History Of Business Process Modelling Information Technology Essay

A Functional Move Block Diagram is a multi-tier, time-sequenced, step-by-step diagram of the system's functional stream. The functional Stream Stop Diagram notation was developed in the 1950's and was trusted in systems engineering. Functional Flow Block Diagrams are one of the classic business process modelling methodologies. The modern Functional Flow Block Diagram originated by TRW Incorporated an American defence-related business in the 1950's and then used by NASA to imagine the time series of happenings in space and journey missions. They eventually became frequently used in systems executive showing the order of executions for system functions.

Functional Flow Stop Diagrams are developed in a series of levels, much like Data Stream diagrams are done today, this enables the same duties identified though practical decomposition and display them using their logical sequential marriage. Taking including the way Functional Movement Block Diagrams were utilized by NASA during space flights, in top or context level of the Functional Circulation Block Diagram the whole flight quest can be described, then in the first level each part can is extended into some different functions explaining what each part does, and in the special level each of these are again broken up into further into a fresh group of functions. This allows the developers to recognize the requirements needed.

The overall effectiveness of the procedure and the magnitude to which the final result or effectiveness is being obtained if at all will generally be reported on and used as the first measure of the functions adequacy and capability to fulfil the task at hand or that your process has been made to do, reasonable objectives of the procedure and it's really uses and operators (staff) is highly recommended in case necessary implemented in the form of personnel training within the S. O. P (process model) if the procedure model has been designed correctly and honored by all it will subsequently be satisfactory with the objective intended.

For example, consider the IT service office. One of its important responsibilities aside from phone calls is the sub process for end user emails. Such an activity is noticeably less effective if it does not provide exact and timely resolutions to its clients; personnel in the office responsible for follow-up upon this would probably experienced to work to adhere to an S. O. P (standard operating process) which would be a part of the business enterprise process model. Strict adherence is generally the guideline here however there should be room for out of range or new issues which can happen. There would generally also be an escalation process (fig2a) set out on different levels depending on if the problem is one where the process failed (hierarchic - escalate to upper management) or if the problem is one that cannot be dealt with by the personnel (useful - escalate to a new group within the business's infrastructure) example of that's where a network storage space problem would be handled by a functional escalation to a networking group and escalated within that group if required whereas a hierarchic escalation might be if situations keep missing on S. L. A. or bad/low client satisfaction.

Suppose we've observed that the average time taken to offer with and solve an occurrence after receiving an email from the end-user is abnormally high, leading to delayed service level agreement and consequent customer complaints, the vital thing we'd have to look at is the staff reports, if they are applying the S. O. P and sticking with it, if the staff / issue which brought on the efficiency problems were out of opportunity or faltering that when there is a concern with the implementation of the procedure (S. O. P) or with the procedure itself.

The process of person email's to creating service tickets would only be as effectual as the staff's knowledge within the area of the problem and if the problem is covered in the process model and if the issue can be handled by first lines staff or by an escalation process, usually the efficiency ought to be to a high standard and not take an excessive amount of time and cost more to the company by means of hours proved helpful including overtime and lack of productivity of staff members involved. In case the case is the fact that too much time is associated with an end user's issue then your reporting should again be looked at and analysed to see where in fact the efficiency can be better, if it can where / if not you will want to?

C: Internal control

Various Internal handles can be built into systems as manual or programmed process steps. It really is generally a good notion and advisable to create as many inside controls as possible in to the system and when possible to automate these where possible, as to err is individual, these settings are mainly automatic they will continually be used since they are built into the look of the business enterprise process then the relevant software would be used to put into action them. An example of this would be the computerized response while trying to get on a network without you using a valid user profile, you receive an error message. Another example of this might be an automated response to a service desk email, another form of automation and interior control is where you can automate in the sense of detective work where your staff will receive automated responses from business software discussing breech of Sla and so making circumstance prioritizing and certain escalations computerized.

However, for various different reasons such as out of scope, insufficient training or knowledge and experience, issues in developing/writing software, cost of software development and adjustment, there needs to be a degree of flexibility, but the problem arises with the incapability of a computerised system to provide all inside controls and be flexible to the magnitude to be still able to deal with the unknown issue's, a lot of internal settings generally regarded as a necessity tend to be excluded from business systems and software. In this example, the manual process of internal controls beyond your business system but within the business process should be obviously documented, retained and regularly exercised by those who will be in a position of experiencing to apply them. however with having less such a system based internal control, problems often occur and then the item creation process must include an administrative control through the process of checking, by person's been trained in the process and with the data and experience to take action competently. Obviously by using manual internal handles you'll want and in general it would oftimes be legislation to have your internal controls up to date and audited regularly by an increased authority.

D: Conformity to various regulations and policies

Compliance to laws and various standards can be and is generally different from country to country, the most common way company's stay compliant with these would be through and execution of regulations and procedures generally by means of good doc practice guides, training and screening of staff frequently and probably regular conferences to stay current on new issues, control buttons and insurance policies. Usually all corporation and company's enforce this by engaging directly at the correct level where it is necessary and with lots of communication to all or any levels. policies on the whole should cover things such as information security which is often from one solitary pc to corporate and business systems and the inter-connections which are present between them, another area which is usually misunderstood and underutilised is report retention policies, a straightforward and clear non haphazard report retention policy can mean the difference between a significant fine from a governance body and complete indemnity if a situation ever was to come up that included the company's/organisations staff,

with the infrastructure and resources we've in place these days there is no reason for files not be retained as accurately as you possibly can, you should be able to gain access to them as and when needed, they should also be stored firmly for the duration that the coverage or higher specialist dictates.

Figa : Escalation Process (exemplory case of a business process model in action)

Modern Business Process Modelling Techniques

Gavin Kenna - X00083664

Business process modelling (BPM) in systems anatomist and software development is the experience of representing operations of a business, so that the current process may be examined and improved. Before the 1970's, business process modelling techniques included the Gantt graph, PERT diagrams, IDEF and Control Movement Diagrams. But, recently more modified and improved upon techniques have surpassed these older techniques and are actually the typical. Most process modelling is currently done through what is known as business process modelling languages. Most modern business process modelling languages are either visual or textual.

An example of a graphical modelling language and a related textual modelling vocabulary is Exhibit.


EXPRESS can be an international standardized data modelling words and is ISO Standard for the Exchange of Product. An Exhibit data model can be developed in two ways, textually and/or graphically. For textual modelling, Exhibit relies on the old ACSII standard to provide the data into word. Graphically, however, EXPRESS offers EXPRESS-G, which has the same operation as EXPRESS, but with a user friendly GUI, which boosts efficiency and efficiency. Exhibit has been set alongside the program writing language Pascal, which is an Object Oriented program writing language.

EXPRESS-G_diagram_for_Family_schema. png

Figure a: A good example of an EXPRESS data model

There are fundamentally two aspects to EXPRESS

It permits the modelling of data and data relationships with an extremely general and powerful inheritance device, way more than object driven programming languages, such as C++ and Java.

It uses a fully fledged program writing language, which brings more output for the user, as it allows them to fine tune how their data is stored, executed, etc.

Unified Modelling Language (UML)

Unified Modelling Dialect is a standardized basic purpose modelling vocabulary found in the field of software executive. UML, unlike Exhibit, is more visual founded than textual.

UML is a de facto industry standard and is used very often in the program industry today, due to the fact of its ease to use, and for new users to grasp very quickly. UML is utilized to develop and file the artifacts of object-oriented software system under development. UML is very visually focused, and as such depends on elements to visualize a systems architectural blueprint. Elements where UML use include

Actors (stickmen to portray human interaction with the system)

Business Processes

Database Schemes

Programming Language Statements

Data Flows

UML_Diagramme_Deploiement. gif

Figure 3b: That is a component diagram drawn in UML

UML can be used with all techniques, throughout the software development life cycle and across implementation systems. UML has been implemented into Microsoft's Visio, which is now part of the Microsoft Suite.

Business Process Modelling Notation

Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) is a graphical representation for specifying business operations in a small business process model. The Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) is a typical for business process modelling, and provides a graphical design for specifying business operations in a Business Process Diagram based on a flowcharting technique nearly the same as diagrams in UML. The goal of BPMN is to aid business process management for both technological users and business users by giving a notation that is simple to business users yet able to represent intricate process semantics. The main goal of BPMN is to provide a standard notation that is understandable by all business stakeholders.

Like UML, BPMN is very visually focused, and therefore relies on elements to imagine a systems architectural blueprint. Elements where BPMN use include



Message Flow

Data Object



BPMN has been criticized lately for a number of reasons. Many of these reasons include

Ambiguity and dilemma in posting BPMN models

Lack of support for usual work

Lack of support for knowledge work

BPMN-AProcesswithNormalFlow. jpg

Figure 3c: An example of a BPMN process stream.

Data Flow Diagram (DFD's)

A data move diagram is a visual movement of data by using a computer system. DFD's are also used for the visualization of data streaming in one process to another. Over a DFD, data (like a customer's name and address for example) moves from either an external or internal data store to an activity, which then steps the data to perform a certain action, such as investing in a product, paying bills etc.

In each DFD, there are 3 Levels

Context Level

Also known as Level 0, this level is made up of very little details, but is utilized showing stakeholders how the system will work without going into too much aspect. The framework level showcases the system's connections with the exterior world.

Level 1

On Level 1, the DFD is broadened after into much greater detail, and handles functions and data moves. Level 1 DFD shows the way the system is divided into processes, each which deals with one or more of the data moves to or from an exterior agent (repository, consumer information etc. ).

Level 2

Level 2 is generally known as the low level diagram, as it exclusively targets one process specifically. That one process is explained in great information. As it targets one process in great details, this information is relative and then a selected range of stakeholders, specifically the systems evaluation and the programmer allocated the work of developing this certain process.

800px-DFDC. png

Figure 3d: A good example of a Framework Level DFD.

800px-DFD1. png

Figure 3e: A good example of an even 2 DFD.


Fig1 : referenced at http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File:Business_Process_Management_Life-Cycle. svg

Fig1a : referenced at http://wordsmithbob. com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/gantt-chart-your-most-important-client-or-customer-is-you. gif

Fig1b : referenced at http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File:Pert_example_network_diagram. gif

Fig2a : referenced at http://edocms. com/directories/ITIL/Summary-Notes. html

Fig3a : referenced at http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File:EXPRESS-G_diagram_for_Family_schema. png#file

Fig3b : referenced at http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File:UML_Diagramme_Deploiement. gif

Fig3c : referenced at http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File:BPMN-AProcesswithNormalFlow. jpg

Fig3d : referenced at http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File:DFDC. png

Fig3e : referenced at http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File:DFD1. png

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