The socio-political and cultural life of the BSSR...

Question 67. The socio-political and cultural life of the BSSR in 1945-1953

The socio-political life of the BSSR in the postwar period was determined by the preservation in the society of the leading role of the Communist Party. In 1952, at the XIX Congress of the CPSU (b), the party received a new name - the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). The Communist Party of Belarus (CPB) was an integral part of the CPSU and subordinated to its governing body, the Central Committee (CC). Soviets, trade unions, the Komsomol, other public organizations were under the control of the party apparatus. In 1938 - the beginning of 1947. First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) B was P. Pomarenko. In 1947, P. Gusarov was appointed to this post, who led mass collectivization in the western regions of Belarus. In 1950, P. Patolichev became the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik).

In 1946, the first post-war elections were held to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, in 1947 - to the Supreme Council of the BSSR, in 1948 - to the local Soviets of Working People's Deputies. In 1945-1953 years. the cult of the personality of Stalin was preserved. Especially solemnly celebrated in 1949, his 70-year anniversary.

In the post-war period, repatriation - the return to their homeland of former prisoners of war, citizens who were hunted for work, former prisoners of concentration camps, refugees and settlers.

In the late 1940's - early 1950's. Political repression, , which first of all touched the figures of the Belarusian culture and science, some of them were repressed repeatedly. A particularly tense situation developed in Western Belarus, where collectivization continued the sabotage and terrorist activities of the troops of the Army of the Krai, bandit groups of the "forest brothers."

The main achievement of the cultural life of the BSSR in the first post-war years was the almost complete restoration by the end of 1950 of the pre-war network of general education schools. In the years 1949-1950. was introduced mandatory universal 7-year education, the transition to which was completed by the mid-1950's. In the 1950-1951 gg. the number of schools exceeded the pre-war figure, but the number of pupils was smaller, which is due to human losses during the war. The primary schools accepted so-called overgrown children - children of 15 years of age, who did not go to school during the war years. In the 1950-1951 gg. in the BSSR, there were 29 higher educational institutions. In connection with the needs of the national economy and culture, new universities were opened: the BeloUnited States Theater Institute (1945). Minsk Institute of Foreign Languages ​​(1948), Grodno Agricultural Institute (1951), Belarusian Institute of Railway Transport Engineers in Gomel (1953), etc.

In 1944, the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR resumed its activity. In the postwar period, the main direction of scientific research has changed: physico-mathematical and natural sciences became the priority. A great contribution to the development of biology was made by Academician A. Zhebrak, repressed in 1947. V. Kuprevich, who served as president of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR from 1952 to 1969, contributed to the development of new scientific directions in Belarus.

In the artistic culture in the post-war period, ideological control increased. In the years 1946-1948. The Central Committee of the CPSU (B.) Adopted a series of decrees that were to restore the ideological homogeneity of the spiritual life and strengthen the leading role of the party in all spheres of culture. In the postwar years, the Union of Soviet Writers of the BSSR continued its activity. In the works of literature and art, the military theme prevailed: the novels of K. Chorny, the Milky Way, M. Lynkov, The Unforgettable Days. I. Shamyakina Deep Current & quot ;. I. Melezha Minsk direction and others

A number of works by Belarusian writers received the highest award of the creative intelligentsia of the USSR after the war - the Stalin Prize: poems "Fisherman's Hut" Ya Kolasa, Bread P. Brovka, New Channel A. Kuleshov.

At the same time, political repressions resumed, the victims of which were representatives of the artistic intelligentsia of the BSSR S. Grakhovsky, and again was repressed by V. Dubovka.

After the liberation of Belarus from the Nazi invaders, the theater teams returned from evacuation. In the season of 1944-1945. There were 12 theaters. Theatrical repertoire included plays on the war ("The Hostages" by A. Kucera. "Brest Fortress" by K. Gubarevich, "Konstantin Zaslonov" by A. Movzon), as well as works by Belarusian and world theatrical classics. The comedy plays were staged: "Sorry, please." A. Makayonka, "They sing larks" K.Krapivy. On the stage of the State Opera and Ballet Theater of the BSSR were the operas of Belarusian composers "The Girl from Polissya" E. Tikotsky, "Nadezhda Durova A. Bogatyreva, "Kastus Kalinouski D. Lucas.

In the visual arts, the military theme prevailed, which was embodied in the form of a thematic picture: "The captives lead" A. Shibneva, "Defense of the Brest Fortress" E. Zaitseva. Minsk. July 3 V. Volkova et al.

thematic pictures

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