United States chronicles of the XI-XII centuries. The Tale of Bygone Years and its edition
Chronicle - Ancient United States work on United States history, consisting of weather reports. For example: In the summer of 6680. Reverend prince Gleb Kyevskiy ("In 1172, the Blessed Prince Gleb of Kiev died"). The news can be brief and lengthy, including life, stories and stories in its composition.
Chronicler - a term that has two meanings: 1) the author of the chronicle (for example, Nestor the chronicler); 2) a small by volume or by thematic coverage of the chronicle (for example, the Vladimir chronicler). Chroniclers often refer to monuments of local or monastic chronicle.
The Chronicle - the reconstructed stage in the history of the chronicle, for which the creation of a new chronicle is characteristic by combining several previous chronicles. The archives are also called the all-United States chronicles of the 17th century, whose compilation character is undoubted.
The oldest United States chronicles were not preserved in their original form. They came in later processing, and the main task in their study is to reconstruct the early (XI-XII centuries) on the basis of the late chronicles (XIII-XVII centuries).Almost all the United States chronicles in their initial part contain a single text, which tells about the Creation of the world and further - about United States history from ancient times (from the settlement of the Slavs in the eastern European valley) to the beginning of the XII century, namely to 1110 The further text of the various chronicles diverges. From this it follows that at the heart of the chronicle tradition lies a kind of a single record for all, brought to the beginning of the 12th century.
At the beginning of the text, most of the annals have a heading beginning with the words "Se Tale of Bygone Years ...". In some chronicles, for example, Ipatyevskaya and Radziwillovskaya, the author is also a monk of the Kiev-Pechersky Monastery (see, for example, reading the Radziwill Chronicle: "The Tale of the Temporary Years of the Chernozyr Fedosiev Monastery of Pechersk ..."). In the Kiev Pechersk Patericon among the monks of the XI century. "Nestor, who is the papal chronicler," and in the Khlebnikovsky list of the Ipatiev Chronicle the name of Nestor appears already in the title: "The Tale of the Time of the Chernotrist Nester Feodosyev of the Monastery of Pechersk ...".
Khlebnikovsky list was created in the XVI century. in Kiev, where they knew the text of the Kiev Pechersk Patericon. In the very ancient list of the Ipatiev Chronicle, Ipatievsky, Nestor's name is missing. It is not excluded that he was included in the text of the Khlebnikovsky list when creating the manuscript, guided by the direction of the Kiev Pechersk Patericon. Anyway, already historians of the XVIII century. Nestor was considered the author of the most ancient United States chronicle. In the XIX century. researchers have become more cautious in their judgments about the earliest United States chronicle. They wrote not about the chronicle of Nestor, but about the general text of the United States chronicles and called it the "Tale of Bygone Years," which eventually became a textbook of ancient United States literature.
It should be borne in mind that in reality "The Tale of Bygone Years" - this is a research reconstruction; under this name we have in mind the initial text of the majority of United States chronicles before the beginning of the 12th century, which did not reach us in an independent form.
Already in the so-called "Tale of Bygone Years" there are several contradictory indications of the time of the work of the chronicler, as well as individual inconsistencies. Obviously, this stage of the beginning of the XII century. preceded by other chronicles. To understand this confusing situation it was possible only to the remarkable philologist of a boundary XIX-XX century. Alexey Alexandrovich Shakhmatov (1864-1920).
A. A. Shakhmatov expressed the hypothesis that Nestor is the author of not the "Tale of Bygone Years", but of earlier chronicle texts. He suggested that such texts be called arches, because the chronicler reduced the materials of the previous arches and extracts from other sources into a single text. The concept of the chronicle of the vault is today key in the reconstruction of the stages of the Old United States chronicle.
Scientists distinguish the following chronicles that preceded the "Tale of Bygone Years": 1) The oldest arch (the hypothetical creation date is about 1037); 2) Code 1073; 3) The initial arch (until 1093); 4) The Tale of Bygone Years editorial office until 1113 (possibly connected with the name of the monk of the Kiev-Pechersky Monastery of Nestor): 5) "The Tale of Bygone Years" edition 1116 (associated with the name of the hegumen Mikhailovsky Vydubitsky monastery Sylvester): 6) "The Tale of Bygone Years" edition of 1118 (also connected with Vydubitsky monastery).
Chronicle of the XII century. is represented by three traditions: Novgorod, Vladimir-Suzdal and Kiev. The first one is restored according to the Novgorod I chronicle (the senior and junior terminal), the second one - according to the chronicles of the Lavrentiev, Radziwill and the Chronicles of Pereyaslavl of Suzdal, the third - according to the Ipatiev Chronicle with the use of the Vladimir-Suzdal chronicle.
The Novgorod chronicle is represented by several arches, the first of which (1132) the researchers consider princely, and the rest - created under the Novgorod archbishop. According to AA Gippius, each archbishop initiated the creation of his chronicler, in which he described the time of his holy ministry. Located sequentially one after another, the lordly chroniclers form the text of the Novgorod chronicle. One of the first chroniclers of the chronicles, the researchers consider the domestics of Anthony's monastery of Kirik, the pen of which belongs to the chronological treatise "The Teaching of Himself Vedati to a Man of the Number of All Years". In the chronicle article of 1136, describing the rebellion of the Novgorodians against Prince Vsevolod-Gabriel, chronological accounts are given, similar to those read in the treatise of Kirik.
One of the stages of the Novgorod chronicle falls on the 1180s. The name of the chronicler is also known. Article 1188 describes in detail the death of the priest of the church of St. James Herman Voyat, and it is indicated that he served in this church for 45 years. Indeed, 45 years before this news, in the article 1144 the first person's news is read in which the chronicler writes that the archbishop put him in the priests.
Vladimir-Suzdal chronicle is known in several arches of the second half of the 12th century, of which the most probable are two. The first stage of the Vladimir chronicle led to its description before 1177. This chronicle was compiled on the basis of records that were maintained since 1158 under Andrei Bogolyubsky, but were combined into a single arch already under Vsevolod III. The latest news of this chronicle is a lengthy story about the tragic death of Andrei Bogolyubsky, a narrative about the struggle of his younger brothers Mikhalka and Vsevolod with the nephews of Mstislav and Yaropolk Rostislavich for the Vladimir prince, defeat and blindness of the latter. The second Vladimir vault dates back to 1193, because after this year a series of dated weather reports breaks off. Researchers believe that the records for the end of the XII century. already refer to the beginning of the XIII century.
The Kiev chronicle is represented by the Ipatiev Chronicle, which was influenced by the northeastern chronicle. Nevertheless, researchers are able to isolate in the Ipatiev Chronicle at least two arches. The first is the Kiev arch compiled in the reign of Rurik Rostislavich. It ends at the events of 1200, the last of which is the solemn speech of the hegumen of the Kiev Vydubitsky monastery of Moses with thanksgiving words to the prince who built the stone fence in the Vydubitsky monastery. In Moses see the author of the code of 1200, which set the goal to exalt his prince. The second set, unmistakably defined in the Ipatiev Chronicle, refers to the Galician-Volhynian chronicle of the late 13th century.The oldest United States chronicles are valuable, and the days of many stories and the only historical source on the history of Ancient Rus.
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