A corridor indoor navigation system is suggested for any kind of visual impaired individuals: blind, partially sighted, and people with progressive loss of vision. This system can help the visually impaired individuals to travel through familiar or unfamiliar corridor utilizing the Kinect sensor that mounted on the head or keeping into palm. This chapter consists of five parts. The five parts can be divided into problem statements, job scopes, project aims, contributions, and backdrop information.
1. 1 Drive and Problem Statement
Visually impaired individuals will face many troubles and one of the normal problems is when they involve in self-navigating at an environment which is odd for them. Actually, physical motion is one of the biggest challenges to them. Besides that, while they travel around or walking at a congested corridor, it could present great difficulty. Among the existing problems for visually impaired individuals to travel in a corridor is that they cannot detect either they have to turn kept or flip right when reached to the finish of the corridor by using only the walking stick. Corresponding to Saaid M. F , to walk at the corridor, the visually impaired individuals must find the border of the sidewalk at the corridor and then use their walking adhere to establish their current location. The key reason why the visually impaired individuals do this is because they cannot forecast the obstacle which is far from them while they only can use the walking stick to detect the region around them.
1. 2 Project Scope
The scope of this project is to build up something which can help visually impaired individuals to get around in the corridor and determine the distance of obstacles. This system used the sensor of the Kinect to discover the obstacles. Kinect is a low-cost 3D sensor produced by Microsoft for the XBOX 360 console which allows the player to make use of his own body as the game controller. Besides that, it includes an RGB camera associated with an infrared transmitter and recipient, which permits to estimate the distance of the elements taken from the environment. This technique using sensor of the Kinect to building the depth map, which can supplies the distance of the road blocks detected in front of the aesthetically impaired individuals.
1. 3 Project Objectives
In this project, the main purpose is to build up a cheaper in cost but will still maintain with a good functional system for the aesthetically impaired individuals. This technique in a position to help visually impaired individuals to all the obstacles such as people and creature on the corridor same with them; looked after can supplies the distance of the obstacles in front of them. The purpose of this job is to enhance the aesthetically impaired individuals' ability to find the route at the corridor while they may be walking rather than just rely on the walking adhere to find all the hurdles manually and squander their time in finding the exactly route that they want to going to.
1. 4 Impact, relevance and Contribution
This system was created especially for almost any visual impaired people: blind, partly sighted, and folks with progressive lack of vision. This technique will give a whole lot of benefits to the visually impaired individuals especially for individuals who have financial problem. According to the researcher Choo, Malaysia has around 60, 000 visually impaired individuals and 28, 000 of them had registered as a blind and put on have the help from the welfare provided in Malaysia. This mean that the amount of visually impaired individuals that contain financial problem possessed covered more than half in the total variety of impaired visually individuals which is reason why the system provide is cheaper and affordable by almost all of the impaired visually individuals.
More than that, this technique able to supply the distance of the obstacles in front of aesthetically impaired individuals by using sensor of the Kinect. It also able gives the visually impaired individuals the existing path to help them going to the right route. With the machine provided, the visually impaired specific able walk at the corridor protection since the system developed is able to guide them over the corridor by providing the information of the encompassing over the corridor. With the system developed the aesthetically impaired individuals also in a position to enhance their own capability or less dependent to the help of other folks while walking across the corridor. The key reason why the visually impaired individuals can improve themselves into a far more independent individual is because the system able to help them in finding the route while they are walking at the corridor. Hence, the visually impaired person in a position to more likes a standard person in their daily lifestyle.
1. 5 Qualifications Information
Nowadays, the tools to assist the aesthetically impaired individuals are become very important because the tools are used to help them to get around the surrounding in the corridor. Corresponding to Casey Helmick , those people who are aesthetically impaired individuals often will count on different tools to help them in visiting around. Dog guide and walking keep are the most common tools to assist visually impaired individuals in lifestyle. However, not absolutely all of them manage to purchase a guide dog, because the guide dog reaches a quite expensive price level and can require eating their time in training with the guide dog and getting the permit in support of able traveling around with the guide dog. The training cost and the certificate cost will also become one of the matter which they cannot find the money for all the cost plus the guide dog cannot available to enter into some places such as hotel, apartment and medical center and this restrict these to walk smoother at interior environment with just an assist from the walking stick. Besides that, some of the aesthetically impaired individuals can't be around dogs. 
Furthermore, the visually impaired individuals only may use the walking sticks to estimate and determine the obstacle on the floor across the corridor and the obstacle must be close with their current location since the amount of their walking stay is bound. A walking stick may be harder to transport, since it's longer than the real walking stick and because the blind people use walking stay while walking, so they only have one hand free . Hence, this cause the visually impaired individuals become inconvenience especially when their hands need carry a lot of items and since one with their hand need take walking stay, so they might not able to bring all the items. Besides that, the prevailing walking stick for visually impaired individuals gets the range recognition problem. The walking stick cannot detect the length that a lot more a long way away from the individual or the moving items that active the corridor. Unlike normal person they cannot sense the all of the items and moving things since they cannot see, so, this causes them problems when they walk at the corridor. The prevailing walking keep also cannot assist and help the visually impaired individuals to detect the possible way whether to carefully turn either kept or right when they reached to the finish of the corridor. To increase the limitation that do exist on the current visually impaired individuals walking stay, the corridor indoor navigation system has been suggested.
Due to the hassle of walking stay in the corridor, there are extensive researchers which may have been researching to discover a new way to solve the problem. On this chapter, there are a few systems that are evaluated. A few of them are extracted from journal or internet.
2. 1 Ultrasonic Ranging System
A mobile ultrasonic ranging system is the machine that used to expand the environmental recognition range for aesthetically impaired individuals by using the Sona SwitchTM 1700 (Electronic Design and packing, Livonia, Michigan). This sensor runs on the pulse of ultrasonic waves to determine the distance to obstacles. There are many hardware are used to create the system such as Advertising654 Monolithic Voltage-to-Frequency Converter, 2 small headphone speakers, helmet, 15 volt power source, 2 plastic experimenter containers, breadboard, resistors, capacitors, and modest circuitry. This project contains two methods of detections which is analog and digital mode. The analog setting will give the blind a mental picture about the surroundings based on the several frequencies and habits of chirps elicited. The digital setting functions for recognition a basically dished up to warn the blind of nearby obstructions .
The Ultrasonic Ranging System has less transmission attenuation, strong reflectivity, insensitive to light and electromagnetic. Especially with the appearance of clever ranging machines which take micro controller as the key, the ultrasonic recognition device has been greatly improved in its diagnosis accuracy and reliability, method and software range, and it is becoming an important part in the smart detection field .
Ultrasonic influx angular misalignment is one of the weaknesses of the system. For ultrasonic waves to propagate effectively through the echo respond phase, they must have a perpendicular surface to represent from. Angular misalignment between the normal of the transmitting and receiving surfaces could cause the measured distance to differ from the real distance . Besides that, the hardware use by the machine is expensive because generally the hardware is make and brought in from other foreign countries.
Other than that, to lessen the situation of ultrasonic angular misalignment, the recommended solution is by using different transmit and getting ultrasonic transducer pairs. Reducing the size and weight of the ultrasonic sensor would greatly increase the ergonomic features of the system .
2. 2 Point Locus Wearable GPS PathFinder system
Point Locus Wearable Gps navigation PathFinder system is designed specialised as away finding aid for the visually impaired individuals as they travel outdoor. The machine communicates in a dialect of vibrations to an individual, so that will be able to guide them. The vibration originates from two vibrating pager motors on the user's triceps. Whenever they need to carefully turn, whichever vibrator is closest to the flip angle will vibrate. Then, the user prevents and rotates for the reason that direction, until they have the vibration from both vibrators. This indicates the user is facing the right path and should progress. This indication is repeated every 20 mere seconds as a reassurance to an individual they are moving in the right direction and should continue forward. When a destination is reached, a sustained vibration from both vibrators of 5 a few moments suggests this.
Point Locus Wearable Gps unit PathFinder system will track record Gps navigation location data and use the current located area of the user, and the desired destination to create a path in one indicate the other. These details will be utilized by a microcontroller to control the vibrator circuits, so they'll vibrate at the correct time. 
This system will serve as important tools as you of the most crucial senses for aesthetically impaired users that are the sense of touch. The goal of the system is to create a product that will be able to help aesthetically impaired people in a meaningful way. It needs to be something sensible that compliments their natural adaptations with their disability and extends their limitations. It will be an inexpensive solution that improves their way finding potential, making them a lot more independent when going.
By using the sense of coming in contact with, alternatively than audio, the machine will not overload one vital sense that is necessary as an designed way to orient oneself. In addition, it does not require vision to put on and change to the right size, because Velcro allows a person to feel out the proper place to connect the straps.
This system is to track record the Gps unit location to be able to determine the course. The weakness of Gps unit is inadequate for accurate positioning in in house environment such as underground, under normal water, tunnels and so on, because the walls can significantly hinder Gps navigation transmissions. The lost of signs can make the users feel unsafe because for a visually impaired person they'll panic. Furthermore, the visually impaired has lacked the freedom to walk without family member or friend accompany, especially through the unfamiliar environments.
2. 3 Corridor Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance using Aesthetic Potential
This system is creating a navigation algorithms that using visible potential for corridor navigation and obstacle avoidance. The visible probable is computed from a graphic series and optical movement computed from successive images captured by the camera mounted on the robot. The robot selects an area pathway using the visual potential observed through its vision system. This algorithm enables mobile robots to avoid road blocks without any knowledge of a robot workspace. Using the aesthetic potential field and optical move, Naoya Ohnishi identifies a control circulation for corridor navigation and obstacles avoidance of the mobile robot.
The path-planning problem of a mobile robot is to look for the trajectory. The trajectory is set as the road from the start indicate the vacation spot point without collision with hurdles in the settings space. The potential field method  produces a avenue from a start point to a vacation spot point using the gradient field computed from the field derived from the map of the settings of the robot workspace.
On the other palm, the navigation issue of a mobile robot is to determine the robot action at an arbitrary time . In a real environment, the payload of mobile robots is fixed, for example, power, capacity of insight devices and computing electricity. Therefore, mobile robots must have simple mechanisms and devices .
Methodology, Implementation Issues and Concern, Timeline
3. 1 Methodology
The methodology that we use in this project is Prototyping methodology. The reasons why we use this strategy are because the method is simpler to understand, more user-friendly and the steps are better set up. The developer will be able to modify the system continuously until meet up with the objectives. You will find five steps in Prototyping technique; they are planning, analysis, design, execution, and last system . Planning is the process of knowledge of the reason the system will be built and the requirement. Analysis includes the condition identifying, examination, predicting potential problems, and the way the system will be built. System research contributes to design decision, decides the way the system operates in the term of process, data, hardware and other factor. Implementation includes enough time when we want to make, examined and also installed. It offers the training and also system maintenance.
Figure 3. 1 Prototyping Strategy: Source: http://www. slepi. net/blog/system-development/system-development-life-cycle-sdlc-methodologies. html, Wiras Adi( February, 2008)
3. 1. 1 Planning
Planning is the first level of the prototyping strategy. A good project planning will escalates the success rate of the job. Project planning is about what activity we needed in this task, and how enough time allocate to each and every activity. The goal of this job planning is showing us a large picture how the whole programs circulation and the full total time had a need to complete the job. Grantt chart is one of the various tools that people used for routine the activity. In addition, it helps us monitor again how much were delayed.
3. 1. 2 Analysis
In this level, designer need to analyse the application form looks like, how it works, how much it cost to makes a much better system. In order to makes an improved system, designer need to analyse other existing system to protect their restriction and weaknesses. Programmer must also analyse the technology included to make sure the hardware and software are supported.
3. 1. 3 Design
System requirement requirements need to be analyzed before go to system design. There are numerous software you can use for develop the machine. This technique is produced by using C++ programming dialects and Kinect Xbox.
3. 1. 4 Implementation
This is coding stage. Following the design level, this level make all feature become useful. First of all, start with setting up all the hardware and software necessity. Install the Microsoft Visual Studio room 2010 software, and hook up with Kinect Xbox. From then on start coding and test the result. Several algorithms and software will be utilized to implements the system. All functions will be examined until it come to the project targets. There are many way of trials can be carry out such as black-box testing, white-box testing, unit evaluation, system integration testing, and user approval testing.
3. 1. 5 Last System
After all the stage did, this stage will be the delivery level and maintenance stage. To ensure the visually impaired individuals learn how to utilize it, lesson training will be provided. Whenever the visually impaired individuals find any problem, the maintenance service is provided to ensure the system work perfectly.
3. 2 Implementation Issues and Challenges
Time is the key problem. We still need to control our time with other things. To handle this issue, there is the reason to really have the project planning.
Code and software complexity
Code complexness is another main problem due to our limited knowledge on the C++ dialect. Software that used to apply in this system also is the problem for us credited to we haven't any knowledge about this area. To handle this problem, we have to make a study and study to increase my knowledge in this program.
We have encountered other difficulty when obtain the image pixel. The Kinect depth detectors convert the color to black, grey, and white. Black colored color is undiscovered area which indicate too far or too near. White and gray is recognized area. The issue we encountered is we struggling to let the laptop know which is subject, which is wall structure, and which pixel we want get for determine the length. (Body 3. 3)
3. 3 Timeline / Job Planning
Project planning is very important to limit the time that we will use. So, it is some sort of time management for our job. Below, we will identify our project planning Project 1.
Project I Timeline
Identify problem affirmation, opportunity, objective,
Methodology and planning
Project finalization and proposal submission
Figure 3. 4 Job I Timeline
The title is assigned by the faculty.
Identify problem declaration, scope, objectives, and backdrop information
Found the key reason why you want to do this project, the opportunity, and found the information that was useful for us to understand more concerning this project.
In this step, we make a research to something that is related to this project and this research more to the journal and other established material.
Methodology and planning
In this task, we planned how exactly we wish to accomplish our task; we determined our steps and followed them.
Project finalization and proposal submission
Make a hardcopy of the things that we have understand and read. Then, go it up to the supervisor.
Make a display to your supervisor and also moderator. And make a Microsoft power point slip to them.
Project II Timeline
Study the C++ terms and software
Figure 3. 5 Task II Timeline
4. 1 End user Requirement
4. 1. 1 Efficient Requirement
i) Road blocks Avoidance - This technique able to help user discover the road blocks position.
ii) Distance computation - This system will count the length from customer to object recognized.
iii) Information - This system will tell customer the object's distance through the earphone.
4. 1. 2 Non-Functional Requirement
i) Trustworthiness - Recover from failure. A tests plan shall be developed for this function.
ii) Usability - This system will be easy to understand, easy to learn, and simple to use. It shall simplify duties to set up and run it.
iii) Portability - This technique shall be lightweight between computers. Also, the software will be easy to set up and remove.
4. 2 System Performance Definition
4. 2. 1 Hardware Requirements
Microsoft Kinect Xbox
32-bit(x86) or 64-bit(x64) processor
Dual-core 2. 66 GHz or faster processor
Dedicated USB 2. 0 bus
2 GB RAM
4. 2. 2 Software Requirements
Windows 7 Operating System
Microsoft Visual Studio 2010
. Net Framework 4. 0
Microsoft-speech program SDO v11
Kinect for Home windows SDK v1. 6
4. 2. 3 Encoding Languages used:
4. 3 Design, Analysis, and Verification Plan
4. 3. 1 Design of Navigation system
This navigation system is using Kinect Xbox for developed. Kinect itself contain of 2 3D depth detectors, RGB camera, multi-array microphone, and motorized tilt. Kinect's sensor can gauge the object's distances from 0. 6cm to 4cm. Number 4. 3. 1 is Kinect Xbox 360, Amount 4. 3. 2 is the overall outlook of the machine.
Figure 4. 3. 1 Kinect Xbox 360
Figure 4. 3. 2 Navigation System Outlook
4. 3. 2 Analysis
Move openly without collision with human
Able to avoid collision with the object while travelling along the corridor
Provide information to blind people such as the distance of the object
4. 3. 3 Confirmation Plan
To verify if the navigation system is achieved the targets or not, we place it into real environment for testing. First, we put some thing in the corridor, and covered the user's eyes, and then ask the user walk along the corridor for tests the system. When the thing is detected, the system will start counting the length of the thing, and tell end user the object's distance. Besides that, we also test for human avoidance. Example: whenever a human all of the sudden stand in front of the user, could it be the system successful to find the human being and tell an individual?
4. 4 System Overview
6. 1 Job Review
5. 0 Conclusion
In this paper, we proposed a system which is indoors navigation corridor system to improve the limitation of the walking keep. The majority of chapter one is about the situation of the walking stick and its weaknesses. Section one also addresses the project range, project targets, contribution, and also background information. The chapter 2 includes review of studies that contain been done to be able to increase the limitation of the walking keep (to increase the range of diagnosis).
The chapter 3 includes methodology, tools and timeline. The strategy used in the proposed system has main level, which is low level level, intermediate stage, and high level stage. The efficiency of each level will be talked about in section 3. The tools we using has 2 parts, which is hardware and software.
The aim we implements this technique is to help the aesthetically impaired individuals steer clear of the road blocks such as people and pet animal on the corridor same with them. The purpose of this job is to improve the visually impaired individuals' potential to find the way at the corridor while they are walking rather than simply rely on the walking adhere to detect all the obstacles manually and spend their time in locating the exactly course that they want to heading to.
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