India is getting speedily wired to the information superhighway. As India gets connected to the global community, asymmetric IW menace posed by the adversaries as well as non-state celebrities would be increasing. With always ON broadband connections through DSL (Digital Customer Lines), Cable tv modems and 3G (third technology) cellular networks, widely spread across homes and offices, the cyber threat potential, has become more pronounced. As per, Mr. S. K. Gupta, Advisor (CN & IT), TRAI, the definition of broadband has been changed to add only those services that provide access speeds of 512 kbps from 01 Jan 2011. That is likely to be upgraded to 2 Mbps network rates of speed from Jan 2015.
As brought out earlier India has taken a distinct segment for itself in the IT Sector. India's reliance on technology also shows from the fact that India is moving gears by getting into facets of e-governance. Since the kick off of the major software project carried out in India, the Country Wide Network for Computerised Enhanced Reservation and Ticketing (CONCERT) for the Indian Railways in 1986, India has brought sectors like tax, passports, visa under the realm of e-governance. Areas like law enforcement and judiciary are to check out. The travel sector is also seriously reliant upon this. Most of the Indian bankers have eliminated on full-scale computerisation. This has also brought in ideas of e-commerce and e-banking. The stock market segments have also not remained immune system. To create havoc in the united states these are profitable targets to paralyze the economic and financial institutions. The damage
done can be catastrophic and irreversible.
Fig-1 India's Information Infrastructure (Source - CERT-India).
India currently occupies a respected position in the IT outsourcing and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry. India is ideally located in South Asia, offering a 10-12 hour time differential to North America and European countries that jointly encompass practically 80 percent of the global IT business. Enough time zone difference ensures round the clock productivity for these countries attempting to outsource their software as well as other services requirements. India's total revenue due to IT and BPO outsourcing was US$33 billion, which is predicted to develop to US$60 billion by the end of yr 2011. Datamonitor, a leading UK-based business information company, research reveals that 67-72% of costs to call centers operating in the US/UK are straight linked to man ability costs. India, on the other palm spends only 33-40% of costs on man power. This includes training, benefits and other incentives for labor. 83 % of Indian businesses acquired reported a security breach (up against the global 64 %) and 42 % of these acquired three or even more breaches (by Sept 2004).
Existing Counter-top Cyber Security Initiatives. Having realised the value of racing ahead of its adversaries in cyberspace, the Indian Govt has set up various initiatives. Salient features of these initiatives have been reviewed in being successful paragraphs.
NASSCOM is along the way of establishing the Data Security Council of India (DSCI) as a Self-Regulatory Organization (SRO) to determine, popularize, keep an eye on and enforce level of privacy and data safety expectations for India's IT & ITeS industry.
National Informatics Centre (NIC). A top company providing network backbone and e-governance support to the Central Administration, State Governments, Union Territories, Districts and other Governments bodies. It offers wide selection of information and communication technology services including nationwide communication Network for decentralized planning improvement in Federal government services and wider transparency of national and local government authorities.
Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (Cert-In). Cert-In is the most crucial constituent of India's cyber community. Cert-In is an operating organisation of Dept of IT, Ministry of Marketing communications and IT, Govt of India, operational since 2004, with the aim of protecting Indian Cyber space. It will serve as a national firm for computer incident response. Its mandate expresses, "ensure security of cyber space in the country by improving the security marketing communications and information infrastructure, through proactive action and effective cooperation aimed at security incident prevention and response as well as security assurance".
National Information Security Guarantee Programme (NISAP). That is for Government and critical infrastructures, highlights are:
Government and critical infrastructures must have a security policy and create a spot of contact.
(b) Essential for organizations to apply security control and statement any security incident to Cert-In.
Cert-In to make a -panel of auditor for this security.
(d) All organizations to be at the mercy of a third party audit from this panel once a year.
(e) Cert-In to be reported about security conformity on periodic basis by the organizations.
Indo-US Cyber Security Forum (IUSCSF). Under this forum (setup in 2001) high electric power delegations from both area met and many initiatives were released. Highlights are:
Setting up an India Information Sharing and Research Centre (ISAC) for better co-operation in anti-hacking measures.
Setting up India Anti Bot Alliance to raise understanding about the rising threats in cyberspace by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII).
Ongoing cooperation between India's Standardization Testing and Quality Documentation (STQC) and the united states Country wide Institute of Specifications and Technology (NIST) would be widened to new areas.
The R&D group will continue to work on the hard problems of cyber security. Cyber forensics and anti-spasm research.
Chalked just how for intensifying bilateral cooperation to regulate cyber-crime between the two countries.
Challenges and Concerns. Some troubles and concerns are highlighted below:
(a) Insufficient understanding and the culture of cyber security at specific as well as institutional level.
(b) Lack of trained and experienced manpower to put into action the counter measures.
(c) Way too many information security organisations that have become weak scheduled to 'turf wars' or financial compulsions.
(d) A weakened IT Act which includes become redundant scheduled to non-exploitation and age group old cyber laws.
(e) No e-mail profile policy especially for the defence causes, authorities and the firm personnel.
(f) Cyber-attacks have come not only from terrorists but also from neighboring countries inimical to our National pursuits.
Recommendations. Certain tips are given below:
Need to sensitize the normal residents about the problems of cyber terrorism. Cert-in should employ academic corporations and follow an hostile strategy.
(b) Joint attempts by all Federal companies including defence pushes to attract licensed skilled personnel for execution of counter procedures.
(c) Cyber security never to get more lip service and the organisations coping with the same should be given all support. No bureaucratic dominance should be permitted.
(d) Agreements relating to cyber security should get the same importance as other traditional agreements.
(e) More investment in this field in conditions of fund and manpower.
(f) Indian companies working after cyber security also needs to keep a close vigil on the advancements in the IT sector of our own potential adversaries.
National security adviser M K Narayanan setup the Country wide Technology Research Firm, which is also, involved with examining cyber security threats. But the cyber security forum of the National Security Council is becoming defunct following the US spy event. It has scarred the Indian establishment so terribly that it's now freezing in its indecision. It has seriously hampered India's decision-making process in cyber warfare.
Cyber attacks usually happen very quickly and frequently with great stealth. Critical warfare fighting procedures must continue to function effectively while under cyber invasion. India is yet to formulate a framework to evolve appropriate response to PLA cyber warfare trends.
Organisations in the offing. After being at the getting end of cyber attacks from across the border for many years, India is getting ready a blueprint for executing counter cyber warfare on unfriendly countries. According to a proposal being considered by the Country wide Security Council, Indian businesses may be told to enhance capacities to exploit weaknesses in the info systems of other countries and also accumulate online intelligence of key military services activities. The proposal includes establishing laboratories in research companies to simulate cyber disorders by making use of honest hackers. These laboratories would be utilized for training cleverness agencies for offensive and defensive cyber warfare techniques. Workers working in this area may be given legal immunity for carrying out these activities.
The blueprint may very well be put into action by the National Technical Research Organisation, the Defence Brains Firm and the Defence Research and Development Organisation. The plan also talks about setting up early-warning functions about impending episodes on the country's information systems and growing experience in cyber forensics, which include tools that focus on acquiring information from attacked systems to learn sources of disorders.
The Federal is looking at establishing a National Testing Service that will certify all brought in software and hardware procured for key information systems. Security companies are worried about spyware or malware embedded into imported products that can be utilized by unfriendly countries to disrupt key areas. The proposed evaluation facility will be on the lines of the Trust Technology Evaluation Programme in america. In order to secure key areas such as banking, Defence, the Railways, civil aviation, atomic energy and oil and gas, it is being proposed to create a Computer Crisis Response Team for each and every of these sectors.
Privileged information implies the Indian administration could you should think about creating the positioning of the cyber security czar whose mandate would be to fundamentally overhaul cyber security and bring the presently fragmented networks under a clearly defined structure.
The overhaul will demand a complete new approach beyond your bureaucratic confines considering that it necessarily requires tapping the cyber security community constituted by young experts in their 20s and 30s. Since this community is utilized to working in a highly non-hierarchical environment with significant amounts of personal freedom the government will have to use the office of the cyber security czar as its software with the young pros.
Threats Encountered by Indian Cyberspace. Although cyber security possessed already been approaching under government concentrate for some time now, a 10-month-long investigation by the University of Toronto's Munk Centre for International Studies, Canadian security organization SecDev Group and US-based cyber sleuthing organisation Shadow server Foundation has added extra urgency to the task. The investigators have issued a written report entitled 'Shadows in the Cloud: An investigation into cyber espionage 2. 0' which highlights how India's defence establishment was critically penetrated by cyber attackers based in Chengdu, the administrative centre of Sichuan province in southwest China.
The statement exposes widespread penetration of personal computers at the Country wide Security Council Secretariat, which is part of the Perfect Minister's Office, Indian diplomatic missions in Kabul, Moscow, Dubai and Abuja, Navy Engineer Services, Navy Educational Establishments, the Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses, the National Maritime Foundation plus some corporations. It really is hard to quantify the destruction the information obtained by the hackers can cause, but it could be probably significant.
The survey has served to focus on serious flaws and vulnerabilities in India's recognized information networks. Those that understand how the systems work point to a 'lack of discipline' in even relatively trivial details such as older government officers in sensitive positions still using email addresses on Yahoo, Hotmail and Gmail. They say inasmuch as no email system can be produced foolproof, these free accounts are even less so. Even the use of cultural networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are regarded as prone to organized attacks.
Apart from the natural fascination with India's defence and other establishments because of its rise as a significant power, addititionally there is another reason the united states has emerged as an important aim for. Its position as home to large IT companies which can be in turn repositories of huge global information also makes India specifically appealing to hackers. In a way hacking India could lead to a great deal of diverse financial, financial, health and other types of valuable cleverness.
One of the principal mandates of any future cyber security czar is always to build a multi-layered security system around its countrywide assets in a fashion that no successful penetration would produce a treasure trove of information in one place. The cyber security czar may be mandated to lay out criteria and code of conduct for those in the federal government managing data of certain hypersensitive nature. Informed resources say the czar would are accountable to the National Security Consultant and would often conclude operating beyond your traditional control and control composition of the Indian bureaucracy because of the kind of monitoring the office would be expected to do.
One specific procedure that the Indian administration may need to consider adopting relates to what in industry parlance are known as defensive and unpleasant hackers. As the former's job is always to ensure strong defences against all episodes, that of the last mentioned would be to actively be part of hackers worldwide who perform the role of flooding malware or destructive software rules used to infiltrate large systems. Such participation is crucial to pre-empting disorders. It really is in this context that the Canadian analysis makes an interesting point. Under the section 'Patriotic Hacking' the record says, 'The PRC - has a vibrant hacker community that has been linked with targeted attacks before and has been linked through informal channels to elements of the Chinese talk about, although the type and amount of the cable connections stay unclear. One common theme regarding attribution relating to attacks emerging from the PRC concerns variants of privateering model in which the state authorizes private persons to perform attacks against foes of the state. '
Unlike China, which has developed a big community of defensive as well as offensive hackers, India hasn't even started to evolve a cohesive method of what cyber security experts respect as a decisive facet of the info technology-driven world. Because the authorities cannot officially or even unofficially recruit these hackers, it has to find creative ways to utilize their services and create enough indirect protections in the event a few of them run afoul of law-enforcement companies which may well not find out about their lifetime.
This is plainly a greyish area which many cyber security experts say is a necessary evil. It is conceivable that India may need to create its own version of 'patriotic hackers' if it must effectively thwart hacking problems.
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