Young Officers In Pakistan And Sri Lanka Army

1. Basic. The battle efficiency of the fighting force is based upon the total strength and efficiency of its military management, especially, the junior leaders. The history of warfare is replete with good examples where personal bravery and management has averted many disasters. Qualities of junior leaders therefore warrant substantial emphasis to yield optimum results both during serenity and war. Over the years, the effects of perpetual changes in countrywide, psycho-social and politics conditions have altered the authority environment so radically that applications of management and growth of junior market leaders appears to have suffered.

2. Degradation of armed forces leadership is not a new occurrence. The historical record of armed service performance of United States Army in Vietnam Warfare, and before and since, suggests that something was terribly wrong with the then widespread military composition. Critical to any diagnosis of the problem was the role or the officials' corps, which, needed to bear a large portion of the blame for what went wrong and what remained so. In Vietnam, the officials' corps grew in inverse percentage to its drop in quality identified by its capability to act as a cohesive drive around which battle models could cluster. Further, as the number of officials proliferated, and growth of the list composition concurred so that second lieutenants did the sergeants' job and majors do captains' jobs.

3. Background of the analysis. In view of the introduction of materialistic procedure and good job opportunities in the private sector, accomplished youth prefer to join the job which can provide them handsome pay and allied facilities. Besides, staying away from family and exposure to numerous potential issues, parents also prefer their children to decide on a vocation which is relatively safer and even more rewarding. Because of above mentioned reason, it is generally believed that the young ones who do not find a way out in other areas opt for the Army. They are more of job hunters and less of pros. Demonstration of the leadership characteristics is negatively affected by the non acceptance of faults in our armed service environment. Resultantly they lack initiative and risk taking.

Research Problem. While professional competence has improved upon over the years, negative styles like careerism and zero mistake syndrome has significantly affected the quality of junior market leaders in Pakistan and Sri Lanka Armies.

Research Question. Regardless of the improvement in education specifications and computer literacy, the quality of young officers in Pakistan and Sri Lank Army is declining with the passage of time.

Objectives of the Study. The reason why for conduct of the study are the following

To elaborate upon the importance of the role played out by young officials both in peacefulness and war.

Determine and dilate after the factors identifying the prospect of the young officers of today.

Carry out an in-depth evaluation of the common psycho-social environment and its effect on young officials.

Proffer viable tips to act as long and short-term remedial steps for controlling the further expansion of the negative propensity.

Significance of the Study. Young officials of today will be the flag bearers of tomorrow. The varied nature of threats and occupation places very high responsibility in it. The aim of all armed forces training is to produce leaders of men in both peacefulness and war. Young officers continue to be the most close portion in the string of command between your commanders and troops. Quality of control of the young officials has a primary bearing on the quality and morale of the clothing.

Limitations of the Study. The opportunity of the analysis shall remain limited to the grade of young officers in Sri Lanka Army. An effort will be made to effectively identify the reason why which are likely to have contributed to the situation under research. Armies of the then United kingdom colonies are largely trained on similar lines. General thoughts and opinions a comparable concern in Pakistan and Bangladesh Armies and its own comparison with Sri Lankan Army will be included in the study. The study is being conducted with pursuing limitations at heart

The study has been limited to the quality of young officers because of the superior education expectations and technological improvement; computer literacy level of the youth at the moment.

Armies protect the geographical and ideological borders of its countries. The foundation of inspiration differs from country to country due to different religions, contemporary society, culture and armed service traditions.

The term quality in this research paper identifies their professional attitude only and does not have make any mention of figure or other personal qualities.

Organisation of the Work/ Launch to Chapters. The study is being designed to be completed in pursuing chapters

Chapter 1 - Advantages.

Chapter 2 - Literary Review.

Chapter 3 - Young Officers as the Back bone of Army.

Chapter 4 - Factors Determining Psycho-Social Out Look in our Young Officers.

e. Section 5 - Factors Responsible For the Deterioration in Quality Leadership in Young Officials.

Chapter 6 - Recommendations

CHAPTER 2 - LITERARY REVIEW

Primarily the research is being conducted by making use of books, articles and studies done by various individuals and teams largely associated with different Armies. Besides, separate questionnaires are being sent out in the Army so you can get the type/views of the majors and commanding officials respectively. The materials having been consulted up to now is given in the succeeding paragraphs. However, it is sensed pertinent to mention that additional catalogs are being examined and you will be added subsequently.

Pakistan Army Green Book 1990 - Season of the Junior Leaders. To be able to understand the right place of junior market leaders, identify the weakened areas and recommend remedial steps to improve upon the grade of junior leaders, including young officials, the annual Green E book was focused on junior market leaders. It included the Junior Commissioned Officers and Non Commissioned Officers. It includes articles compiled by serving and retired Military officers offering their thoughts and opinions about the grade of junior leaders. The book stresses upon the precise areas which warrant immediate and long term focus on improve upon the leadership features of the young officers.

Major Basic (Retired) Aubery Newman, USA, WHAT EXACTLY ARE Generals Made Of. The general has very comprehensively discussed selecting young officers, their training, grooming and ultimate product as future leaders and general officials. He supports his ideas with historical incidents and towards the end offers advise for the young officials. This reserve provides in insight in to the areas which needs to be investigated and improved after the aimed management quality of the young officers.

Richard A Gabriel and Paul L Savage, Problems in Control. The historical record of the American military's performance in Vietnam, and before and since, suggested that something was terribly incorrect with the then military framework. Critical to any analysis of the situation was the role of the officer corps, which, had to bear a large part of the blame for what went wrong. To be able not to allow the mistakes of days gone by to shape the future, an impartial research was completed to investigate all the problems that arose through the war due mainly to the inefficiency and poor quality of young officers inducted in haste for conflict. By reading and critically examining this book you can safely expect the areas which a junior officer can go wrong and also realize the anticipatory methods to avoid it happening. Ultimately the purpose of quality junior command may be accomplished.

Major Paul Yinling and Major John Nagi United States Army, The Military Officer as War Fighter. This reserve is approximately the role of Military officers both in calmness and conflict. The military official must fill a number of functions, often all together. He has tasks as a battle fighter, as the country's servant, as an associate of the vocation of arms, and since a leader of identity. These four jobs are interrelated almost to the point of inseparability, but analyzing each independently allows a much better knowledge of their inherent complexities. Professionalism is a combo of competence and devotion to service that grows over time and progress occurs differently in each individual.

United States Army Pamphlet Quantity 600-2, The Armed Forces Officer. Standard George C. while providing as Army main of staff, got inspired the undertaking credited to his personal conviction that all American military officials share common ethical and moral ground. Individual services were commanded by men of integrity, honor and great control. It really is about the love of work and the knowledge that there surely is no higher calling than that of an MILITARY officer. To this end, the Army Pamphlet Quantity 600-2 was written. It examines the characteristics that have led to greatness. Despite the fact that the booklet uses examples of great market leaders in American history, it isn't about generals and admirals. It really is about those special commitments, responsibilities, needs and standards that military officers must maintain.

Field Marshal Slim, 'Beat into Triumph.

Training Directive 2010 Sri Lanka Military. The training directive clearly gives the vision in the Commander on the Army as "Professionalism to meet problems in the Service of the country". The targets of Officer Cadet Training, Junior Command Course and Senior Order Course amply stress upon working out of young officials to meet the future issues both in serenity and conflict.

Other Reference Materials. For further study, books as mentioned here are being considered

Cristopher D Colenda, Command: The Warrior's Skill.

Alvin and Heidi Tofflers, Battle and Anti War.

Strategic Analysis Quantity XXV. 6 Sept 2001. p. 762, Major Basic V. K Shrivastava, Indian Military 2020.

Journal of the Royal United Services Establishment.

Websites: Discussed below are some of the websites which have been approached for getting necessary information

www. combat-online. com/terror. htm"Terrorism-A Global Occurrence".

http://www. army. mod. uk/training_education/training/

www. hqda. military. mil/ari/

CHAPTER 3

Young Officials as the trunk Bone of Junior Leadership

11. The armed forces official must perform a number of functions, often concurrently. He has responsibilities as a conflict fighter, as the country's servant, as an associate of the career of arms so that as a leader of character. These four tasks are interrelated almost to the idea of inseparability, but evaluating each individually allows an improved understanding of their inherent complexities. Warfare fighting's complex design of activities includes creating, making use of, and sustaining fight capacity to achieve the aims of plan. Developmental process begins when an official receives his commission rate and continues throughout a career. Professionalism is a blend of competence and devotion to service that expands over time and progress occurs differently in every individual. There is absolutely no get ranking or position or level of education that obviously delineates the professional from the mere jobholder. Mastering the fine art and knowledge of war struggling encompasses every part of the individual experience; physical, intellectual, and moral. To understand completely the officer's duties as a warfare fighter, we should explore in detail each of these aspects.

a. The Physical Sizing. War fighting with each other always has been and always will be a have difficulty, not only against hostile makes but also against hostile environments. The officer as warfare fighter has a responsibility to prepare himself and his subordinates to cope with such physical rigors. This obligation begins at the earliest stages of officer's service. After arriving at his first work station, a second lieutenant is expected to set the standard for his platoon in physical toughness. Which the lieutenant be in excellent health is necessary, but not sufficient. More important is his willingness to talk about his troops' physical hardships. The need for leader existence in the worst possible conditions-in the rain and mud during training or at the idea of maximum hazard during combat can't be overestimated. Once the official endures such hardships alongside his troops, the hardships become the glue that binds the unit into a cohesive fighting with each other force. When the officer uses his rank or position to exempt himself from such hardship, the effect is exactly the contrary. As an official develops in seniority, the obligation to experience hardships alongside his troops becomes a lot more important. Senior officials exposing themselves to the problems of combat come with an energizing effect on military that defies rational calculation. . Armed service theorist Carl von Clausewitz approved the commander's existence as an anecdote for the soldier's exhaustion: "As each man's durability gives out, as it no longer responds to his will, the inertia of the complete comes to relax on the commander's will alone. The ardor of his spirit must rekindle the flame of goal in others; his inward fireplace must revive their hopes. "

b. The Intellectual Dimension. THE COUNTRY that will insist on drawing a wide line of demarcation between the struggling with man and the pondering man is liable to have its fighting with each other done by fools and its own thinking done by cowards. (Sir William Francis Butler). Courage is a necessary attribute atlanta divorce attorneys soldier, but courage alone can never be sufficient for the officer to exercise his obligations as a conflict fighter. A thorough knowledge of the theory and practice of warfare must govern his courage. Such knowledge allows him to get the country's wars at a satisfactory cost in blood vessels and treasure. In the absence of such knowledge, warfare becomes "simply murder. " The official as battle fighter is responsibility bound to educate himself and his subordinates on the theory and practice of conflict. This education trains an officer not what things to think but how to think. Every official basic course graduate is likely to demonstrate an primary understanding of the theory and practice of small unit combat functions. The theoretical areas of such operations are expressed in Army doctrine. Commanders expect second lieutenants to perform missions through the use of Military doctrine and resources to real-world problems. Noncommissioned officials, with their riches of experience, help young officials put doctrine and resources into practice. Every commander worthy of his sodium advises the new lieutenant to "listen to your non commissioned officials (NCOs). " However, that advice does not imply, "do what your sergeants say. " Rather, it means, "know very well what your sergeants know. " As officers advance in seniority, their duties increase and their education must keep pace. A commander's intellect may recognise the difference between success and failing, and the Military must continue steadily to discover and encourage its battle fighters' intellectual development so they know when to follow doctrine, when to violate it, and when to create it by their actions on future battlefields.

d. The Moral Sizing. While every aspect of war fighting is requiring, only the moral facet of war fighting with each other is paradoxical. To safeguard their state from the hazards of anarchy, the war fighter must be brutal enough to kill the State's enemies, but to safeguard their state from the potential issues of tyranny; he must be gentle enough to respect the freedoms of its people. Faced with this paradox, Socrates despaired of founding a republic that was both secure and just. Morally, the officer's authority comes from his role as a servant of population. The official who subordinates his personal protection and comfort to the security of world inspires subordinates to do likewise. The unit performed collectively by an official who only threatens consequence will soon dissolve when confronted with the opponent. However, the machine bound by way of a shared opinion in what's true, right, and just is in fact made better in the crucible of combat. Sergeants educate young officials to speak to soldiers not by threatening abuse for doing incorrect, but by detailing the necessity of doing right. In 1879, Major General John Schofield recommended Western Point cadets that "the willpower which makes the military of a free of charge country reliable in fight is never to be gained by harsh or tyrannical treatment. "

12. Changing Problems of Management. The world has changed considerably in mere a few years' time, which includes caused serious implications for the military profession. The situations of 11 September 2001 are not only what have provoked changes in officer-ship issues. Officials of the 21st century have shed nothing of their responsibilities to be qualified war fighters. The existing prospect of a typical invasion of Iraq constantly reminds us that competence in heavy armored operations remains essential to the Nation's survival. As an officer's difficulties are more unique and intricate, doctrine recedes into the background, drawing into sharp pain relief the senior commander's creative brains. Similarly the occurrence of terrorism heading beyond the limitations of national boundaries and becoming a global phenomenon makes the near future more difficult for the young officials who'll have to generally operate separately leading small groupings like combat clubs of platoons.

13. 21st Century officer. The only goal for warfare is to make a better peace. As the official applies his experience in war fighting with each other, he must constantly keep that better peacefulness at heart. The 21st-century official must be able to transition rapidly over the spectrum of businesses. To create an improved peace, he must have the ability to lead troops in the do of offensive, defensive, and stableness and support businesses. These operations may occur all together, and the move in one to the other will often be made at the discretion of junior market leaders. The official who is victorious the warfare and manages to lose the serenity is forget about professional than the physician who helps you to save a patient's knee at the expense of his spinal-cord.

Succeeding in the long twilight struggle that is thrust on us requirements all of the physical, moral, and intellectual energies that young officials may bring to bear to get ready for the tasks that they need to bear as battle fighters and since officers.

14. THE NORMAL Denominators of Control.

a. Skills and Knowledge. First, the ability to encourage trust and assurance. It could not be performed only by some heroic action of weight of ranks on one's shoulder blades. It is an outcome of the professional competence of the officials in their particular arms and services. The officer's ability to demonstrate proficiency and knowledge will begin to inspire people. When the under command believe about the professional competence about their immediate commander, they'll follow orders and even risk their lives to achieve the assigned mission.

b. Obligation, Integrity and Courage. Integrity is another important segment of an leader's qualities. The idea of integrity includes personal courage. Courage can be defined in several ways peculiar to the problem. It could be argued that courage under combat conditions can't be known until battle. When an officer demonstrates that each action is based on responsibility and the right thing to do and that no personal gain is the reason for the action, people will follow willingly.

c. Authority is Communication. Demo of knowledge, integrity, responsibility and courage is an integral part of this process. So is the ability to listen also to direct action. Listen closely first! Aspect provided two eyes, two ears and one mouth. Use them for the reason that percentage. By demonstrating the fundamentals of command, an officer learns that people working with her or him have information that will assist to help make the right decision. All information is dependant on perspective. It might be accurate and appropriate so far as it goes. Part of the leader's job is to acquire all of the information and action.

d. Leadership is Warranted Ego. Leaders positively seek responsibility and electricity because they believe that they can do the job. Ego, well balanced by humility, causes a George Washington-on the eve of his inauguration-to say, "I am probably the least well-equipped man in the area to use this job. "

e. Command is Perspective. Leadership demands of the leader to always look at the bigger picture. He should be able to browse the situation well both in peacefulness and conflict and continuously carry out mental appreciation to meet up with the impending troubles in a befitting manner.

f. Control is Invention. Young officers and the future leaders must think out of the box and use ground breaking ideas and actions to outnumber the adversary. Technology predicated on knowledge makes creativity the center name of successful market leaders. Standard of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower input it in these words: "The commander's success will be assessed more by his ability to lead than his adherence to resolved notions. "

g. Demand Presence. Soldiers always look up to their officers. In any situation, the occurrence of the commander as near to the troops in combat as is possible will augment the military' self-assurance and raise their morale. Regardless of the risk to his person, a officer should always stay in the forefront if he has to demand the ultimate sacrifice of supplying one's life for the country's integrity and sovereignty.

CHAPTER 4

Factors Deciding Pyscho-Social Out Look of Young Officers

15. Standard. Officer cadre in Pakistan and Sri Lanka Military is mostly the mixture of midsection and lower middle income who have the urge to rise in their financial and public stature and the Military provides them a best testing floor to explore their abilities. In order to pursue their goal of excelling in the Army they, sometimes, tend to target at seeking their personal hobbies and in turn may put their professional pursuits at lower main concern.

16. Depending after the family backdrop, grooming and technical expertise some of the factors deciding the perspective of today's young officials is

Religion. Religious beliefs is the most powerful motivational power of history. It a ray of wish and a grand way to obtain all the virtues. Religion remains one of the most effective tool in motivating an attire and ultimately making them quality market leaders and lead.

Ideology. Ideology may be predicated on religion, national faith or a reason. Young officials having joined up with the Army uses the ideology and works corresponding to it. Country wide take great pride in is a driving a vehicle force enabling a person to offer supreme sacrifice to serve and save the motherland.

Educational Surroundings. Young officials are chosen from the contemporary society where the education system is plagued with mere memorizing the bookish knowledge with little application talents imparted to the students. Resultantly the young ones, especially from the center and lower middle income, is under self-confident and has less exposure to the modern period of information and technology.

Neglected Social Sector. A matter of serious matter today amidst the populace of under-developed countries is the continuous decline of the basic infrastructure of the country. Such a situation has negative impact on the development of personality with special mention of attitude.

Advancement in Technology. The magnitude of mental health and sociological changes that contain been brought about by innovations such as internet, cable TV and mobile phones can't be quantified. However, such innovations have also brought about personality changes inside our youth; the one source from where we can select young officers; the near future leaders.

Social Fads. The job of arms requirements devotion, supreme sacrifice and total commitment to follow the laid down code of conduct and discipline. Sadly, with the setting up in of high technology time, the styles for selection of profession have undergone radical changes. Aristocratic office conditions, push button gadgetries, high pays and care and attention free work environments have produced a magnet like affect on young heads. They have rather become non volunteers to lead a rigorous, disciplined and synchronized life.

Family Life. The practice of surviving in joint households is diminishing day by day. This happening has compelled the parents to search for employment wherein they may be in a position to live with their immediate family. A reluctance in approval of jobs that involves prolonged avoid the young families has made the job of arms comparatively less attractive.

CHAPTER 5

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DETERIORATION IN QUALITY LEADERSHIP IN YOUNG OFFICERS

17. Standard. An endeavour was designed to identify the factors that are of can be termed as responsible for the deterioration of quality management in young officers. To the end a questionnaire was allocated between 40 majors of various forearms and services. Besieds, interviews of Major Standard E P de Z Abeysekera USP, Adjutant General Sri Lanka Army, Brigadier Farooq Afzal (retired) of Pakistan Military and Major Faisal Baten of Bangladesh Army were conducted. Predicated on the source received through the questionnaire and the interviews with these officers, pursuing are a few of the glaring reasons responsible for the deterioration in leadership quality of your young officers

Reluctance to become listed on Armed Forces Because of Uncertainty/Insecurity. In view of the prolonged engagement of both Sri Lanka and Pakistan Army in counter-top insurgency procedures, a sharp drop in amount of young people joining the Military has been discovered. Besides, terrorists threaten and harm the families of the workers of Armed Forces. In this particular backdrop, people have been unwilling to get their sons enrolled in the Armed Forces. Selection boards possessed no other choice but to choose people from the great deal that requested enrollment.

Conduct of Officer Cadets Training. The training in armed service academies mainly revolve around the theoretical aspects followed by limited functional training. However, during the practical training the officer cadets are highly supervised and even spoon given so as to perform well and safely and securely. Such a scenario has colossal negative effects on the personality of our potential future leaders.

Opportunities to Exercise Initiative. During the training at military services academies and even through the young officers courses the young officials are hardly given opportunities to exercise their initiative and imagination. They are expected to follow a set routine to be able to avoid any mistakes/faults.

Risk Taking. Young officials look up with their seniors as role models. Seniors are not ready to take undue risk and in turn never encourage the young officers to adopt any risk. Improvement in command quality only includes doing the difficult jobs with a certain amount of physical and professional risk. However, this aspect is found wanting nowadays.

Overall Negative Development. Over the last few years a standard negative style of giving tasks to higher rates has been detected. One can safely and securely assume that these days field officials are doing the job of young officers whereas young officers are carrying out the tasks which should be achieved by the non commissioned officials. As a sequel, young officers are deprived with their devote the chain of command. That is highly harmful to the personality grooming and authority development of the young officials.

Poor Physical Standard. The indegent physical of young officials may partially be attributed to the extensive use of computer systems, internet and video gaming. Even at the machine level, do of regular physical training and athletics has turned into a rare phenomenon. It has adversely influenced the physical strength of the young officers to endure the rigours of challenge field.

Careerism. Like management, careerism is a state of brain. But unlike control, it stresses manipulating others in order to help expand one's own career. A young official of today is more aware of his career than in the past. He works hard for his progress as a person. The observed propensity to learn the occupation and devote complete heartedly to professional pursuits is found lacking.

Weak Intellectual Level. In view of the info available on the internet, generally the habit of reading has reduced. Army officials are equally influenced as a consequence. Submission of e book reviews, presentations by young officials on military history and current affairs is rarely seen in life.

Zero Error Symptoms. With careerism taking priority over professionalism most the young officials fear so much taking riskts and in doing so committing mistakes and have made themselves idealists. Our peacefulness time training and administrative regimen is geared to accept no blunders. Non-acceptance of errors by the commanding officers during tranquility time training and regimen work has further aggravated the situation.

Grooming at Unit Level. Unit is recognized as a lap for a officer. Ideally he should experience organized training to boost upon his leadership qualities. Involvement of the models in functions notwithstanding, reluctance in following training of young officers in letter and spirit can be found. There does not exist any lasting training module of the young officers in the systems. A similar has been supplemented by the officers who were questioned through the questionnaire. 75 % officers agreed that units do not follow an authentic and mission oriented training of the newly commissioned young officers.

Gap Between Various Tiers of Command word. Having been United kingdom colonies and procedure almost on a single old lines, both Sri Lanka and Pakistan Military remains influenced by the Britain culture of preserving a large distance between the seniors and the juniors. This seriously curbs the moral courage and initiative of the junior leaders.

Grant of Fee to Other Rates. Because of the shortage of officers, outstanding other ranks are given commission to load the space. Having remained in lower ranks for quite a long time even the outstanding other rank can not appear to the standard expected out of a officer. Experience and certification notwithstanding, an other rank raised to a commissioned ranking will be found deficient of the characteristics expected out of a officer.

Socio-Economic Factor. Presently, different financial classes of junior leaders are present in the Military. Some have been on deputations and secondments, while others have offered on United Country Missions. Being economically well off they have a different life style within their individual communities. As only criterion of secondment overseas is good service record, therefore, our young officials try to follow a job structure that has least risk. Such an attitude produces conformists and ends up with careerism.

Materialism. Even though the army is shielded through institutionalized methods from the materialistic transformation, the junior leaders end up unlucky and distressed to complement their counterparts in civilian installation. A propensity of young officials involved in aspect business diverts their attention off their profession which in the end influences their overall grooming and improvement.

Perfectionism. Over the years a negative propensity of perfectionism has crept in our rates and files. As a result commanding officials only focus on the bright officials. Weak young officers in the units are sidelined and not even given any important responsibility. In such environment we shall be producing only few officers whom can qualify to be quality market leaders. Majority of the young officials will remain deprived of the right to self improvement.

PART IV

RECOMMENDATIONS

Vision for Junior Leadership

In what of George Bernard Shaw: We are made wise not by the recollections of our own recent but by the responsibilities of our future. Our young officials need to be groomed to undertake future procedures of diverse aspect with adequate maturiy and effectiveness. Attainment of the control competencies listed below should form the foundation of most training activities directed for training/grooming young officials

Personal management.

Inter personal maturity to converse effectively with broader audience and exterior organizations.

Conceptual clarity.

Capability to affect under orders.

Higher technological competence.

Capacity to set-up advanced of product cohesion.

Capacity to use autonomously.

Capacity to think out of pack.

Participatory control, wherein a junior innovator should possess potential to activities with alacrity.

Doctrinal and conceptual clarity based on thorough training.

Measures to Catch the attention of Young Era Towards Joining Army. An effective press campaing is the need of the day. Besides, pursuing are some of the steps which will probably attract more children

Good pay bundle.

Establishment of cantonments having family facilities.

Army run academic institutions in all the major places for the wards of military personnel.

19. Carry out of Training at Government Academies. Training at military academies be conducted in near genuine environment. The focus of demonstration focused training needs to be evolved to natural training. Mistakes in the process be accepted and focused after for improvement/remedial options.

Initiative. Leadership development is a continuous process. Starting from the basic armed forces training and then progressing through unit training accompanied by professional courses, authority characteristics are further refined and developed. Initiative playas an essential role in development of leadership attributes. Coures and training programs syllabi must offer opportunites ot the young officers to exercise their effort. Similalry young officials taking effort in functional situations should be motivated.

Risk Is Life. Armed service profession demands a high amount of risk taking ability. Young officers must be inspired to take calculated risks. Without taking any risk and carrying out a set routine can make the life lifeless and unproductive.

Following the Navy Hierarchy and Decorum. Our armed forces systems are primarily predicated on the British Military services System. For the reason that, there is a clear ladder. To be able to get the items perfect and quick, elderly people should never be tasked to get the job done which fall within the perview of an junior officer. Such a happening will have negative impact on the under command line troops as well.

Physical Training. The importance of physical trained in the Military needs no elaboration. It really is considered to be the basic requirement for all ranks, specifically young officers. There must be no compromise, whatsoever, on the physical specifications of the young officials. They have to lead men and lead them with delight and skills.

Career Awareness Vis- -vis Professionalism and reliability. Careerism is circumstances of mind that arises from the basic instinct and urges to seize and acquire more. It is a negative attitude determined by the lure of personal improvement and places own interest by any means, as supreme. The changeover from professionalism and reliability to careerism in official has happen by the attitude of excelling in careers at any cost. This needs to be seriously inspected.

Intellectual Training of Young Officers. Young officers must be recognized and encouraged to learn. Following are suggested in this regard

Regular reading of newspaper publishers by the young officials and thus briefing the unit officers through the tea break.

Writing of reserve reviews and succeeding demonstration of the same.

Encouraging the young officials to create for the Army journals. Collection of article for publishing should make them liable to get some additional marks in his ACR.

Senior Junior Connections. Unlike the colonial armies, our officers of all ranks pretty much hail from the same interpersonal background. Interaction between the mature and junior officials must be increased in order to find out more from the elderly people. Our market leaders must bridge the space created between the innovator and the led by the British and even by our own native traditions. Leaders must be frequently available to the led.

Analysis of Percentage to Other Rates. This aspects needs to be studied in detail and anlaysed. Only military/privates with service less than 5 years be advised for give of commission. However, their subsequent selection and training should be alongside the regular cadets. Devices/formations may run special training cadres to train such individuals for the selection tests. Different streams to become commissioned officers is not advisable.

Motivational Factor. Only an adequately motivated clothing can sustain the rigours of peace time training and dangers of war, alluded to early on. With the socio monetary changes inside our society, the determination has become more demanding. Determination to national cause and drive on true lines has become all the more essential.

Morale. Morale can be an important factor in battle and is based on confidence, willpower and self-respect. Field Marshal Slim in his publication, 'Beat into Triumph' phone calls "it a state of head, that intangible drive that may move a whole group of men to provide their last ounce to accomplish something, without keeping track of the cost to themselves".

Poor Decision - Making and Insufficient Initiative. Field Marshal Montgomery in his memoirs writes: "The modern inclination is to avoid taking decisions, and also to procrastinate in the wish that things should come out all right in the wash. The only insurance plan for the armed service innovator is decision doing his thing and calmness in the turmoil". Junior market leaders are hesitant in offering decisions and must be urged to use decision. Effort is the direct product of self confidence, stength and competence. It generally shows not disobedience of order but the ability to analyse a situation and act accordingly for the achievement of a mission.

Environment of Justice. Commanders in any way levels must pay special focus on the creation of environment of justice so that the led should have unflinching trust in their command and organisation. Weak young officers must get their anticipated attention and should be persuaded that their device or group is taking

Intellectual Development. Enormously increased tasks demand creative imagination and ingenuity that may only come through intellectual development of our junior authority. At product and bde level comprehensive programmes be conducted to inculcate reading habit amongst the young officials and broaden their horizon to meet the future obstacles.

Professional Competence. Junior innovator must attain skills in occupation of modern weapon systems and equipment, and productive handling of his sub unit. Intimate knowledge of combined arms career is also important and junior market leaders must also continue to be abreast about the enemy's expanding trends and equipment.

Breadth of Prospect and Vision. The future battlefield would ask for a person who is a strategist, tactician, logistician, scientist, director, economist and most importantly, a true head. It's a extra tall order, which can only be complied by the combined efforts of the army and constant self-grooming by the individual. Our leadership philosophy must demand a greater depth of perspective from future market leaders.

Psychological Education and Conditioning. Future battlefield environments would require determination, determination and extra strong nerves. A future innovator would be asked to be experienced in mental health handling of the soldiers while preserving his own efficiency at the desired level.

Managerial and Administrative Skills. The difficulty, acceleration and isolation of future battle-field would demand managerial and administrative skills from the leaders at every level. The aspect must get a suitable place inside our leadership philosophy, rather than skill, which is viewed down upon.

Espirit de Corps - Group Cohsion. It really is an interpersonal phenomenon involving emotional connection among men. Being included as a member in the group has essential importance. If a person in a business or a platoon fails to get included, he feels depressed and insecure, particularly when under stress and exposed to danger.

Conclusion

The prevailing environment and changing cases require a more radiant junior management or the young officers. The universally known leadership principles are evenly valid in the coming days rather suppose a lot more importance to meet new difficulties. The future conditions pose daunting difficulties to even the ablest market leaders. While working against terrorists or insurgents with no visible recognition of friend and foe, having least or no effect time needs the superior quality of leadership with highest status of readiness, responsiveness, initiative and desire. On conventional side, orchestrating a sizable variety of high technology property and systems at very high tempo in greatly broadened space, yet a shrunk timeframe will constitute a strenuous task for any leader. He'll need to be educated, depending upon his level, in the new principles of methods and strategy.

Young officers continue to be the most personal part in the string of control to the soldiers who have to really perform on ground. Their ability to comprehend a predicament, take quick and right decision, react bravely by firmly taking calculated risks and demonstrating personal example of physical and moral courage will have tremendous impact on the results of this action. Deposition of such activities will permit a country earn their war and be called as the one with highly encouraged and professional Army that may not leave any stone unturned to guarantee the security of its nationwide integrity by struggling with both normal and unconventional wars.

Biblography

Pakistan Army Green Reserve 1990 - 12 months of the Junior Market leaders.

Major Standard (Retired) Aubery Newman, USA, What Are Generals MANUFACTURED FROM.

Richard A Gabriel and Paul L Savage, Problems in Demand.

Major Paul Yinling and Major John Nagi USA Army, The Army Officer as Battle Fighter.

United States Army Pamphlet Amount 600-2, The Armed Forces Officer.

Training Directive 2010 Sri Lanka Military.

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