Database Management System In An Organization

A DBMS Database Management System is a commercial computer software used to control, manipulate and keep maintaining the Database by enabling users to access, store, organize, modify, retrieve, secure and provide integrity of data in a database.

A DBMS accepts request from users or applications and instructs the operating-system to transfer the appropriate data as shown in the diagram below.

Figure 1: database management

(Source: http://broncu. blogspot. com/2010/04/dbms-mysql. html)

Wikipedia (2011) defines Database Management System as a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and the utilization of the database. It allows organizations to put control of database development in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. A DBMS is a system program that helps the utilization of integrated assortment of data records and files known as databases. It allows different user application programs to easily access the same database.

DBMSs could use any of a variety of database models, such as the network model or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way. Instead of needing to write computer programs to extract information, user can ask simple questions in a query language. Thus, many DBMS packages provide Fourth-generation programming language (4GLs) and other application development features. It helps to specify the logical organization for a database and access and use the information within a database. It offers facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency, and restoring the database from backups. A DBMS also provides the ability to logically present database information to users.

Examples:

Microsoft Access, My SQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle and FileMaker Pro are all types of database management systems. (Wikipedia, 2011).

Microsoft Access:

Microsoft Office Access, previously known as Microsoft Access, is a relational database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft jet database Engine with a graphical interface and software-development tools. It is an associate of the Microsoft Office suite of applications, contained in the Professional and higher editions or sold separately. In mid-May 2010, the existing version Microsoft Access 2010 premiered by Microsoft in Office 2010; Microsoft Office Access 2007 was the last version.

My SQL:

MySQL is a relational database management system that runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases. It really is named after developer Michael Widenius' daughter, my. The SQL phrase means Structured Query Language.

Microsoft SQL Server:

Microsoft SQL Server is a relational model database server made by Microsoft. Its primary query languages are T-SQL and ANSI S SQL.

Oracle:

The Oracle Database (commonly known as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS), produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.

FileMaker Pro:

FileMaker Pro is a cross-platform relational database application from FileMaker Inc. , formerly Claris, a subsidiary of Apple Inc. It integrates a database engine with a GUI-based interface, allowing users to change the database by dragging new elements into layouts, screens, or forms.

Advantages

Singh (2009) illustrates advantages and disadvantages of DBMS. A true DBMS offers several advantages over file processing. The main benefits of a DBMS will be the followings

Flexibility: Because programs and data are independent, programs don't need to be modified when types of unrelated data are added to or deleted from the database, or when physical storage changes.

Fast respond to information requests: Because data are built-into an individual database, complex requests can be handled much more rapidly then if the info were positioned in separate, non-integrated files. In many businesses, faster response means better customer support.

Multiple access: Database software allows data to be accessed in many ways (such as through various key fields) and frequently, by using several programming languages (both 3GL and nonprocedural 4GL programs).

Lower user training costs: Users often think it is better to learn such systems and training costs may be reduced. Also, the full total time taken up to process requests may be shorter, which would increase user productivity.

Less storage: Theoretically, all occurrences of data items need be stored only one time, thereby eliminating the storage of redundant data. System developers and database designers often use data normalization to reduce data redundancy.

Warehouse of information, where large data can be stored.

Systematic storage meaning data can be stored in the form of tables.

Change of schema meaning it is not platform dependent tables can be edited to include new ones without hampering the applications.

No language dependence meaning use of varied languages on various platforms.

Table joins meaning data can maintain several tables and can be placed into one table this permits easy retrieval of data.

Data security meaning DBMS secures all your data.

The data independence and efficient access of data

Easy in data administration or data management.

Provides concurrent access, recovers the info from the crashes.

Disadvantages

A database system generally provides on-line access to the database for most users. In contrast, a conventional system is often made to meet a particular need and therefore generally provides access to only a tiny range of users. Due to the larger number of users accessing the data whenever a database is used, the enterprise may involve additional risks when compared with a conventional data processing system in the next areas.

Confidentiality, privacy and security.

Data quality.

Data integrity.

Enterprise vulnerability may be higher.

The cost of using DBMS.

Confidentiality, Privacy and Security

When information is centralised and is made open to users from remote locations, the options of abuse are often more than in a conventional data processing system. To lessen the probability of unauthorised users accessing sensitive information, it is necessary to consider technical, administrative and, possibly, legal measures.

Most databases store valuable information that must be protected against deliberate trespass and destruction.

Data Quality

Since the database is obtainable to users remotely, adequate controls are needed to control users updating data and to control data quality. With increased variety of users accessing data directly, there are enormous opportunities for users to damage the data. Unless there are suitable controls, the data quality may be compromised.

Data Integrity

Since a huge number of users could be using a database concurrently, technical safeguards are essential to ensure that the data remain correct during operation. The primary threat to data integrity comes from a number of different users wanting to update the same data at the same time. The database therefore needs to be protected against inadvertent changes by the users.

Enterprise Vulnerability

Centralising all data of an enterprise in one database may mean that the database becomes an indispensible resource. The survival of the enterprise may be based upon reliable information being available from its database. The enterprise therefore becomes vulnerable to the destruction of the database or even to unauthorised modification of the database.

The Cost of utilizing a DBMS

Conventional data processing systems are typically made to run lots of well-defined, pre-planned processes. Such systems are often "tuned" to run proficiently for the processes that they were designed for. Although the traditional systems are usually fairly inflexible in that new applications may be difficult to implement and/or expensive to run, they're usually very efficient for the applications they were created for.

The database approach on the other hand provides a flexible alternative where new applications can be developed relatively inexpensively. The flexible approach is not without its costs and one of these costs is the excess cost of running applications that the conventional system was created for. Using standardised software is nearly always less machine efficient than specialised software.

Cost of hardware and software meaning having to upgrade the hardware used for file based system it's very costly.

Cost of data conversion meaning it's costly to convert data of documents into database and have to employ database and system designers.

Cost of staff training meaning organization has to be aid a lot of amount for working out of staff to perform dms.

Database damage meaning all data stored into an individual file if database is damaged due to electric failure or database is corrupted on the storage media meaning all valuable data may be lost forever.

It also takes a lot of commitment to get DBMS started.

Benefits of any Database Management System in an organization

As discuss by the Ezinearticles (2011), organizations often times end up in a dilemma about how they can effectively serve the needs of these members. At exactly the same time, they also enter a predicament wherein there may be difficulty in handling data, given the sheer level of information. Generally, the results of the instances are not anything but desirable; confusion, chaos, mismanagement, lost confidence by members, etc.

To solve these problems, organizations turn to information technology (IT) experts for answers. With a long time of experience in discovering solutions for businesses and other entities, IT professionals have what must be done to come up with an efficient data management and accreditation system that will be used by organizations. There must also be enhanced option of the said system, which means that members from other locations can still gain entry into the system, regardless of elements such as time and geography.

Investing on the services of IT consultants is, however, not like buying something from a store. It entails huge sums of money to come up with a good data management and accreditation system for a business, aside from engaging the professional services of IT experts. Fortunately, IT experts can help minimize the price through the creation of your database system based on existing resources being held by the organization.

Investing on the services of IT experts and creating a good data and accreditation management system may seem to be to be very costly, however the long-term benefits are worthy to be observed. Insurance firms a good database system, it will be much easier for organizations to deal with their members because of improved access to information. The placement of additional bits of information can be carried out better when there is a good data management system.

Having a good data and accreditation management system empowers members of a business. This is possible because they be capable of gain the necessary information about things that matter to them as members. They conduction of business with the organization's intervention is made faster and better in case a good data management system is set up.

There is no reason behind organizations to hesitate as it pertains to investing over a good data and accreditation management system. The long-term great things about having one are much larger than the expenses, and will be very helpful to the business and their members in the long run.

Improved strategic use of corporate data.

Reduced complexity of the organization's information systems environment.

Reduced data redundancy and inconsistency.

Enhanced data integrity.

Application-data independence.

Improved security.

Reduced application development and maintenance costs.

Improved overall flexibility of information systems.

Increased access and option of data and information.

(Blurtit, 2011).

Prospects in DBMS and Career Opportunities

The work of any database administrator (DBA) varies based on the nature of the employing organisation and the amount of responsibility associated with the post. The task may be pure maintenance or it may also involve specialising in database development.

Prospects, the UK's official career website (2011) states that jobs available in this field are

Senior Database Architect

Database Architect design and builds database structure and objects that best support operational and analytics application. Tests and debug physical database objects for performance and troubleshooting.

* Design and implement optimal star and snowflake schema in the database

* Communicate and collaborate with team members and management on the designed database structures and schemas

* Write and present eloquently with the correct audience perspective in mind

* Support troubleshooting of production issues of existing application as warranted

* Take part in collaborative discussions with team members to monitor progress against enhancement queue and bug resolution.

* Stay proactive in identifying potential risks/issues because of the overall application design and make recommendations.

Database Administrator

This position takes a Top Secret Security Clearance. This position will support a US Air Force Contract. The successful candidate will be responsible for planning, coordinating and administering computerized databases, including base definition, structure, documentation, long and short range requirements, operational guidelines, protection and logical-physical database design. Formulates and monitors policies, procedures and standards relating to database management. Identifies, evaluates and recommends relevant COTS software tools. Collaborate with software engineers, security administration, computer operations, network management and system administration to ensure quality and integrity of databases, application software and data. In charge of performance monitoring, database.

Database Architect Specialist

Database Architect design and builds database structure and objects that best support operational and analytics application. Tests and debug physical database objects for performance and troubleshooting.

* Design and implement optimal star and snowflake schema in the database

* Communicate and collaborate with team members and management on the designed database structures and schemas

* Write and present eloquently with the appropriate audience perspective in mind

* Support troubleshooting of production issues of existing application as warranted

* Participate in collaborative discussions with associates to monitor progress against enhancement queue and bug resolution.

* Stay proactive in identifying potential risks/issues because of the overall application design and make recommendations.

Database Administration Consultant

Evaluates new database technologies and tools, sets database system and programming standards, applies database technology to business problems and manages the development and production database environments with focus on security, availability and performance. Provides database services in compliance with all audit and regulatory requirements. The ideal prospect must be experienced in the management of Oracle E-Business 11. 5. 10. 2 including installation, upgrade, patching, cloning, backup and recovery, monitoring, tuning, security, and definition of procedures for custom development. The ideal applicant must be experienced in the implementation and management of Oracle E-Business 11. 5. 10. 2 as configured for the Oracle Massive Availability Architecture.

Senior Database Engineer

Responsible for requirements analysis, software development and installation, integration, evaluation, enhancement, maintenance, testing, and problem diagnosis and resolution. Qualifications: Bachelors degree with ten (10) years experience as a Database Engineer in developing relational database software and experience with a number of relational database products. Preferred Additional Skills: Possess organizational and management skills, combined with the ability to respond to crises objectively. Knowledge of the current database management system releases.

Conclusion

The document that we have come up with is a group assignment that was done by four individuals. A number of the issues that we faced as an organization are that, we couldn't meet due to our clashing schedules; others are busy with other obligations. We would like to say that we tried to produce the best group work that we could, hopefully learnt from this experience to better ourselves for our future endeavors.

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