The Revolution WITH THE Typewriter Background Essay

The invention of the typewriter was one of the greatest turning points ever sold. Writing, a recently laborious task, was made immensely easier. The typewriter benefited countless clergymen, editors, and authors who were all "obliged to endure the drudgery of the pen. " It brought convenience and efficiency to people everywhere. A lot more important, however, was its effect on businesses and modern culture. Businesses could actually grow and advance in unparalleled ways due to this newfound speed on paper. This speed have been impossible to attain by hand, but because of the Sholes-Glidden typewriter, it became the driving force in practically every company's development. The Sholes-Glidden typewriter, however, was not the first typewriter to be made, nor was it the first to be faster than hand-writing-it was this is the first commercially successful typewriter. As a matter of fact, the typewriter's origins can be followed way back to a period before any man acquired ever dreamt of an keyboard.

Ever because the first written language was made, words had to be meticulously copied by hand, stroke-for-stroke, word-for-word, copied and recopied over and over in order to make a single duplicate or write down an individual record. Just one single error might lead to the whole page or tablet to be rewritten. In fact, the writing process was so arduous that there have been people-scribes-whose lives were dedicated just to writing and copying. These were honored and renowned, too, because of how difficult writing was. Despite the difficulty, writing was an integral part of human progression. From the middle-1400s, people acquired already gotten sick and tired of writing's difficulty and seemed for new ways to reduce this labor. The result was the printing press, the first invention that revolutionized the world of writing. Following this success, humans started searching for even more ways to boost writing and make it easier. The next major revolution in writing emerged in 1657 in the form of William Petty's writing machine. Within the machine's patent, Charles I explained it as a machine that

"might be learnt within an hour's time, and of great gain to law firms, scriveners,

merchants, scholars, registars, clerks, etcetera; it keeping the labour of assessment,

discovering or preventing falsification, and carrying out the business of writing-as

with ease and speed-so with privacy. "

Even though Petty's technology was really just a machine that composed with two pens simultaneously, Charles I's explanation would express the function and utility of the typewriter perfectly. In 1714, almost sixty years later, Henry Mill created another notable typewriter. Within the patent awarded to him by Queen Anne, Mill's typewriter was described as

". . . an artificial machine or method for impressing or transcribing of characters, singly or steadily one following the other, as on paper, whereby all writings whatsoever may be engrossed in writing or parchment so neat and exact as never to be distinguished from printingthe impression being more deeply and more prolonged than any writing. . . "

Unlike Petty's two-pen writing machine, Mill's machine a lot more tightly resembled a typewriter. Alas, not one model of this typing machine remains-not a good diagram or illustration of it.

Invented in 1829, William Austin Burt's Typographer became the first American writing machine. Burt's Typographer placed its words along a structure the shape of a semi-circle. A person could type on this Typographer by taking a notice to the turning point utilizing a wheel. Then, a lever would bring the type to the top of paper, making a persona on the paper. This, however, was an extremely poor process-even slower than hand-writing. As turned out in a notice to his wife, Burt's Typographer was also very susceptible to spelling errors. Regardless of the flaws, John Sheldon, editor of the Michigan Gazette, observed potential in the typographer. He even proceeded to go so far as to create to Andrew Jackson, the leader at the time. However, Sheldon had not been able to come up with enough funds to make the Typographer, and the typographer was brought to a early end. Despite the fact that Sheldon's letter was describing Burt's Typographer, it accurately predicted the impact of the eventual typewriter when it explained that the writing machine "will be rated with the most novel, useful, and pleasing inventions of the age. " Following Burt, many inventors attempted to create their own typing machines. Their designs differed greatly, which range from piano-like keyboards to large balls, from content spinning designs to table-top designs like people we've today. None of the inventions experienced any real impact like this of Burt's, and, as a result, their inventors' titles and encounters became lost in the depths of record.

In 1831, another well known typewriter emerged, delivered in a period of much tension between the North and the South. Actually built as a spare time activity by John Pratt, the "Pterotype" would eventually end up being the motivation for the first commercially successful typewriter. Because taking out patents was extremely problematic for a Southerner during the Civil Battle, Pratt eventually made a decision to finish his invention in London, where he got out a provisional United kingdom patent in 1864. His Pterotype aroused much interest and speculation in many British citizens. In fact, the machine was so profound that when Pratt came back to America at the end of the Civil Warfare, he found an editorial, "Type Writing Machine", written in Scientific North american that detailed his machine as

"A machine where it is assumed a man may print out his thoughts twice as fast as he can write them, and with the advantage of the legibility, compactness and neatness of print out, has lately been exhibited before the London Modern culture of Arts by the inventor, Mr. PrattThe subject matter of typewriting is one of the interesting aspects of the longer term. Its manifest feasibility and advantage reveal that the laborious and unsatisfactory performance of the pen must, ultimately, become outdated for basic purposes".

This information very accurately reveals the features of typewriting machines right now. Sadly for Pratt, by the time he previously been granted U. S. Patent No. 81000 for his "Pterotype", Charles Latham Sholes possessed already been awarded a patent for his typing machine. Because of this patent timing, Bottoms is still given credit today for the first commercially successful typing machine.

Also known as "the father of the typewriter", Charles Latham Sholes is often given the credit for inventing the first typewriter in history. While this is not true, the Sholes-Glidden typewriter was indeed the first truly successful typewriter. Sholes lived in Milwaukee, Wisconsin by the neighborhood Kleinsteuber machine shop, a shop he frequented along with his friends Samuel W. Soule and Carlos Glidden. In July 1867, Sholes came across this article in Scientific America describing Pratt's "Pterotype". Inspired by this "Type Writing Machine", Sholes set out to make his own machine, stating that Pratt's machine was too sophisticated. Through significant amounts of experimenting and inventing, Sholes and his friends were finally in a position to make a machine that was able to print one letter: W. While this would seem to be very trivial in comparison with the accomplishments of others before them, Feet and his friends were thrilled as of this little achievement of theirs.

After much painstaking learning from your errors, Sholes and his friends were finally in a position to create a machine which could type the complete alphabet. This machine was so significant because it was the first type writing machine that may type words faster than one could write with pen (Sholes got his typewriter branded before Pratt's, which could also type faster than you can write). He called his new typewriting machine the Type-Writer following the title of this article that had actually inspired him. With his new machine, Sholes wrote to a man named Wayne Densmore for support. Densmore was very interested in Sholes's writing machine-so much so that he immediately decided to pay a hefty $600 in return for a share of the profits. He also stayed with the project, constantly pushing Feet to generate the perfect machine. Because of the end of the Civil Conflict, the Remington Hands Company, a manufacturer previously priced with the processing of weapons and sewing machines (for uniforms), now found itself idle and filled with bare space. With this extra space, Sholes and Densmore could actually create 1, 000 Type-Writers-1, 000 Type-Writers that revolutionized the world of writing and started the industry of the typewriter.

The original Sholes-Glidden typewriter's appearance was completely different from that of newer typewriters; it more meticulously resembled a sewing machine (the Remington Biceps and triceps Company had created sewing machines and weapons during the conflict. ) However, the prolonged feature of the Sholes-Glidden typewriter was not its sewing machine-like appearance, but its keyboard layout. Instead of the usual A-Z key pad layout of its time, the Sholes-Glidden typewriter was organized in the format many people are well-versed in today, the QWERTY key pad layout. This layout was, in essence, designed to decrease typists down and place frequently used keys far apart so as to prevent newspaper jams. As the level of popularity and success of Sholes's typewriter grew, others began to look at the QWERTY layout as well. Today, practically every keyboard is established in the QWERTY layout-a beautiful show off of the Sholes-Glidden typewriter's enduring impact.

Shortly after Sholes's typewriter was released, another notable model, the Hammond model, was created by Wayne B. Hammond. Finding the awful misfortune Pratt acquired in the timing of his patent, Hammond offered Pratt a cash payment and a royalty if Pratt consented to going out of the typewriter industry. Then, using Pratt's ideas and patents, Hammond "created" a typewriter that utilized the revolutionary idea of interchangeable type, or the "shift" button on today's keyboards. This new mechanism allowed for just two sets of tips that could be swapped at the thrust of a button, enabling typists to type with a lot better range of symbols and words despite having a reduced amount of visible keys on the top.

Due to a general misunderstanding of just what a typewriter was, the Sholes-Glidden typewriter didn't sell very well when it was first released. People often mixed up the typewriter with the age-old printing press, not noticing that the typewriter was a brand-new, breakthrough invention. When people started to understand the features of the typewriter, however, culture was transformed for the better in extraordinary ways. Typewriters' unrivaled quickness in producing words became amazingly valuable tools for authors and workers in offices, whose time writing was now cut in half. Despite the typewriter's learning curve, everyone accepted that typewriters experienced much probable, as evidenced by Make Twain's letter to his own typewriter

"I AM Hoping TTO OBTAIN THE HANG OF THE NEW FFANGLED WRITING MACHINE, BUT AM NOT MAKING A Glowing SUCCESS THAN IT. HOWEVER THIS IS THE FIRST ATTEMPT I EVER HAVE MADE &YET I PERCEIVETHAT I SHALL SOON &EASILY ACQUIRE A FINE Service IN ITS USE.

As these article in the Scientific American so accurately predicted, ""[l]egal copying, and the writing and delivering of sermons and lectures, never to speak of words and editorials, will go through a revolution as exceptional as that effected in catalogs by the technology of printing. " Everyone, regardless of what job, was benefited by the typewriter. Everyday living was afflicted in incredible ways. For example, with just fifty cents, personal characters could actually be published out at amazing speeds, something completely new to the general public.

Not only does they improve everyday life and improve workflow, typewriters created many new opportunities for women. Because of the typewriter's ever-growing level of popularity in the past due 1800s, women received a new possibility to enter into business. While women used to be limited by employed in factories and sweatshops, typewriters offered them new opportunities for clerical work, which would pay much higher salaries and provide much safer working conditions than factories. Sholes himself soon acknowledged himself that his typewriter provided women with new freedoms, saying, "'I do feel I've done something for the ladies who've always needed to work so hard. This will enable them more easily to earn a livingwhatever I may have experienced in the early days of the value of the typewriter, it is obviously a blessing to mankind, and especially to womankind. " Although Sholes certainly did not expect the typewriter to obtain such a great effect on the lives of women, his invention allowed countless women to earn livings as typists, and, most of all, provided them a springboard from which they would have the ability to progress to even higher positions in modern culture.

The typewriter is one of the most revolutionary inventions ever sold. It brought speed to writers, output to office buildings, and convenience to individuals. It brought careers to women, characters to friends, and computer systems to the people. Nevertheless, the journey in the creation of the typewriter was an extended and arduous one. It spanned over hundreds and more than 100 years, with every new technology adding to the previous one. Nonetheless, the typewriter finally met its goal as it made its way in to the lives of each man and girl. Today, everyone uses a keyboard of some kind. Nearly every one particular keyboards is formatted in Sholes's QWERTY layout, and all of those keyboards includes Hammond's switch key. The type-writing machine, though quite definitely neglected today, still lives in practically everything man-made, from the keyboards on our laptops to the text on our magazines made by type-writing machines all around the world.

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