In the historical civilization, there may be trading lines traversing Eurasia, east from Chang'an to Mediterranean area. This is the Silk Road, or Silk Street, which really is a great success in the history, promoting the ethnic, commercial, spiritual exchange between your old East and the Western world. It is some trade lines covering parts of the Asian continent, stretching over five thousand a long way on land and sea. In addition to the cultural and religious exchanges, trade on the Silk Routes was also a prominent part in the development of the ancient civilization of nations including China, Egypt, Persia, India and Rome and so on. The Silk Street had paved the road for the modern world and additional communication between your east and western.
This paper goals to demonstrate the characteristic the different parts of international trade over the Silk Street in the Pre-Mongol time mainly involving the following aspects: the traders, merchandises, their method of transport and the most important the trade routes. Besides these, this paper also attempts to provide some thoughts of old China, one of the most typical countries over the Silk Highway which got made great contribution to the success of Silk Highway, as an example to promote the international trade on the Silk Highway.
2. Characteristic Components of Trade on the Silk Road
In order to truly have a good and comprehensive understanding of the international trade over the Silk Highway, this newspaper will describe the deals in details mainly from the aspects of the investors, merchandises, their means of transport and the most crucial the trade routes.
2. 1 Traders
Along the Silk Highway Chang'an and Rome were the two cities standing at the ends of this long trade series which is too much time for ancient visitors to finish the whole line. Which means business was indirect, as merchandises were passed from one merchant to some other in a limited region until those goods made an appearance on the market of Chang'an and Rome.
In those international deals, people in the central and west part of the Asian continent, who lived along the middle area of the Silk Routes, were taking physical advantages, being in the dominating put in place the trades. The Sogdians, the Persians, the Greeks and Jews were the most successful merchants across the Silk Road. For instance, among those professionals the groups of Sogdians from Samarkand were the mainstream and controller in the investments in Central Asia (Etienne, 2005). While Greeks and Jews were the first sellers in the investments over the Silk Highway.
2. 2 Merchandise
From the name, it is straightforward to know the item on the Silk Street must have silk. However, silk is not really the only goods. In the very starting, some costly horses and the seed products of crops were sold to China. Later other goods like woolen products, exotic rugs and textiles like draperies and blankets were also taken to China. Those products deeply impressed Chinese language in those days by their particular ways of procession and weaving (Francis, 2005). Meanwhile camels, armaments, material like platinum and sliver, scarce stones and other wine glass products were also very palatable for China. For instance glass from Samarkand was loved because of this of its good quality, which was regarded as luxurious merchandise. In the category of the goods to China, there have been furs, wool, spectacular embros, fruits, sheep and other family pets.
While China exported famous china such as delicate bowls, cups, dishes. Because the key of the production of the thinnest china was only possessed by Chinese, those products were very expensive on the western market. Paper was another goods high valued in the western. Traders always brought tea, Chinese textile, and rice as well.
Goods, as grain, natural cotton, silk, furs, were always exchanged to the east of the Europe. Cattles, honey, slaves were often taken to the north.
2. 3 Means of Transportation and Caravans
In the fascinate testimonies over the Silk Road, pets play an important role. They were not only the major travel at that time but the faithful friends in that dangerous and uninteresting trading journey. Similarly Family pets like sheep and chevres offered needs of lifestyle. On the other hand horses and camels not only fulfilled the local requirements but were also the critical part for the development and success of the international trade and business (Denis, 1972).
Camels were the most typical transport along the Silk Road. It is therefore common to find the camel caravans on the road, forming a typical image of the Silk Road. Generally, the amount of camels in a caravan was not fixed which ranged from dozens to hundreds, resting with the level of the caravan. And along the Silk Road those camels lined. In the mean time due to the trip was long crossing different parts the camel caravan always covered a variety of ethnicities.
Samarkand, Loulan, Dunhuang etc were in the set of typically the most popular vacation spots for the trade caravans, which all were the active trading centers.
2. 4 Trade Routes
The success and prosperity of the international deals on the Silk Road, to a sizable extent, depend on the many trade routes which cover a variety. This newspaper will mainly from two lines to analyze the trade routes of the international investments on the Silk Road: overland and sea.
The trades on the Silk Highway started from China, the commercial centers in the old time. Which means trade routes can mainly be split into two parts: north routes and southern routes
The northern way started from the historic city Chang'an, crossing the northwest Gansu province from Shanxi Province. Later the north route developed into three branch routes. Two of the branches gone along the mountain amounts to bypass the Taklimakan Desert and eventually attained at Kashgar. The rest branch went over the north of the Tian Shan Mountains (Chen, 1986).
The southern path, unlike the northern one, didn't split branches, beginning with China transferring Karakoram. Nowadays a highway is constructed called 'Karakoram Highway' between China and Pakistan (Elisseeff, 2001). This southern way travelled the mountains and crossed the north of the Pakistan and later into Afghanistan. That a straight series western world crossed the north Iran and also to Levant in which commercial boats to Italy piled.
Besides the overland routes, there were also trade routes over sea. Back to 1, 400 years back, the maritime of Silk Road emerged. Not the considered as a part of Silk Road at that time, a trade brand over sea began from the mouth area the Red River, moving the Malacca Straits to India, southeast part of Asian continent and later sailed to the Persian Gulf and lastly come to the Rome. Another trade road over sea was from the east seacoast of the Africa dominated by the Greece and Rome. In the maritime of the international investments, there were also some important metropolitan areas like overland ones working as vehicles center and slots like Istanbul, Guangzhou etc. however, the investments across the Silk Road oversea were also same to the overland ones, still indirect.
3. China and Silk Road
The success and prosperity of the Silk Road do not be based upon the investors but also the frame of mind of the major empire across the Silk Highway. China as one of the typical traditional trade centers to a great degree promoted the introduction of the international trades
In Han Dynasty, the international trades drew the attention of the Chinese language emperor Wudi who was simply attracted by producing trading marriage with other nations over the Silk Road. In particular in order to fight Xiongnu the major enemy of Han Dynasty, Wudi was greatly enthusiastic about the strong and tall horses (Beckwith, 1991). Therefore Chinese language empire later directed many envoys within 10 years to other nations along the Silk Road. According to the history there were some situations that Han armies immediately struggled legion that might be captured or utilized by Xiongnu, especially the famous marketing campaign in the 36 BC in Sogdiana. Later it was said that the Chinese tool crossbow was passed to the Rome by this chance (Hulsewe, 1979).
Later in Tang Dynasty, the emperor also kept a supportive attitude. In the capital of Tang Dynasty Chang'an, there was full of incredible products, rich in foreign traders. Specifically one part of Chang'an was called 'Western Market' where Chinese language people hung out for incredible products. In such a bustling trade centers the market was crowed by overseas dealers such as Sogdians, Turks, Persians, Indians and other folks from the West Regions, selling various goods scarce plants, metal like yellow metal and sliver, furs, a glass, wool, textile, sheep, etc. Inside the Western Market, international stock traders made great income and taking prominent place of trading jade, earrings and incents. Meanwhile on the avenues there were many special shows to entertain people, such as acrobatic feats, dance and singing. There were still delicious foods sold. Just because of the supportive frame of mind of the ruling category in China, the international deals could be properly developed.
In the fascinate reports on the Silk Street, international trades and business play an important role. This paper attempts to demonstrate characteristic components of these trades on the Silk Highway to provide a vivid image and thorough understanding about Silk Street, mainly from the aspects of traders, merchandise, move, trade routes.
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