China is a country which has a traditional history of more than five thousand years. Its culture was marvelous, its current economic climate was very prosperous and its people were very pleased with their countrywide identities with strong self-assurance and patriotism. However, situation changed drastically in the recent two hundred years. Qing Dynasty was the previous feudal dynasty in Chinese record, from later time of the Qing Dynasty China started dropping advantages in science and technology. An Asian large became lagged behind because of the closed-door trading insurance plan. Because the first Opium Battle in 1839, China became a goal of overseas invasion. To save the country, many movements led by patriots and nationalists broke out. Because of Western invasion, Chinese language identity transformed from a prosperous feudal empire to a lagged behind and poor country. Chinese people realised they had lagged off foreigners. Nationalists started to find a way to expel foreign invaders, save China and establish a new democratic China. Such activities include Taiping Rebellion, Xinhai Trend, the May Fourth movements, and so forth.
This essay examines two nationalist actions in conditions of how they shaped Chinese personality. The first activity reviewed in this paper is the May Fourth Movement occurred on, may 4, 1919. It affected Chinese identity in politics, education and ethnic aspects and revealed Chinese individuals were struggling finding a way to save the country. In this movement, students and nationalists acted as a innovator, they leaded to save lots of China and expel foreign invaders especially Japanese. The May Fourth Activity also launched the communism to Chinese language identity, from that time Chinese Communist get together started out growing up in China.
After the building blocks of People's Republic of China in 1949, Chinese language people personality is no more being the victim of overseas oppression and invasion. Chinese language people think China is a powerful country. Their identity is shifting from a non-confident to confidence about their region. That's why Chinese language people are incredibly angry when Japan released to purchase the Diaoyu Islands just lately. Chinese people's protests and presentations against Japan's purchasing shows Chinese people have become more self confidence about their country, they don't think China will be beaten by Japan again. China is getting a new identification as a strong, independent land that is very. Government and people are working jointly to make China become stronger in the world stage.
May Fourth Movement
The May Fourth Motion started in Beijing on, may 4, 1919 was an epochal event in modern Chinese background. (Joseph, 1970) It had been anti-imperialist, anti-feudal and anti-warlord leaded by nationalists, young students, and factory employees. The humiliating Treaty of Japan's Twenty One in Versailles enraged Chinese language people. The treaty attempted to transfer German occupied area in Shandong province to Japan rather than returning them back to China. China was regarded as a weak country with large land and resources by Traditional western countries. May Fourth Movements broke out under this backdrop and allow world listen to the tone of Chinese language people. The activity was successful, and under great pressure, Chinese federal government refused to sign on Treaty of Versailles. It had been the success of Chinese people. The May Fourth Activity influenced Chinese identity from politics, educational and cultural aspects.
The May Fourth Motion changed China politically. Previous revolutions and moves were mostly began and led by several important people and only a minority area of the population involved. The majority of people, in prior revolutions, they resisted administration and invaders with little moves. For instance, Reform Activity in 1890s was led by Kang Youwei who was a scholar and political idealist. His idea to make China strong needs emperor to reform the country. Ordinary individuals were not considered or attempted in Reform Movements. Taiping Rebellion of 1850s led by Hong Xiuquan affected millions of men and women but its main force against Qing Dynasty was trained armies. Normal people still remained on the farm and appreciated the relatively peaceful population. Those movements did not change horrendous situation in China at that time. Such moves and efforts never stopped before May Fourth Movements. May Fourth activity firstly showed the power of people. On this movements, young students acted as pioneers and Chinese working school became its main force later protesting the Chinese language weak response to the Treaty of Versailles. Students and working course people added an enormous pressure to federal government. Under such huge pressure from them, federal government refused to to remain the Treaty of Versailles.
The May Fourth Motion is also referred to as the cradle of Chinese communist party. The current ruler of PRC, since then, communism was labeled on Chinese id. New Young ones, the most powerful journal in the May Fourth Movement, (Uberoi, 1987). Chen Duxiu, the runner of New Children, and Li Dazhao, the overall editor, appeared very meticulously at Russian Marx communism. Motivated by Communist Manifesto and the success of Russian trend, they moved from studying to practice Marxism which they believed that may save China by pursuing Russian example. Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao placed the funding meeting of Communist Party in 1921 in Shanghai. The May Fourth Movement gave the beginning to Chinese communist party since then CCP developed across China in the latter twenty century and lastly ruled the country. Since the May Fourth Activity, communism became a more plus more important component of Chinese identification.
The May Fourth Activity also changed the traditional education. Hu shi and other scholars launched two new conditions 'research' and 'Democracy' to China, categorised as Mr 'Sai' and Mr 'De' at that time. They educated people to learn modern technology alternatively than old Chinese language culture such as Confucianism (Hu, 1963) 'Technology' and 'Democracy' were two important principles in New Children. These two concepts were against customarily educated concepts like Confucianism. Chen Duxiu, one of the market leaders of the May Fourth Motion and main writers of New Youth magazine, wrote in his article 'Rejoinder to Accusations against Our Journal' that, "If you wish to support Mr. Democracy, you must first oppose Confucianism, the guidelines of propriety, the old system of ethics and the old style of politics. And if you need to support both Mr. Democracy and Mr. Knowledge collectively you have to oppose the idea of the 'countrywide quintessence' and the old literature. ' They stressed the importance of science and technology that would allow people to liberate their thinking and free themselves from days gone by". (Kwok, 1965)
Traditional Chinese civilizations and beliefs were attacked in the May Fourth Movements. Some Chinese language people compared traditional Chinese language culture. These people blamed traditional culture made China lagged behind and stop developing. They thought Chinese language people have to simply accept new ideas and abolish old ideas. That is the only way to save lots of our nation and develop China. (Chen, 1916) The May Fourth Movement needed 'new culture' and 'new books' as they compared Confusion beliefs. During this period, an organization of people positively done promoting new culture in which they promoted notion of national self-reliance and individual liberties. They focused on recreate Chinese culture and culture in modern China. (Toler, 2012) Such famous people were Hu shi, Chen Duxiu, Lu xun, and so on.
The May Fourth Activity changed Chinese people's personality in education, from that point old difficult traditional Chinese language was abolished. People began to use simplified Oriental, which would help to reduce illiteracy. Traditional Chinese language culture like Confucianism were too difficult to understand for ordinary Chinese citizens, with new simplified Oriental, it became better to understand Chinese personas, now they can read and understand new idea from Western countries.
Some criticisms about the May Fourth Movement pointed out the damage of valuable Chinese customs. One representative shape contrary to the May Fourth Motion was Chiang Kai-shek who was the chief executive of Guomin Get together and was also a nationalist and Confusionist. He thought anti- Confucianism is very important for young people in their moral education, such as "Xiao" he thought it can be an important notion for Chinese visitors to remember. This is the first influx that Chinese traditional culture and ideals especially Confucianism were attacked in modern China and after the basis of People's Republic of China, Cultural Trend restarted the attack to traditional Chinese culture which triggered devastation to Chinese culture and resulted in tremendous injuries to traditional culture. Mao Zedong provided high appraise to the May Fourth Movement and Cultural Revolution was under his idea following criticism of old culture lifted by the May Fourth Activity. The May Fourth Activity affected not only the countrywide identity of this time but also the population fifty years later.
Movements About Dioayu Islands dispute
Since the later 19th century, when China was invaded by Western countries, the ambition of Chinese language nationalists was to "Enrich the country and strength the army". Chinese language identity predicated on this idea makes China to guard its sovereignty and territorial integrity. Deng Xiaoping, the father of Chinese language reform and open movement said that "a region will be bullied if it lags behind the other countries", his idea indicated the importance of defending the country's territory and sovereignty. As China becomes more robust, many Chinese feel that China is able to defend its country, but those happenings about sovereignty are delicate and easily arouse strong sentiment of Chinese people. The recent Diaoyu Islands disputes between China and Japan aroused sentiment of Chinese language people in defending their country. The Diaoyu Island dispute between China and Japan has an extended background. Although China claims sovereignty over Diaoyu Island, China will not effective control over the hawaiian islands and Japan has implemented since 1972. On July 7, 2012, Japan announced its intension to nationalize Diaoyu Islands and on Sept 11, it purchased the island from a owner.
Chinese federal usually played the most important role in shaping the countrywide identification. Japanese government's purchasing patterns enraged Chinese language people. They believe the rejuvenation of China can't be achieved without retaining its territorial integrity due to past connection with divided and humiliated by foreign invaders. Protests against Japan and its purchase behavior broke out generally in many metropolitan areas of China. For example, in Beijing, several hundred people accumulated in front of japan Embassy declared the sovereignty of Diaoyu Islands. Other towns like Shanghai and Guangzhou all had such protests. Some Japanese companies were attacked in the protests. A Panasonic stock was set on fire in Qingdao. Such happenings happened across the country. The People's Daily, an authoritative Communist Party newspapers, said that "the protests were symbolic of the Chinese people's patriotism". (Johnson, 2012) With Internet and other sociable media getting more and popular among regular people, it is easier for Chinese people to know what took place throughout the world. Social media marketing provided Chinese language people massive ways to get information about outside media. With increasing attention and participation, Chinese language people are playing increasingly more important role in response to international issues, and they're becoming a growing power. Chinese people are becoming a more and more vigorous contributor to its countrywide identity. This time, they showed the planet that not only Chinese language government but also its people will not allow any foreign countries to invade China's sovereignty again.
"Along with the collapse of Soviet Union, communist ideology lost its appeal. Nationalism has turned into a weapon for Chinese government to claim the royalty of Chinese language people and also to rally their support to achieve rejuvenation of Chinese language region". (He, 2009) This time, with Diaoyu Islands, federal emphasised the value of patriotism. Major news papers, newspapers and websites submitted tales about nationalists preventing against Japanese. Major mass media also strengthened the personality that China is an inviolable country. Regarding people' presentations, international Ministry spokesman Hong Lei said the Japanese government's behavior is against the law it hurts the thoughts of the Chinese people and enraged the Chinese general public. China's top legislature firmly condemned Japan's purchase. China's top Wen Jiabao said that "China will never yield even half a step on the problem of sovereignty and territorial integrity". (Weng, 2012) For Diaoyu Islands dispute, both Chinese government and Chinese people portrayed opposition and strong protest against the Japanese. (Sina. com, 2012)
Some Taiwaness, Hong Kong China and mainland Chinese language fought collectively, they drove small boats and landed on Diaoyu Island to declare the sovereignty. "Although they resided in places of different communal creation or governance, for invasion from other country, China shows its personal information as a united nation". (Dzurek, 1996)
Peter Gries remarked that, "Chinese national identity evolves in powerful marriage with other nations and days gone by. " (Greis, 2004) China's nationalism comes from both the satisfaction of Chinese language civilization and days gone by humiliating invasion by the Western. Now, China will try to rejuvenate the country and make China grow again as a global important ability. China now will not allow any invasion to its sovereignty and territorial integrity. As the Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei said China has the capacity to defend its sovereignty and territorial integrity. With early civilization, almost a century of humiliation, and recent rejuvenation, Chinese identity has truly gone through tremendous change. From The May Fourth Activity in 1919 which leaded by students and working course group to today's Diaoyu Islands protests against Japan, Chinese language people is participating in a more and much more important role in the national identity. China changed from a weakened country which did not has the capacity to protect its territorial integrity to a strong country which has the capability to defend its region today, contrubtions of most nationalists of recent one hundred years cannot be ignored. Chinese personality is designed by them, nationalism is a strong 'Tool' to safeguard foreign invaders which is also an important political 'tool' which helps China Communist Party to govern the planet biggest Communist Country.
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