As with the introduction of mobile wireless systems which better its communication equipment allows to study everywhere and anytime. Mobile learning came into existence became the favorite way of learning which made our lives easy and modern. Mobile learning (m-learning) has many advantages in conditions of interactivity, portability, easy operating and targeted users, which attracted many learners. At this situation, Artificial Cleverness had become where it has to provide a lot of information regarding Mobile Learning. "A mobile linked society creates new training difficulties" (Rosenberg, 2001) and it can be seen outside from traditional classrooms. The mobile and cordless devices allow us to talk in various ways. As access cost to mobiles through the internet is reducing, we have easy and inexpensive way to converse through the mobiles. The speedy advancement of communication began right from simple Text message to video getting in touch with using the smart phones which provide both telephone and internet services. These smart cell phones integrate online information; manage data, image, voice, and text marketing communications.
Mobile learning can be explained in various point of views. These views can be divided into three categories as follows. The first viewpoint is the fact mobile learning is a kind of Distance learning. Another point of view is that it's the extension of e-Learning. And the third viewpoint is that it's a fresh technology that includes a way of learning with ability to move situations. Using the advent of this technology has got so many opportunities for learning by devices such as PDAs, mobile phones and laptops. Collectively, this delivery type of learning is named m-Learning. We can think it as a subset of e-Learning (which is a type of learning from web). Matching to Kristine Peters (2007), this rising mobile technology i. e. m-Learning is mostly positioned within the e-Learning which links directly to the 'just enough, just in time, just for me' style of flexible learning (from Number 1).
A mobile learning technology uses cordless mobile communication technology and cordless instruments such as cell phones, PDAs etc for being able to access the resources and services of education system. The purpose of mobile learning system is that students could learn anything whenever, anywhere and in any case. Mobile learning's uniqueness lies in providing everywhere and anytime learning environment where learners can learn at their convenient time and place. Mobile learning facilitates the situational learning and the real reside in learning. In addition, it supplies the support for the informal learning which takes on an important role for the learners to be competitive at their work.
Artificial intellect is nothing but machine (computer) cleverness which uses man-made methods to attain intelligence. It really is to simulate man-made brains on machine or even to make machine to be smart like human. It is based on computer science and different theories but there is no precise meaning for artificial intelligent at present. However, it is a research on science, design and for the systems to simulate wise capabilities like people. The study is carrying out with applications on manufactured intelligence which is an interdisciplinary. Technically, it is related to psychology, biological knowledge, system science, cognitive science and so forth. It had an extremely great achievements and developments on various areas such as style recognition, programming, clever automatic robot and knowledge processing. Now research on man-made brains would be by 3 ways:
Mobile learning had a great impact on traditional education system which has received very important relevance. It has evolved not only the deficiencies of traditional education system which has limited by time and space, but also made teaching in a very interesting manner. This made learners to become more enthusiastic on mobile learning but also captivated a large amount of people to apply mobile learning. Anyone can practice mobile learning as it can be attained by anybody, whenever and everywhere. But at the moment, it continues to be in the first levels of development which it offers many sensible problems in applications.
Mobile learning can be an appearing theory which is within development of the three systems: computing electricity, communication and sensible consumer interfaces development. As mobile learning is learning from cellular devices such as cell phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), notebook computers and personal computers, it uses specific technology which differs from other forms of e-Learning. But when considering ability to move from the learner's notice is the technology which goes everywhere whenever. Examples such as a doctor posts his medical knowledge whenever on his hospital rounds, students can revise for exams while travelling in bus or students can enhance their skills in language while travelling everywhere. All these good examples show the formal or informal way of learning while they are really traveling i. e. On moving. With this, we can define mobile learning as almost any learning when the learner is not at fixed place. Learner has benefit of opportunities to learn by mobile learning.
Mobile devices include both hardware and software features. The primary concentration is on foundation Operating System software as it encapsulates hardware implementation for the application form to aid ubiquitous learning. Corresponding to Dochev and Hristov (2006), mobile devices can be categorised as four types: Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), Smart Cell phones, Cell Phones, Tablet Computer and Notebooks. Now we'd discuss about their device characteristics below:
According to Dochev and Hristov (2006), Number 2 shows the basic project structures elements. Learning Objects, learning duties, learning expositions, learning communications and administrative functions are stored in Common Store which are being used to gain access to both mobile and desktop pcs. Filtering applications filters objects according to the filtering requirements from the common store. Criteria can include whether that thing can theoretically be implemented over a mobile device or whether it could be ideal for a mobile learner. An subject selected predicated on technical requirements may determine whether it's realistic or not. For example, to download very large data files to a mobile is not fair but downloading of audio lectures is quite acceptable. As downloading of audio tracks lectures is quite useful it can be put in place in the mobile learning environment. The arrows in Physique 2, common store objects can be considered reasonable technically and suitable in either the m-learning or the e-learning environments or both. After filtering items required for conditions, it requires to render each object filtered according to its learning surroundings considering the internet browser features and device constraints.
The architecture experienced shown here serves as basics for Ubiquitous learning by using various tools and environment. This architecture supports both connected and disconnected situations. In connected situation, learner can be linked to permanent web connection and demands for required learning items. However in disconnected situation, learner first connects to internet, downloads a content required in local storage and then disconnects from internet. After installing this content required, user attaches again to internet to synchronize these stored data with local data on the central server. This type of interacting through data is named "download on demand" and the control of synchronizing is learner's responsibility. This disconnected situation is important because the utilization of "Wi-Fi hotspots" is becoming extremely popular but it may not cover the places where learners would like to learn. The disadvantage is the user might not use all material required for learning when disconnected or the data transmitting cost is quite high.
Mobile Intelligent Coaching Expert System (MITES): It offers coaching environment intelligently. It sorts an open interactive coaching system by simulating coaching by experts, professors using advanced methods such as AI technology and media of mobile for the coaching. Employing this system, students can acquire knowledge through mobile devices. This system can teach in line with the knowledge and learning abilities of the college student which achieves best teaching mechanism and also adaptive to individualized coaching. "MITES is a technology based on thinking technology, cognitive technology and artificial intellect, educational mindset and other disciplines knowledge" (Dochev and Hristov 2006). The MITES role is to acquire cognitive learning model, to make learners to look at individualized learning and make their learning faster and effectively by analysing the study characteristics and procedures. MITES systems have the following characteristics of cleverness:
Mobile Intelligent Decision support System (MIDSS): Corresponding to Dochev and Hristov (2006), the essential components of this system include repository, model bottom, method bottom, man-machine interface and sensible components. These components can be classified into two types of system structure. They are simply four base framework and fusion structure. MIDSS shows quite strong potential growth and very good future in the mobile learning software systems. This system provides learners with the info, information and materials necessary in decision making. This technique helps to reach goals, decision making in recognition of problems also to set up the decision-making model with a variety of options and offer evaluation of programs with human-computer conversation feature. It compares and can determine the good support for the effective decision making.
Mobile Intelligenct Information Retrieval Engine unit (MIIRE): Learners would find information through network in mobile learning. So, the service of retrieving the product quality information is vital in support services. In mobile learning, Mobile Intelligent retrieval would be there to support the intelligence engine unit. The internet search engine which exists has server-side software's which do not have intellect and high accuracy and reliability retrieval. Retrieval engine motor requires suggestions string format. But if we move that internet search engine to mobile customer and make it permit for self-analysis and understand the learner's interest, it would have some degree of intelligence which collects information based on user's involvement in internet. MIIRE is important in personal navigation system which is based on Java involve some definite self-learning features. This self-learning functionality collects and files the browsing features of users. Different users use different navigations allows users to gain access to necessary resources accurately. The technical perspective is that intelligent engine is the top technology for growing this mobile intelligenct information retrieval system.
Mobile Intelligent Induct-learning System (MIIS): It is a services support system. A support service is an important factor in mobile learning. For effective development and employing assignments using mobile learning, it is necessary to establish, maintain a powerful adaptable and strong support services system. Support services is aiming to create the best learning environment so that students can easily access a variety of resources quickly which acquires success by receiving the full range of learning services. Intelligent Agent, a significant application in the field of distributed artificial cleverness area, reduces the sophisticated software use and implements tiresome tasks which maximize the efficiency, Agent Mobile Intelligent Assistance System can guide the several learning development and implementation strategies and provide personalized assistance. The guidance is focused and looks forwards for computerized issues generated and procedures them. The right planning is through feedback for adjusting this content and learning improvement has a diagnostic function, analysing errors and bettering them. This plan makes more in order with user's own knowledge and cognitive characteristics.
Intelligent Hardware Network (IHN): Relating to Dochev and Hristov (2006), this is of intelligent here means "functional intellect" and "service intelligence". The intellect which retains, manages and works the mobile network system is named Operational Cleverness. The intelligence in which mobile network system provide users with field of information processing knowledge or provides some decision support is named Service Brains. Mobile network is the mobile learning in conditions of its hardware. Along with the development in human contemporary society information and by increasing network level of popularity, mobile learning by web requires not only integration of multimedia information but also the providing high-level of processing information with regard to control knowledge power. According to the present situation, it is a predictive option utilizing the IHN to create the mobile systems more intelligenct.
This is very important level in mobile learning system. The mobile learning services are encapsulated in this covering. This covering is dependable in dealing the requests of presentation covering request and makes logical effect estimation. If this result of reasonable estimation is legal then your system gets data from databases, handles that data and provides the results back again to the presentation covering. Relating to Yi Jin (2009), "there are nine function modules in this business reasoning coating of mobile learning system which includes system management module, course learning module, mobile educational training component, teaching management component, education information collecting component, outdoor tasks helping module, Q&A component, mobile educational Sites module and mobile educational game module". (Yi Jin, 2009).
Learning services are given for mobile users by mobile learning systems through mobile terminals. That's the reason why mobile learning system must have the characteristics of ability to move and offer mobile learning practical systems following the principles and theories of mobile learning. Relating to Yi Jin (2009), mobile learning system was designed into eight possible functions which include course learning, educating management, collecting education information, mobile educational training, outdoor tasks supporting, Q&A, sites of mobile education and mobile educational game titles. In addition, university student log in the system through sign up and logging in the management of most modules of the system by trainers and administrators through the function of background management. They are both functions which participate in system management component. Here we express the modules as below: (Yi Jin, 2009)
Mobile learning system has three varieties of users: students, instructors and administrators. First, enrollment and authorization of user's is done and been able by this component. Next, the duty of trainers and administrators is to manage the whole mobile learning system through this component. According to the implementation of solutions, the system consists of smart device request programs and the internet browser programs of web applications. Instructors would login the machine for managing the system background, also manages students information and students learning resources. Trainers upload exams and resources for handling the info of coaching and answering questions. However the administrators would have very high level authorities for establishing and retaining of the system more as well as the functions of trainers.
Course Learning Module
Course learning component is the key functional learning system in mobile learning system. The primary goal of this mobile learning system's course component is to provide learning identical to E-learning system, but as the mobile learning is done by mobile terminals for carrying out the activities of learning, we'd consider fully the methods required for mobile learning that are spontaneous, lightweight and individualistic. We'd also consider its hardware and software attributes of mobile terminals that assist to create for learning programs on mobiles whose content can be split into smaller ones. But the main method of information representation is displaying content material with some pictures and animations. That's the reason we have to consider when choosing the type of mobile learning resources like E-books, Electronic dictionary, plan of E-teaching, etc. "The functions of course learning includes mobile learning source online browsing, mobile learning source of information local procedure and download of learning source" (Yi Jin, 2009). The trainers and administrators can upload resources necessary for mobile learning and manage them by deleting and modifying authority of access.
Teaching Management Module
This component is also an important component in learning systems of mobile. Inside the mobile learning system design, it provides the functions below:
These are the functions provided for students: courses selection through online, plan of students, analysis of teaching, backing up the info and receive coaching activities notices.
Functions provided for teachers: applying for new courses, taking care of the info of students in selection of courses, receiving the info of system, taking care of the teaching evaluation and making use of the system of transceiver in controlling coaching information.
Functions provided for administrators: They may have the function of going to and managing teacher's applications after logging in the machine. Managing the lessons existed, handling and issuing information to university student about their programs selection and about information of the machine.
Administrator's function also contains the managing of student marks, to backup their ratings and activities of teaching information.
Mobile Educational Training Module
As mobile terminals are portable in mobile learning systems, learner's can utilize their full time in learning. The mobile learning features will be more well suited for learning, assessment and practice so that's why this module is named mobile educational training module. The mobile learning system supplies the following functions in this training module:
Functions provided for students include providing the center for online trials and doing them, giving opinions response with results attained, recording levels obtained and information of learning process.
Functions provided for instructors as well as for administrators include setting up of tests and uploading them for practice, studying grades and information of learning process and attempting to make advancements for learners.
Outdoor Tasks Helping Module
This supporting component supports best outdoor duties in mobile learning system as they are lightweight in communication, location and picture functions. This is why why this outdoor duties supporting module is excellent in mobile learning systems. The function of this module would work mainly for domains including the inspection for the assortment of information in biology, archaeology and geography. In biological field, it can be used for tracking of propagation case that can be pictured, published and stored. In geographical field, it could be used for sophisticated landscape explorations which are used to carry out research programs and converse it to outside the house easily. In archaeological field, we can track record the time, place, volume, temps, pictures and various types of information employing this module.
Question and Answer Module
Q&A component is also the crucial function module in mobile learning system. Real-time and intelligence are the main features of this module. This component is also portable and communication focused function of cellular devices.
Functions provided for students include the following: (Yi Jin, 2009)
The students can ask their questions in problems for teacher at any normal time by using mobile terminals which is not essential for them to ask questions at particular place specifically time. This situation gives rise to real-time question with real-time answer.
Automatic replies receive as there are possible questions are already published in the question databases along with their answers. Every time a pupil uploads a question, system searches a answer related to that question and when it founds the system feedbacks those answer to an individual automatically.
Browsing questions and answers. Students can browse through existing questions and their answers in the system and boosts from them
Functions provided for instructors and administrators include:
Instructors answers to students if they have any emergency problem through the telephone or short messages.
The teacher browses to answer the student's question and stores them in data source along with the answers.
3. 4 Problems involved with Mobile Learning using Artificial Intelligence:
Now we consider two main problems in mobile learning using manufactured intelligence. There are complex problems and development of smooth tools.
Mobile learning using unnatural Intelligence requires a good environment for mobile learning; the technology must be fast and accurate because of its success to attain mobile learning. But this learning type is still facing complex problems and could continue in the future. 3G wireless systems is the new way of communication technology in the wireless field. Nonetheless it requires maximum transfer rate with its growth in mobile cordless technology possessed a striking tag in the new era and progresses than before. The cellular network popularity has been brought up to new problem in internet charge, which cannot be solved overnight. The average customer is not capable of accessing internet; due to the very high cost using cellular access of internet. This made problem for their interest in cellular internet access. The accessories in mobile communications will be the important elements which would have an effect on the mobile learning development in the foreseeable future. Even though mobile development machines are growing speedily, their support for learning using mobiles is still insufficient.
Development of smooth tools:
As mobile learning using manufactured intelligence continues to be in preliminary levels in development, gentle tools necessary for mobile learning using man-made intelligence are very scarce. Most of the tools used now are for other applications, some of them are being used for personal management of knowledge. These tools have become highly complex which resulted in greater hassle in applications. Only educational institutions are the most suitable choice for promoting of learning through mobiles in the future. But the most reliable solution because of this character of mobile learning is assistance. Federal, manufacturers of cellular devices and support of educational software developer's are needed for the introduction of the mobile industry. That's the reason why development of tools could meet the artificial intellect in mobile learning needs. The researches upon this have led to wide range of applications in a variety of fields. The introduction of artificial brains is so fast and its request in mobile learning would bring a fresh world of learning making easier for learning.
Mobile learning makes mixture of technology and education. As utilization of cell phones and other communication cellular devices has been spread consistently, its value in mobile learning in education is verified. "Learners will break limitations of the time and space" (Jiugen, Ruonan, Jianmin, 2010). In this fast moving era, spread of cordless technologies supplies the bottom for mobile learning. But there are a few problems in integration of learning and government to use this function of learning. However, we believe constant progress in research and technology along with the combination of wireless technology in education promotes mobile learning.
As existing researches on mobile learning request systems remain at the starting period and because of the time limitations and personal functionality, there are extensive constraints in mobile learning system. Each is the guidelines to work in the future on them. The idea of mobile learning is not correct. Because of this, more precise work should be carried out on these theories and information. We assume that it might be gradually carried out well in future studies. Researches must be achieved on the areas such as uncompleted implementations of functions and the assessments. In the end, we can conclude our future is very challenging but also bright in the case of mobile learning program.
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