The Lesser And Greater Antilles Record Essay

The Spaniards arrived to the Caribbean region in the 15th century. Prior to their appearance, three waves of immigrants had already migrated in the Caribbean. About 5000 BC, the Paleo-Indians came from Central and South America. They found the ocean from Central and SOUTH USA and founded small seaside communities that possessed no real understanding of pottery and were nomadic. About 500 BC the Meso-Indians came from South America. They were more developed than the Paleo-Indians in conditions of pottery and tools which show that these were evolving a Civilization. The third influx of migration was about 300BC. These inhabitants were called the Neo-Indians as they were the most recent of the three waves to arrive. The Neo-Indians contains different groups; however archaeological facts and historical research principally point to two organizations that had sufficient characteristics demonstrating types of a flourishing Caribbean Civilization which most definitely was long before the arrival of the Spaniards in the 15th Century. These two groups are known as the Tainos and Kalinagos.

The Tainos and Kalinagos were generally similar. Linguistics demonstrates the Tainos spoke 'Arawakan' and the Kalinagos spoke 'Cariban'. The Tainos eventually settled in the higher Antilles and the Kalinagos resolved on the smaller islands of the Lesser Antilles. Both groups began establishing their culture in terms of social, financial and political company which showed indicators of civilization existing in the Caribbean.

Both villages proved signals of a political and public lifestyle. Regarding to Reid, the Tainos had caciques who presided over the village where they lived. They organized the daily activities and were in charge of the storage of surplus goods, which they retained in buildings designed for this purpose and redistributed among the list of villagers as needed (123). The Kalinagos didn't have Caciques in their politics structure nonetheless they had a chief. Usually the principle was the head of the greatest family (Beckles and Shepherd 18). He was responsible for all kinds of leadership, most of all military control. Taino villages were constructed around a village square where game titles and recreation took place. The Tainos were adept at making plazas and ball courts (Reid 124) However the Kalinago villages were created based on armed forces defence.

Gender differentiated the kind of work being done in both societies. Men and kids were accountable for clearing the areas, hunting and fishing and defences of the villages. House construction and canoe making were also their responsibilities. Women and young ladies did crop cultivation, rotating and weaving of organic cotton making handicrafts such as baskets, hammocks and items, daily food preparation and child nurturing. Another facet of their social firm was gender segregation among the list of Kalinago. The men lived in separate houses from the women which was different than the Taino villages where there is no segregation where living agreements were concerned.

Forms of research and technology were observed in the agricultural aspect of both groups. In order for proper starch crop development, the groups got an outstanding and organised system of agriculture. They involved in conuco cultivation which was small plots of land that was nurtured. Huge amounts of cassva was produced on the conuco. Beckles and Shepherd stated

A family would cultivate a conuco intensively for two to 3 years. When the garden soil was no longer fertile and production levels dropped, the family would move on to a fresh fresh plot. The old conuco would be remaining uncultivated for approximately the same amount of time. Before it was cut back into production. It was only later that the Taino developed the technology of fertilising soils with animal and vegetable manure. (8)

This evidence implies that the Tainos used some form of science in the way they cultivated their cunoco and then advanced to fertilisers. These fertilisers were developed and used prior to the arriving of the Spaniards This growth displays that they were developing their contemporary society and adheres to the actual fact that they were indeed civilised. The Kalinago world was not as agriculturally advanced as the Tainos. As a result there captivation of Taino women occurred so that regardless of the Kalinagos drawback when compared with the Tainos in agriculture they still acquired means of cultivating their crops.

Moreover the both organizations had other ways of retrieving food by making a domestic market, which made up of domesticating plant life and animals. To be able to domesticate plants they had gardens where the planted fruit trees such as cashews, paw paw, plum, pineapple, guava et cetera. They localized family pets by finding them and keeping them in their yards for eating. That's where they acquired their main source of protein. They maintained family pets such as pigs, wildlife, parrots and reptiles and seafood.

Both groups acquired developed particular world views and concepts about the afterlife. The Tainos got three main gods, proof which were within carvings in many of the Lesser and Greater Antilles. Matching to Footprint the main male god was called Yocahє, which was associated with cassava and volcanoes. The primary girl deity was a fertility goddess, often referred to as Atabeyra, and had roles associated with the ocean and the moon. A 3rd deity is a puppy god, called Opiyel-Guaobiran, indicating 'the dog deity who takes care of the souls of the immediately deceased and is the son of the soul of darkness. This deity was thought to be responsible for looking after the recently dead. (55). Small statues were crested to represent these deities called zemis which they would use to try to make contact with the spiritual realm. The Kalinagos did not have Zemis like the Tainos. The Kalinagos each assumed that they had a personal spirit which got various forms. They also assumed in good and bad. That they had priests which interacted with the spiritual world with the person.

The Neo-Indians experienced principles about their physical appearance. Their Civilization and cultural facet of beauty differed from the Spaniards. They flattened their foreheads as you indication of beauty. Men and women grew their locks long which was also another indication of beauty. Women of the communities wore ornaments created from beads, shell, and rare metal pieces. Jewellery was widely used such as nasal wedding rings and earing by both teams and both sexes. Occurrence of artistic imagination and ornaments and pottery were also occurrence giving information that both communities were civilized. The Taino women were complex in their artistry. They wove cotton into high quality fabric and wove baskets of different designs and styles. The Tainos made ceramics such as bowls, pots and ornaments and weaponry and tools out of rock. These tools would then permit them to build homes, canoes and other utensils needed for their survival. The Kalinagos were not as complex in their artistry as the Tainos however they have however weave egyptian cotton and baskets and made pottery and canoes.

Upon the Spanairds first entrance in the Carribean they did not discover primeval societies with basic means of living but societies that already possessed many factors established amongst themselves. Plainly the Spaniards did not bring civilization to the Caribbean but instead found socially sophisticated native communities scattered throughout the region. It would have been intricate to the Spanairds because they might have also originated from a different qualifications with some other culture and various ways of being civilized but that will not undermine the actual fact that the Carribbean also got their means of becoming developed. They did not meet the areas, the Paleo-Indians and Meso-Indians in which civilization started out with, but came across the Neo-Indians who ultimately left evidence showing that their civilization was evolving and their individuals society was being developed.

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