The Background Of The Inuit People

The name "Inuit" means "the folks". The Inuit have lived in the Arctic parts for thousands of years. These are the only people who have made the Arctic their long lasting home. The Arctic is situated near North America, where many Inuit areas also live. The main areas would be Canada, Alaska, Greenland and Siberia.

Main features of their culture prior to colonisation

The Inuit lived in communities that varied in size from an individual family to many hundred people. The quantity of individuals in each family depended on the amount of food which was available in different seasons.

Over the years, the Inuit have been able to adapt to the cold and harsh Arctic climate, allowing them to have a distinctive lifestyle. Most of the Arctic land includes huge iced plains, that your Inuit call tundra. Here on the tundra, the Inuit were able to hunt pets or animals such as caribou, musk oxen, polar bears, Arctic foxes and wolves. Those that chose to hunt pets or animals in the sea were able to hunt seals, whales, walruses and seafood. They used the skin of an pet animal to create tents. Utilizing the antlers, bones and horns, these were in a position to carve weapons such as a harpoon.

The Inuit also used pet animal skin to build clothing. Some styles were different in each area, however the men, women and children acquired the same basic costume. This outfit consisted of a hooded coat (parka), trousers or leggings, socks, boots and mittens. Sometimes they used goggles, that have been crafted from real wood, bone or ivory, in reducing the glare of sunlight.

In summer time, the Inuit normally travelled by foot or vessel. However during winter, they used sleds, that have been always drawn by puppies. In Canada and Greenland, they built a plank sled, which resembled a long ladder. The plank sled acquired two long athletes, with cross-pieces lashed between them. They often used wood to construct it out of. In Alaska and Siberia, they made framework sleds which experienced a basketlike shape built onto the athletes.

Timeline

9000 B. C - Ice Age came up to a finish and the Arctic weather warmed up.

7000 B. C - Dogsleds used by Palaeo- Eskimo in Siberia.

3000 B. C - Inuit ancestors emerged to THE UNITED STATES from Siberia.

1700 B. C - An ivory maskette, which is the oldest known, was found on Devon Island.

700 B. C - The Dorset culture developed.

500 B. C - The earliest Dorset Tyara maskette found at Hudson Strait.

A. D. 985 - The Vikings appeared.

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During Contact and Comparability to Aboriginal Contact

The non-indigenous people who colonised the land

The first non-indigenous people who came up in contact with the Inuit people in Greenland were the Norsemen, additionally known as the Vikings. The Vikings appeared around A. D. 985, when Erik Thorvaldsson (Erik the Red) convinced those in Iceland to help him set up a permanent arrangement in Greenland.

Reasons behind the colonisation of the land

The Norsemen found Greenland only because they were blown off course while cruising from Norway to Iceland. Formerly, that they had no goal on colonising Greenland.

Erik the Red was exiled from Iceland for three years anticipated to murder which he was found guilty of. Then sailed to Greenland, where he explored the coastline and then claiming the land as his own. When he achieved the Inuit, at first he thought that they were "skraelings" which designed "rough people" or "savages".

Once the Vikings colonised Greenland, they soon realised that the Inuit were friendly and not the savages they thought they were. As Greenland's environment was harsh, the Inuit was required to describe to the Vikings their culture; things such as the clothes to wear, how to built their houses and how to protect themselves from the freezing.

Later in the 1700's, the Inuit that lived in Alaska encountered the introduction of the Russians and some Europeans. The type of their entrance was not noted, but their main goal for colonising Alaska was to search for whales.

3. THE TYPE of the arrival of the non-indigenous people

The character of the Viking's arrival wasn't fierce and there is no combat between the Inuit and the Norsemen. This is because the Norsemen needed the Inuit to instruct them how to endure in the harsh climate. They had to count on the Inuit as courses and trappers, and because the Inuit were too spread out, there weren't enough to threaten the Norsemen.

However, Martin Frobisher was a different story. Martin Frobisher was an Englishman who was simply the first person to land on Baffin Island in 1576. However he did not colonise the land. His purpose of the voyage was to find the Northwest Passage, which really is a water route across the Arctic to Asia. However he ceased on Baffin Island as he thought he previously found gold. He soon found the Inuit community, but wasn't very friendly. Instead, he kidnapped some Inuit men and required them back again to England. He remaining five of his own men behind on the island.

Because of just how Frobisher had cured the kidnapped Inuit, you would expect the Inuit which continued to be on the island refused to help the five discontinued men. However traditional Inuit tales recount the natives offering their assistance to Frobisher's men. Another report that informed was of how these men tried to build a vessel and sail home but finished up starving and freezing to fatality. The Inuit got known this might happen eventually, as they understood no outsider would be able to survive in the icy weather which the Inuit had modified to.

4. The response of the indigenous people

The Western explorers, who cared for the Inuit in a friendly way, would get help and instruction from the Inuit. The Inuit observed no damage in these folks meaning there was no reason behind them to do something in a violent manner. Whilst some options declare that the Inuit community was aggressive and hostile to early French and British explorers, fishers and whalers, recent research suggests that the early contact with whaling stations across the Labrador coast was based on mutual interest in trade. This is due to the fact both sides had needed something from one another, and they understood that if one area acted rudely, they would not benefit from the deal.

Moses Norton, governor in the past due 1700s of Fort Churchill on Hudson Bay is convinced that the native Inuit would prefer to assist a man in distress than to do otherwise by him. Many imagine this truth as documents show that the natives have always helped the non-indigenous people when they appeared on the treacherous and frozen panorama.

Despite these facts, you may still find people who considered the Inuit as savages. This thoughts and opinions was based around the fact that the natives carried around their traditional weapons, the harpoon and spears, almost all the time. The harpoon minds were created from bone or ivory and tipped the minds with a rock or flat iron point.

5. Comparability of the Inuit to the Aboriginals

The colonisation experience that your Inuit faced isn't very similar to the knowledge Aboriginals experienced when the Europeans colonised their land. The Inuit originally lived in the Arctic, where in fact the conditions were difficult. It is one of the coldest regions on earth and the Inuit were the only known people who could endure there. The Norsemen didn't have any particular reason why they colonised the Inuit land. They only stumbled after it when they were blown off course. However, the Europeans possessed their reason for colonising Australia. They needed a new destination to house the growing amounts of convicts.

Also, the Aboriginals weren't seen as a risk to the Europeans. They thought that the indigenous Australians acquired no protection under the law to the land; therefore the Europeans assumed that these were able to damage the homes to be able to secure the land. This was the complete reverse to what took place with the Inuit. The explorers who showed up on the Arctic shores relied on the Inuit to help them make it through.

However, something which was similar in both experiences was that the Aboriginals and the Inuit both suffered from foreign diseases which the Europeans brought along with them. Both populations reduced as do not require had any immunity against them.

Despite having many dissimilarities between their culture and colonisation experience, the Aboriginals and the Inuit have both been considerably inspired by the Western culture. Their current lives are much dissimilar to the original lives all because of colonisation.

Consequences of Colonisation and Assessment to Aboriginal Experience

The results of colonisation for the Inuit

When English stock traders came, they brought along diseases such as smallpox, measles and tuberculosis. This is something that damaged the community almost instantly. The Inuit possessed no immunity against these white diseases, thus eradicating many Inuit people. Nonetheless it wasn't before 1900s when the real Inuit culture had been influenced by the Europeans. As the Inuit were disseminate across Russia, Alaska, Canada and Greenland, the changes were different in each place.

The traditional life of Inuit has altered dramatically. Instead of surviving in snow properties, they prefer to live in solid wood homes. Also, they have grown accustom to hunting with rifles and other trapping devices, rather than the typical harpoons and spears. And because the number of animals decreased, this meant that the Inuit couldn't make it through individually like they once have.

Many Inuit households across Alaska and Canada had to relocate to areas that have been developed around trading content, government administrative offices, radar sites and objective churches. Some Inuit were lucky to obtain careers in commercial sportfishing and construction. But the majority of the Inuit community weren't as lucky. Despite the governments providing them with enclosure, healthcare, education and other assistance, they still lived in poverty.

The results of colonisation for the non-indigenous people

Due to the changes of the Inuit lifestyle, which are the results of colonisations, the non indigenous people have benefited. One profit which has tipped towards the white people is they have been able to determine trading companies. The Inuit and the stock traders achieved at trading posts, where they exchanged whales and other seafood meat and also the lush fur of the Arctic fox for Western goods such as tea, flour, woollen clothing and tobacco. As the Inuit hunted by trapping now, the pets they hunted became scarce. This meant that they had to trade more regularly, as the Inuit possessed become dependent on these European goods. The Europeans used this to their advantage.

Because of the successful trading business, the Europeans have become wealthier. Also, the Western explorers of the Arctic remaining their names on the land and drinking water of the north. Such places that were called after these explorers are Hudson Bay, Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island and Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Mackenzie River, McClure Strait, Franklin Strait and Bering Strait. The original Inuit brands for these places are long overlooked and none of the places are called in honour of these Inuit guides, whom many explorers owe them their popularity and lives. The Arctic conditions would be ruthless to make it through in for any outsider. However the Inuit were kind enough to assist the explorers in educating them their lifestyle and exactly how they survived. Without their help, it is highly doubted that the explorers could have been able to live a life long enough to leave their name on the indigenous land.

Comparison of the results of colonisation for the indigenous folks of Australia and the Inuit.

The results of colonisation for the indigenous folks of Australia and the Inuit are incredibly similar. As both ethnicities have been influenced by the Western culture, it's no real surprise that the present day Aboriginals and Inuit have much more things in common than before colonisation.

The Aboriginals and the Inuit now wear modern day European clothing. Not many wear their traditional clothing but you may still find some family members that live in distant areas who still stick to the traditional life.

Also, many Aboriginal and Inuit families have had to relocate to places with employment opportunities in order to keep up with the present day economic world. And even though there are a few lucky Aboriginals and Inuit who have been in a position to get employed, there is a vast majority who stay unemployed and cannot provide for their new means of life.

Language and culture has altered over enough time. Aboriginals were suspended from speaking their dialects and were compelled to learn English. Although there aren't any sources which say that the Inuit weren't in a position to speak their dialect, they too were made to learn English in order to communicate with traders. Culture gives people identity. It also shows the physical and spiritual wellbeing of a person's way of living. Both Aboriginals and Inuit have had the opportunity to channel their cultural ways to help their economic success through arts and crafts.

Not only that, the populace of the Aborigines and the Inuit has retrieved and it is increasing at a stable rate. The indigenous people of Australia has retrieved to about 500, 000 again- 220 years after settlement. The Inuit society doubled in 1950 and 1970 and it continues to grow rapidly. Improved healthcare and better living conditions are factors of the Inuit people growth.

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