalent architectural movements in mosque building, this dissertation considers what makes mosques identifiable to Muslims and non-Muslims, as well as the ways architecture represents the personality of a community and also shifts in accordance with changing communal and cultural contexts.
Now my concentration here is on the architectural personal information of mosque- the question of id, and its pluralistic expressions. How personality is portrayed in mosques in the several areas of the planet will depend on not only on ethnic factors but also on regional building mores and custom of designs, architecture, and engineering. As mentioned, mosques are a reflection of who we are and how we stand for ourselves, not and then ourselves but to culture at large.
Architect Gulzar Haider talks "a modern day Islamic architecture without clear and explicit traditional elements. "
Case analysis- 1
Assyafaah Mosque, Singapore
This mosque is designed by the architect Tan Kok Hiang, a discussion board architects. Aasaf ali mosque is made by the Majlis Ugama of Islam. Building started in 2000 and completed in 2004. That is a large mosque of Singapore and the region 2500 sq. m.
The mosque shows broadly today's face of Islamic structures and is also a worldly recognizable sign of Islamic Art work and Structures of modern day times. It is a first universal modern day mosque of the world and is an original, creating a modern personality of the mosque.
The orientation of the mosque with regards to the site is actually as per direction of Mecca. The primary hall is a large column free space made up of ribbed and arched concrete constructions. This project shows a creative use of contemporary interpretation of arabesque in the inside space. The architect expresses that, "the utilization of the arabesque habits to symbolize the Quran's capabilities which provides a link to the past. " The patterns aren't laid in a traditional fashion and use a play of geometry, designed such as to provide a multi layered experience in the main prayer hall.
The Prayer hall-
The prayer hall is bounded by the arabesque screens to permit the fleeting shadows to move over the hall and at exactly the same time allow natural air air flow. The prayer is designed to be completely naturally ventilated. The strategy here is to make use of the slit voids to generate air activity. The slit voids also got giant a glass louvers to keep out the rainfall while allowing light. Whenever we can, the ground level enclosure of the prayer hall is stored available and always- ventilated.
The rich patterns of the arabesque monitors envelop the building from the exterior as well. The overall arrangement of areas takes benefit for the site, which is askew from the orientation to Mecca, and also to create more proportionate architectural public and elements as well as emphasize the segregation of different functions.
The three - dimensional arches, used within the mosque, which assists the goal of transferring fill of top of the three storeys, give a column free period in the low prayer space. At the same time, they provide to generate day light and air flow. These arches also bring back the recollection of the original mosque, which could have arcades all over the court docket. Now the judge is replaced by the built volume level- the prayer hall, that includes a group of these 3D arches delineating it checking in to the quadruple volume for the Mihrab wall structure.
MATERIAL, STRUCTURE, SERVICES AND CONSTRUCTION-
Contemporary materials such as concrete and aluminium and other materials are being used to dramatic impact. The minaret is coated with an anti-rusting materials so the natural color is managed. As well as the arches within are designed to present a uncooked feel of comparison with generally complete and well- completed interiors.
The three dimensional arches were designed using 20 mm ply wood varieties bent to form and held along by steel tie up rods. The arches perform the role of transferring upper floor tons just eight points on the first storey, enabling a generous period in the prayer hall.
The earth floor is elevated on a higher system and above existing floor floor. So that the better wind circulation inter to the prayer hall which is three edges open.
Even the basement was created with 25% natural ventilation. And the all mechanical systems, like sprinkler system is installed in the basement. This results capital cost savings as well as decrease in energy usage over the long run.
Case research 2
SHAH FAISAL MASJID- ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
he Shah Faisal Mosque is situated in Margalla Hills, Islamabad Pakistan and is also the largest mosque of Pakistan. It is delivering the eight confronted desert, 'tent", which is recognized on four minarets.
The whole composition is structure of sloping roofs confronted with opulent marble and 4 towers. The complex also contains Islamic research middle, Catalogue, lecture hall, museum, cafeteria and the offices of the faculty.
Faisal mosque was built by the late ruler Faisal bin Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia and it is hence, called after him. The building structure of the Masjid experienced were only available in 1976. It addresses a location of 53, 821 rectangular feet, believed cost SR 130 million, and provides 10, 000 worshippers space and an additional 40 thousand in the adjacent squares. Although the main protected hall is smaller than that of the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca (the 3rd biggest mosque of the world), this Mosque gets the third largest capacity of accommodating for worshippers in adjoining grounds after al-Haram masjid (Grand Mosque) of Mecca. The mosque is having 4 minarets, which is 80m high, and circumference area10 x 10 m.
Faisal mosque is built by the overdue ruler Faisal bin The Islamic library can be found in the bottom floor and the first floor under the courtyard. And east area facilities of convention hall, producing press, catalogue and cafeteria. It really is providing education for 700 students from within and outside the house country. This is also an Islamic university or college.
The mosque is designed by fusing modern-day elements and lines with traditional feelings/ stories of the mosque. It has a large triangular level for the central hall and minarets at the edges. No dome is provided in the central space of the mosque, but four Turkish minarets are used in the four edges.
The shape of the Faisal Mosque central hall is an eight-sided concrete shell which influenced by the desert Beduoin's ten and the cubic Kaba in Mecca, flanked by four unconventional minarets motivated by Turkish structures style.
The entrance is provided from the east part into the prayer hall which has a courtyard with porticoes adjacent to it. The interior of the main tent designed hall in protected white marble and it is decorated with mosaic calligraphy by famous Pakistani artist Sadequain, and a Specular Turkis chandelier. The western world side mosaic pattern compiled by Early Kufic script, which is repeated in reflection pattern.
This mosque is built in two level walk out and first floor level.
The lowest degree of the mosque is the access courtyard on the south, up a trip of three stairs about one feet, six inches front walk out. The worshippers can enter from both side sides of the entrance courtyard. Shoe racks are put at both east and western world sides and are covered. The entry courtyard area has two small rooms. The eastern room homes a model of the mosque, and the traditional western room can be used as a present shop. The main feature of entrance courtyard is a huge circular pool with a round fountain. The pool is nearly in the heart of the region but is forced to the south departing more space on the north part. The circular pool, built of locally made blue ceramic tiles, is forty four ft in diameter and one feet eight inches deep. Its rim is of white cement one foot eight inches wide. Inside the pool there is a circular fountain, one ft. high and twenty-four feet in diameter. This fishing rod shower is eighteen feet from the rim of the pool. Throughout the pool, rectangular pebbles are imbedded in the pavement in several rays.
The mosque structures is departure from the original South Asian Islamic architecture and is also one of the most outstanding, contemporary and modern Islamic structures examples in the.
CONTEMPORARY MOSQUE IN INDIA
In the present time, the Indian mosques are also going right through a process of change. The Indian architects and designers are also pondering, how to improve mosque forms to make them more sophisticated. Functionally, they want to provide maximum seated space inside the mosque and other procedures like library, Madrassa, a community space, aside from a proper ventilated congregation hall. Architects are also using elements like arches, domes, minarets and attractive habits, but these have no trueness- they are not structural any longer and the patterns too have become superfluous. The mosque is converted into multi- level composition and the wide open central courtyard is not present in the mosque any further. The building of mosque in India often attracts brutal opposition by local people and the minaret is seen, as the utmost worrying of Islamic Symbols- since it stands high, is easily obvious and completely towers the space around it.
The blinking Minaret notion is certainly today's look. But some new mosques are truly groundbreaking, up ending the idea of what a mosque should appear to be and combining both local structures and Islamic icons. A mosque in Islam has basic features, but these are not written in rock, s
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