Management HOME ELEVATORS Decision Making Information Technology Essay

In today advance scientific and competitive business environment Management Information System plays a vital role. This assignment report explains how information management changes the overall framework of the organisation and exactly how it effects different aspect of organisation business such as tactical decision making, Information sharing, production, financial, marketing and customer discussion. Some data and information analysis methods are talked about which provides high quality information to the management information system for the conclusion of important process. Finally decision-making tools such as SWOT and ASHEN are discussed that how these tools supporting in decision-making.




With mention of your company, identify tactical information system (IS) issues and critically review and evaluate the organization's practice to solve the problems linked with implementing tactical information systems. Also discuss the wider organizational implications of the steps used by the organization in the utilization of IS and their effects.

Your survey should cover the following learning outcomes and diagnosis criteria:-

LO1: Understanding the impact of management information on decision making

The basic matter of Management Information System (MIS) is the collection, processing, storing, exchanging and transmission of the appropriate information in the business for the support of management functions. Therefore with help of the appropriate information accumulated from different process, a business can make an effective decision. Within the lack of Management Information System (MIS) there exists small chances for an organization to accomplish its goals and business expansion.

Assessment Criteria

1. 1 Identify the features of data and information


Data is thought as the assortment of facts about situations. This collection of facts is at natural form means an unorganised and unprocessed form, which can't be use for meaningful goal for example Name, Age, Price etc.


Information is defined as a well-organised, well-processed and important form of data made from natural data. The end users utilises this meaningful data for making a conclusion easily for example Employees Data, Sale Statement etc.

Accessibility, Relevance, comprehensibility, timeliness and accuracy:

In any company it is important that option of information must be provided to all departments employees this means that option of information to the management and other personnel. The accessible information must be relevant to the processes, efficiency and operations of this department. The info must be comprehensible i. e. clear, well organised and organised, must be timelines i. e. ideal to complete related job and must be appropriate to create the expected end result properly.

Determine the conditions to be employed when selecting data and information to support decision-making

In business environment data is a valuable asset for any organisation. The info must be accumulated carefully because organisation decision-making processes derive from the made information out of this data. While selecting data and information for decision-making we should apply some requirements to the selection such as exactness, validity, quality etc.

Data selection conditions:

Accuracy, completeness, validity, consistency


Data accuracy is vital role in general management information because a precise data can generate highly valuable results. For data correctness timeliness is important often you will see errors in the effect.


The completeness of the info means the availability of latest data for decision-maker. The imperfect data can result in poor decision-making management information.


The validity of data imply data must be collected carefully and from an authentic source. The source of data must be known and verified.


The consistency of data is key role in good management information since it generates reliable, stable, well-organised and well-structured information.

Information selection criteria:

Data quality, classification clarity, relevance, display, timeliness, availability

Data quality:

To generate highly valuable and standard information data must be according to certain quality standards such as data must maintain the appropriate format, well structure, well-organised and standard transferring method can be used.

Definition quality:

The produced Information must be evidently and easily understandable, this will allow organisation employees to utilize the right information in the right place.


Information must be highly relevant to an activity that it can be examined and packaged into an effective format. This is helpful that the management information is having to the point information but the information must not be incomplete.


The management information must be able to present information in the right format, order, well-structured and attractive design. This may express a clearer picture of the organisation.


The information must not take longer time i. e. must be concise and to the point that the management information can easily response.


The regular availability of information must be guaranteed to the management information that duties can run smoothly and the management information can generate up to date results.

Evaluate the impact of the management information system to a organisation

Increasing output and creativity:

Management information system provides knowledge to workers being able to access information resources. Making use of this knowledge the productivity of organisation is increased speedily i. e. manufacture more products in a nutshell time. Not only this but and yes it brings new ideas and inspiration into the organisation.

Developing insurance policies:

Management information system helps organisations to get maximum benefits from the considerable use of the information resources in expanding regulations i. e. planning, execution and evaluation in the organisation.

Use of strategic information resources:

In the management information system the proper information resources helps company in increasing output and brings new development. Organisations are capable of doing better planning, implement new policies proficiently. Strategic information resources improve the use of information resources running a business, federal government and non-profit organisations strategies.

Understanding ICT as a tool for accessing information

In the management information system the info and Communication Technology (ICT) tools are the most commonly used source for accessing information. These tools allow corporation to access any type of information such products, researches, new improvements, quality benchmarks, communication with employees and customers etc.

Managing external, commercial and inner information in organization

The management information system systematically and successfully manages the external information i. e. customer needs and alternatives, corporate and business information i. e. company values, brand names, marketing and advertising procedure, and internal information i. e. efficiency of duties, quick handling, interpretation and response of the organisation staff.

Using information to support business processes

Information supports the following business process.

Market and customer information

Using Market information company can find out about the competitors on the market allowing them to improve product quality, increase production etc. using customer information company will have a better understanding of customer needs and options.

Product information

Using product information organisation can improve products quality, increase creation, price assessment and easily availableness.

Specialist knowledge

Using specialist knowledge organisation can create new innovative products, add new customer to business, lower cost and costs.

Business process information

Business process information facilitates the internal information about the performance of the company such Money, Customer, inner process and learning and development.

Management information and plans

Management information and ideas supports the developing policies, future planes, and improvement of services of the organisation.

Human learning resource information

Human learning resource information is vital for organisations reputation, product support, future planes and inventions.

Supplier information

The Provider information allows the organisations to choose from a sizable amount of suppliers offers affordable price, best quality and quick service.

LO2: Understanding the value of information writing within the organisation

Information posting within the company making employees as team permitting them to submit their ideas, enthusiasm, new masterpieces, discuss different matter and find solution for critical concern. This improves the overall efficiency of the company in terms of employees, products, regulations, customers and challengers.

Assessment Criteria

2. 1 Determine the legal responsibilities in sourcing, writing and storing information

Confidentiality and personal privacy:

Special care and attention must be studied when sourcing, posting and keeping information in a way that this must fully compliance with the info Protection Act. Information about organisation and staff should not be disclosed with out their consent.

Copyright and software protection

Any kind of data, information and software must be used under copyright and software coverage Act. This means that using someone work must be authorised by see your face or any organisation to which it belongs.

Contractual obligations

In circumstance of conditional agreement information sourcing, writing and storing must not breach the conditions i. e. all these businesses must be in line with the conditions and conditions of agreement.

IS and Criminal offense (criminal not civil legislation)

This includes frauds i. e. dishonestly use of information, infringement i. e. violation of rules and regulation, miss used of information i. e. for the intended purpose of making organisation or specific unpopular.

2. 2 Discuss when information should be offered and access allowed.

Information obtaining, being able to access and handling must be according to the Data Protection Work, which gives the to individuals Person, organisation etc to know very well what information is organised about them, the purpose of information keeping as well ensures them that personal information is completed properly.

Anyone who is processing someone private information must adhere to the eight guidelines of Data Security Act, which are explained below.

Fairly and lawful process:

According to 1st rule, Personal data must be refined reasonably and lawfully. This means that the data subject matter i. e. person, company permitted the handling of their private information for any legal and legitimate purposes such as job, justice, health insurance and safeness etc.

Process for limited goal:

According to 2nd principle, Personal data must be obtained and process for a restricted goal only i. e. one or more particular and lawful purposes. In the event the further control of personal information is necessary for other purposes than the specified then the data subject must be informed and further handling should be according to the data subject consent.

Adequate, relevant rather than excessive:

According to 3rd concept, Personal data must be adequate, relevant rather than excessive with regards to the reason it is obtained and prepared. This must ensure the data subject that the control of personal data is relevant to the specified purpose and it is not unnecessary.

Accurate or more to time frame:

According to 4th basic principle, Personal data must be exact and up to date if necessary. This means that the accuracy and reliability of the info must be ensure whatever it is directly obtained from the info subject matter or it is through alternative party. It is the responsibility of the info object to see the about any changes or inaccuracy in the data.

Not kept for longer than is necessary:

According to 5th theory, Personal data should not be kept longer than is necessary for the purpose or purposes after it is processed.

Process consistent with someone's right:

According to 6th theory, Personal data shall be processed with the info subject protection under the law under the info Protection act. This means the data subject matter has the directly to request for the correction, blocking and deleting of the personal data after handling.


According to 7th rule, the security of personal data must be ensures. Which means that in case of unauthorised or unlawful processing, accidental reduction and destruction to the personal data appropriate technical and organisational steps should be studied to avoid such occurrences.

Data Transfer

According to 8th rule, Personal data should not be transferred beyond your Western european Economic Area i. e. to exterior countries. If the exterior countries can means that personal data will have sufficient level of protection and you will be prepared with the consent of data object and for the specified goal, then in such situation data can be transferred.

2. 3 Evaluate the formats in which information can be offered.


In Electronic format information are given through digital means computer produced such as E-mail, Ms Term document, Excel sheet, Data Bases etc. while manual information are almost are provided on papers i. e. paper or handwritten such as log books, manual order e book, letters, books, accounts etc.

Lists of Individuals

List of person could be computer produced or manual, which is made up of details about organization employees, managerial stop and other personnel responsible for different job. Usually this contains titles, designation, contact etc.


Libraries are well organized and well-structured data storage area system used in computer to contains data files, folders, records, pictures, and videos in an effective order etc. nowadays there are extensive electronic libraries keeping e-book, e-journal etc. not only electronic libraries are used still most company using large numbers of manual libraries includes books, journal, research documents, reports etc.


Folder is box employed by computer system for organizing folders, programs and files on a drive in graphical customer interfaces mostly displayed with a graphical image (icon) of data file folder on the screen. Manual folders normally used for possessing documents i. e. invoices, survey, expenses etc.


Computer generated document is any self-contained good article made up of help of any software program is kept with a distinctive file name. This unique name is employed to retrieve that record. While manual documents are hard copies or handwritten data, personal information, manual etc.

List items inside the lists

This is heretical or tree framework, similar items are list under single category the inside list are known as sub categories of the key category. This helps to keep items in an organized framework and it is simple to find and find a specific item.

List items present in the libraries:

In the libraries all items are divided in categories, each category is made up of a set of interrelated items as well sub items, this categorization helps in searching and finding items within the huge amount of the available items.

LO3: Use information to inform and support strategic decision-making

Assessment Criteria

3. 1 Analyze information to identify habits and trends

With the help of information system organisations can identify and forecast the habits and trends in all aspect of the business enterprise such as market, competition, customer requirements etc and predicated on the information examination they can make good proper decisions.

The market

The Information system analyses the info collected from the marketplace and predicated on the evaluation the company can determine about the product quality improvement, increase productivity, adjust product price and can decide about the starting of new products and organisation future planes.

The competition

Based on the info system research of the market data organisation can determine about the merchandise price reduction, enhances quality, improve advertising campaign, more facilities to customer and shareholder, easily availableness etc as competition with other organisation.

The talk about of economy

Based on the info system analysis organisation can manufacture cost-effective product with low cost and can utilise available resources successfully i. e. decrease in production time, proper use of materials, required amount of product, reduction in manufacturing problems etc.

Legislative development

Information system boosts the legislative system of the organisation. They are fully compliance with the data protection action, international laws and standards, legal rights. Based on the info analysis the organisations may take legal steps to attract Customers, compete with their competition, can utilise information resources, shares information's, utilise hardware and software etc.

Customer demands

Based on the Information system analyses of the gathered data from the marketplace organization can predict the customer demands such as what customer would like, is their need of improvement in products, will there be a opportunity to kick off new product, are products common to customer, is there a need of change in the policy and legislation, are customers in a position to commits complains and advices etc, are they pleased with prices etc.

Evaluate a range of decision making tools and techniques open to support a tactical decision


SWOT (Strength weaknesses opportunities and Dangers) examination tools provide an group a structural evaluation of its Strengths, Weaknesses, the opportunities and hazards they are facing. The SWOT examination is dependant on the discussions and people viewpoints which is not the finish but step before any action planning happen. The organization use the research result to appreciate its power (personal, competition, knowledge, development etc) for taking decision to reduce its weaknesses (improve improvements, competition, product quality, customer communication etc), utilize the majority of the opportunities (options, value in next five years, product needs etc) available and treating possible present and future dangers (limitations, sacrificing product ideals, equipment and software problem etc) in a well planned and well-organized way.

Critical success factor (CSF)

Critical success factor is an approach can take by the organisation to ascertain organisational dependence on information. There are always a amounts of key factors necessary for any organisation to reach your goals, these factors are known as critical success factors. If company is unable to achieve these critical success factors, then this will have a higher impact on the company and as a result there is possibility of organisation inability.

The diagram below explains how CSF helping organisation in the dedication for need in key decision (KD) and information Required (IR)











Where CSF represents Critical success factor, KDs represents key decision and IR presents information required to support key decisions.

Model Driven DSS

Model-driven is a complicated Decision Support System (DSS) system helping in analyzing decisions or choosing different options between your available. This sort of system can be used by the organization / Business professionals and staff members, or by other peoples usually interact with the organization. The usage of the system is for several purposes, which is with regards to the set up of the model such as arranging, decision analyses etc. there are a variety of ways for the deployment of Model Driven DSS system such as in stand alone Personal computers through hardware and software in, through consumer / server systems, or through the net.

Data Driven DSS

The organization director mostly uses the info Driven Decision Support System (DSS) system as well staff and the product/service suppliers used it. The use of the system is perfect for a specific need by mailing query to a repository or data warehouse, which in turn returns the wanted specific information. This sort of system is mostly deployed via a mainframe system, customer/server system and trough the web. Computer-based databases will be the example such system, having the capability to respond to query and valuable results value from existing databases.

Data Mining

Data Mining is the data analyzing process from different perspectives and after handling technology of useful information overview. This overview information are used by the organizations to increase revenue, reductions costs etc. Data mining software is one of the analytical tools open to examine data. This tool allows users to do evaluation of the data from different sides, categorize data, and finally identification of the interactions in a summarized data.

Determine the source available to assist in analyzing data information

Information resources such as Data, Information and knowledge

In business environment information resources are the most valuable investments for any company. The information i. e. data, information or knowledge must be collected carefully and with authenticity because the company decision-making processes are based on these information. These sources of these information resources could be organisation employees, customer and other organisations but there has to be some standards for using these resources such as correctness, validity, quality etc.

Technology resources such as hardware and software

For the control of organisation data and information such as products aspect, employee's details, creation, stock and accounts information appropriate technology resources such hardware i. e. personal computers, printers etc and software databases system, data research tools etc must be available to managers and staffs of the organisation. Using such resources reduces production time, cost, improves communication within the organisation and with the customers.

People resources such as worker and professionals in organizations

Organisation employees and professionals are the essential part in analysing data because they supplies the organisation inner data such as created amount, cost, stock etc and the they are functioning the available equipments, computer systems and software. In company mostly there are people specially trained for functioning specialised hardware and software for information control, analysing, report generation.

LO4: Keep an eye on and review management information

Assessment Criteria

4. 1 Identify methods of assessing management information in a organization

For high level of management information organisations utilise different information evaluation solutions to ensure a reliable, trusted and quality of information management system.

Data governance

Data governance (DG) is the entire management of the info employed in the enterprise. The Data governance ensures the supply, usability, integrity, and security of the used data. A regulating body or council operates a well-organized data governance program with a well-defined group of procedures and programs for the execution of defined methods in the right path. The followings will be the three key elements of the successful data governance within an organization.

The ability to work with timely, reliable, trusted information to drive the business

The data governance program must have the ability to ensure the info supply within the recommended time frame to the recipients that it could be prepared at in early on stage. This information must be reliable i. e. steady that execution of different functions can be carried out in proper order and in the right route. As well the information must be respected i. e. appropriate, revise and must be accumulated from the trusted source otherwise it'll lead to program failure.

Improving the grade of business decision- making

The data governance program must be able to utilise certain standard decision support systems for the achievement of high quality of business decision-making such as Model Driven DSS, Data Driven DSS etc. The available data for decision-making must be corresponding to certain quality standard, appropriate format, well organised and well organised.

Ensuring steady use of information

The data governance program must ensure the constant use of information in company for trustworthiness and smooth circulation of business different process. The information stream must be regular to different component of the entire system that the system can make reliable, respected and high quality of result otherwise inconsistency will create incorrect result and can lead to system failure.

Management information value


Timeliness is a higher importance in general management information, which means that the recipients must acquire information within the approved time frame. The timeliness can ensure an early stage information execution, which produces the accurate information end result. The attribute of timeliness of information must succeed as well must includes the current up to date information.


Management information system provides valuable articles for organisation inside and exterior process support. These material support business different process such as details for decision making process, for developing process, for marketing process, financial process, customer and services support etc.


Management information system provides information within an appropriate and clear format, which is easily understandable. The provided information obviously describe the need, the purpose and place where it can be used such as market related information obviously describes the worthiness of the organisation and its own product that can be used to boost quality and services.


Management information systems help organizations in expense reduction in the overall business i. e. internally and externally. It allows organizations to provide their products and services to customers at lower price than their challengers. Therefore, anticipated to information system organizations can survive in difficult situations and can increase rapidly.

4. 2 Discuss process for inspecting impact of information on proper decision made

Set target of process or organization

The information analysis allows the decision-maker in the business to develop and set objectives and allocates resources required for the achievement of these objectives. Thus the organization top-level management is profiting from information analysis to make strategic planning.

Evaluate weather goals achieved

The information system allows the organisation to evaluate weather the required goals are achieved from the information examination or not. In case of failure the process is enhanced with utilising more resources, experience, care and carefully investigation to be sure a quality of final result achieves. Gap evaluation is used for the analysis of weather goals achieved or not.

Assess reasons for variance from aim for to actual

The performance identification is done through the use of knowledge to performance to check weather the functions, procedures and functions are generating the product quality results or not. Each process is judged thoroughly weather the entire process is running well and will complete efficiently.

Revise and use new methods or adjust goals

If there is certainly any mistake along the way it is revised and retest. Some times the accomplishment of the desired resulted new approaches is implemented and some time the difficulties in achieving final result can lead to modification in goals.

4. 3 Determine methods of developing information take to see and support proper decision-making

DIKAR: Data Information Knowledge Action Result

The DIKAR model is used for information quality, which is very useful in understanding the features of management information quality. The diagram below is the information of the overall model.

Source: Dr. L. Ali, " 7004_Strategic Information Management, 2009", Lecture Records, Cromwell college than it & Management

As shown in the diagram the DIKAR model is dependant on the capabilities of the Data, Information, Knowledge, Action and results. These features ensure the quality of the each component of the DIKAR model as from the commence to the end quality is maintained in all processes. The desk below explains the attributes of each component.

Data Quality

The provided data must be appropriate i. e. up to date, the complete data to complete that task i. e. completeness, accumulated from authentic and trusted source i. e. validity and regularly available for smooth circulation i. e. persistence.

Information Quality

Information must be generated from an excellent data, all explanation must clearly identify the reason, only relevant information should be utilized related to a task, the presentation of information should be in the correct order and right format, information must be provided to the receiver in the recommended time frame and lastly availability of information must be ensure to the end user related compared to that task.

Knowledge Quality

For knowledge quality the information quality must be looked after as described in the last section, ASHEN factors (is described in the next section) must be taken into account, the finish individual must be experienced in using such knowledge i. e. previous experience, knowledge must be clear and easily understandable i. e. explicit knowledge and lastly must be understood clearly by the end end user i. e. tacit knowledge.

Action Quality

An appropriate action must be studied for the answer of the task, this step must be with in the approved time frame and must create results with quality that ends end user can utilise ends in the right place and in the right path.

Result Quality

The generated outcome must clearly state the achieved targets and regularity of results. The achieved effect must be the right and desired and productive for the duty.

ASHEN: Artefacts Skills Heuristics Experience Natural talent

The ASHEN factors can be used for the examination of knowledge quality at the items described below


Problem solutions

Solution creation


Learning points

The ASHEN factors are one of the important attributes found in DIKAR model for knowledge quality examination. It helps in making the decisions in the right place and direction, helps in finding the answer for the problems, helps to find solution in an appropriate manners, assists with judgement of the task, problems, solutions and finally allowing end user to learn different techniques for the answer of the desired task.

The stand below clarifies the ASHEN purpose


Means anything created by the people for the solution of different duties such as operations, tools, documents etc and has knowledge inlayed in them.


Abilities of individuals, which is often utilised for different purposes and need of the organisations and can be trained and measured and tested without any doubt.


A profound knowledge and knowledge of different aspect of business, connection with results, knowledge repository, and rules of thumb applied.


The overall experience gain from the inability and successful conclusion of process, which allow the execution of the right procedures, businesses, functions and patterns in the right way.

Natural talent

Some people have the capability to do more things unexpectedly as compare to the other people. Such a ability can come up with a superb approach for the perfect solution is of different jobs.

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