The Main Functions ASSOCIATED WITH AN Operating System
Here I am going to explain the main functions of an operating system
The operating system must assign enough cycles to each process to complete the job and must give each process enough time with the CPU to function properly. (CANT MAKE IT NOT APPEAR TO BE THE FUCKING SITE! STUPID EFFICIENT SITE)About the same tasking system it only needs to pause to cope with user source and certain interrupts. On the multitasking system the system must priorities each process moving over between them thousands of time per second in order for it to give the appearance that things are taking place at once. On multi-core and multi-processing systems, procedures on each central may be jogging at the same time as the other center but each cpu core can only just hanlde one task at a time.
http://computer. howstuffworks. com/operating-system5. htm
Memory management and storage.
The operating-system must also ensure that memory doesnt clash with other ram and that each process is given enough memory space to execute. For this to occur the operating system must assign memory space boubndaries for types of software and specific applications. Applications are loaded into storage in block of a certain size allocated by the operating-system. Every process will be given a multiple of this number in size so that storage area won't overlap if there it is micalculated bit.
Tthe operating-system must ensure that all different type of storage are used in an efficient way. This consists of ROM, Ram memory, cache memory, digital storage and hardisk space.
For illustration when Ram memory is full a few of the procedures not being used can be preserved onto the hardisks and recalled when it's needed. It can keep procceses that are used frequently into high speed cache memory so that it can be retrieved quicker alternatively than being read from Ram memory evertime.
This is the management of all input and outcome devices such as keyboards and printers. For example if there is to much data coming in from the computer keyboard for the cpu to handle the operating-system can instruct a buffer to keep taking information but to avoid mailing it to the cpu. DO I NEED TO EXPLAIN WHAT Individuals ARE?
User user interface
There are many difference kind of user interface but all do the same process which is to be the translator between machine code and the user. It permits an individual to communicate with the machine and then for the device to output the effects of the users activities.
Main types of Functioning System
A assessment of the four main types of operating-system. - THE NON-PUBLIC computer, Network Computer, Mainframe and Mobile Mobile phone/PDA.
A mainframe was created to input process, move around and ouput large amounts of particular date fast and efficeintly. It is the most reliable, steady, and secure of most. Looks smart quite large (get better description)
A PDA was created to be small. They use simpler instructions which take up less ram are therefore more limited to the type of thing they can do and run.
Network - is similar to a PC but It uses less storage, less storage and does indeed less processing. It is a little like your personal computer which mostly handles input and end result the rest is performed elsewhere over a server.
A Laptop or computer is gerneral goal so this means can do a wide range of different duties.
Mainframes didn't used to have end user interfaces only taking input via punch cards and tapes etc. Now they support GUI like others.
All use GUi but recent cell phones/PDA's include touchscreen which can be an interactive from of GUI ehich allows input.
Users can access a mainframe either by the computer terminal but theser days and nights most can go surfing via a personal computer and acces the mainframe with a personal computer.
The mainframe use many subsidury computers to hanlde I/O devices. unlike the other 3 who devices hook up directly to the main unit.
You can connect an array of devices to a Computer or network computer such as printers and scanners unlike the PDA what your location is limited to earphones usb and sometime a key pad. You are unable to add more and detract from like you can with a Laptop or computer which uses special motorists to be able to communicate with the operating-system.
Memory Safe-keeping Management
A Mainframe can have multiple hardrives therefore store extremly high amounts of data unlike a computer which often only has one. PDAs on the other hand don't have a hardisk but use rom to store the operating system and pre-installed programs including the claender and phonebook. In the event that you add programs these are stored in Memory. You do not loose this data when the telephone is turned of because the telephone is run on batteries which still have a tiny bit of vitality still left in them when the telephone is turned off. Network pcs also often don't have a hardisk using the network to store and access data and run programs.
pc's pda's and network computers are all sole user operating systems unlike mainframes designed to use multi user operating systems.
Unlike PDA's and network computers mainframes can run multiple os's. modern pc's can also do that in the way of a digital machine however, not to the extent and sophistication of an mainframe. Unlike the other three mainframes use multiple processors and can discuss their workload between them. Whereas network pcs are able to use the the server for some of their processing.
change sophistication so that it isnt copying
Unlike the others mainframes use single tasking operating systems
Well Known - Operating Systems
A Contrast between MS Home windows, MS-Dos, Linux and Mac-OS.
Introduction to MS-DOS
MS DOS Stands for Microsoft Disk OPERATING-SYSTEM. IBM released the first ever before pc in 1982 which was included with MS-DOS. MS-DOS is a re-named version of Q-DOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) which was owned by Seattle computer Products at the time. Soon after the discharge of MS-DOS Microsoft bought the licensing privileges from Seattle personal computers.
MS-DOS was then Liscenced by around 50 companies in 1982 and was applied to most computers throughout the 1980's. Like home windows and Macintosh personal computer, MS-DOS was closed down source. Shut source means that you will be unable to start to see the source therefore struggling to change or make any additions to the operating-system via the foundation code. Which means only one who would be able to provide updates or newer variants could have been Microsoft themselves.
It runs on the command line interface as opposed to the modern Graphical User Interface (GUI) that we see on computers now.
- Which means that they were not yet "user friendly. " Because of this MS-DOS would have been utilized by skilled workers rather than the public for personal use.
- MS-DOS was a Single Tasking operating system and with having less GUI was suited and used for careers such asfile management, simple networking and batch processing.
- Solo tasking also means that it would run more proficiently i. e. quicker for several tasks
- MS-DOS memory space management could have differed to that of more recent computers as there could have been no broadband cache storage or virtual memory and there could have been no need for this about the same tasking system.
- Because MS-DOS is this basic it does not take up as much storage space and doesn't use as much RAM to run.
Where MS-DOS is now
- MS-DOS was gradually replaced by MS Glass windows with the technology of GUI and windowsAPI (Program Programming Iinterface. ) It was eventually discontinued in 2000. ;
- MS-DOS is currently used as a standalone product but is currently used for bootstrapping and troubleshooting.
Introduction to MS-WINDOWS
- Microsoft windows was developed by Microsoft following on from MS-DOS. The first version of MS-Windows realeased in 1985 was not a complete operating system. It was an expansion of MS-DOS which provided a graphical user interface.
- MS-Windows is common meaing it operates on most computer systems such as personal computers, workstations, mobile mobile phones/pda's, tablet pc's, notebooks, press centers, and embedded systems.
- MS Glass windows is the most used of current operating systems and are available in schools, office buildings and homes across the country.
- Glass windows version 2. 1 was the first to be given the ability to do such thing as multi tasking. The amount and efficiency of which has been improving ever since.
Later Editions of windows no longer had MS-DOS underlying and became a modern operating system rather than being considered just the GUI.
Liscencing and cost
- Unlike Linux, Microsoft usually comes pre-installed and it is a fully registered product. This is often a positive thing as you have full technical support when things fail but are however limited to one machine per licence.
- Windows can cost alot significantly less than mac to purchase however some people dispute that cost of maintenance for a glass windows operating systems makes up for this. Glass windows is reported to be less stable due its software components being linked.
As windows is the most used operating system taking up (90 somehing) percent of the market it is more vunerable to hacking and it is therefore less secure than apple pc and linux. In addition, it means there there's a greater range of 3rd party software for windows.
- Like MS-DOS, Glass windows is shut source so there exists less overall flexibility in what you can change which means GUI is less configurable than linux. But also for the same reason it is far more user friendly.
- House windows is backwards suitable and therefore softeware designed for older variants of home windows can also operate on newer editions.
- Windows like most modern os's is multi tasking and multi control meaning it can provide the appearance to do many things at once. This can have its drawbacks in such areas as swiftness.
- Even though windows no longer has MS-DOS underlying you are able to bring up the DOS-prompt which has a limited potential unlike Linux where you can run the whole lot in the commandline coating.
- With all the advancesof windows can now take up to1gb of space as apposed to the reduced storage space that MS-DOS would have adopted.
Introduction to Linux
- In 1984 Richard Stallman made a free version of unix which he called GNU. Soon after he published the GNU GPL (public liscence). His goal was to make software that was readily available to general public. In 1994 Linus Torvalds released Linux kernel which could be included with the GNU system to make a completely free operating-system. The name linux is linus's name combined with Minix which is a simplified version of unix he had established his kernel on.
- Excerpt from Unix System Security Tools by Seth T. Ross
- do i use the excert little or the internet site?
Licenscing and Cost
- The primary difference between Linux the other 3 os's is that it is open source and is also licenced under the GNU GPL this means it is free and that anybody can notice change it and redistribute it so long as it complies with the GNU GPL Licence.
- As Linux is not a corporate product and is also in numerous states/versions it generally does not have the support that you'll get with macintosh and windows and also doesnt often come pre-installed. It can however have many forums and tech based mostly help on the internet.
- The benefits of its open up source code is that it's free and also if you are extremely knowledgeable of development you can control almost everything about the operating-system making it a fantastic choice if you wish to manipulate it for specific duties.
- However this detracts from the user friendliness. This issue has been tackled by a failry new version called abuntu so this means () although nearly the userfreindliness that macintosh and windows show.
- Like House windows linux can be operate on a variety of systems including persoonal personal computers, desktops, mobile phones/pdassupercomputers, laptops and is also welll know fo its use on servers.
This being said Linux's main end user group would be folks of a very computer knowleagable qualifications mosrt commonly nicknamed "compuer nerds".
- Secuity smart Linux is considered to be the better than house windows as it is based on Unix (an operating system considered to be very secure) but as mentioned by John Lettice at http://www. theregister. co. uk/2004/10/22/linux_v_windows_security/ "there's also a acceptable amount of support for the view that Linux would get just as much security issues if it got anything like Windows' user bottom part. "
- Mac Operating-system was made by Apple. Mac pc OS was suitable for apple macintosh computer systems and only operates on Apple hardware.
- Mac OS doesn't have a command line interface whatsoever and unlike home windows deleting a data file will not break the entire system. (ASK BEN IS THIS TRUE?) Because of this and other reasons it is a lot more user friendly but anyone wanting to explore or troubleshoot will never be able to.
- All you see is the GUI so it is therefor minimal versatile in its ablity for customization and control over how it works. This is ""
- Like house windows mac is shut down source and has full specialized support
- Formerly I thought that macintosh was the more costly of the four but matching to Jon Henshaw, M. A. at http://www. familyresource. com/lifestyles/technology/buying-a-home-computer-mac-vs-windows
- "Windows and Mac pcs are now almost equal in cost. Whereas you can purchase a Windows centered PC for less than $500, you will not get the multimedia system hardware and software that you will want and need. Actually, to take action would cost equivalent or more to the cost of a Mac pc. "
- You also have to consider that you will see less maintenance costs than that of windows. UI
- Mac is considered more secure than home windows which is partially down to it being predicated on unix but is also as i said previously because windows is more widely used.
- Additionally it is regarded as more stable which again couldbe down to it being based on unix. Matching to Jon Henshaw, M. A. at http://www. familyresource. com/lifestyles/technology/buying-a-home-computer-mac-vs-windows mac pc doesnt marry its software components jointly like windows does so when something will go incorrect it doesnt all follow suit signifying the whole thing is less inclined to crash like glass windows could do. 45
Type of use/Who uses it?
- Mac OS is not as widely used as windows and therefore has a smaller amount of software that will operate on it.
- Relating to "http://www. buzzle. com/authors. asp?author=15890">Manali Oak at buzzle. com "While Home windows targets office function, Macintosh is targeted on graphics and media functions. " ("http://www. buzzle. com/articles/difference-between-windows-and-macintosh. html">http://www. buzzle. com/articles/difference-between-windows-and-macintosh. html)
- This might imply that individuals who use macs are genraly individuals who have jobs where they need to use alot of multimedia.
- EASILY was going to recommend an Operating-system for somebody who is not used to pcs and didn't wish to know anything about whats occurring in the background I would suggest the Mac due to its userfreindly design and also if indeed they mainly iused computers for images music and videos. I will suggest windows tto someone who wants a big amount of software options and video games and who loves to have some capacity probe further than (cant finnish the fucking sentence) For those who enjoy or need a completely customisable operating system. If they were not already competent in programming/command line they might also have to be willing to take on the training curve. Overal I feel the Mac would be the operating system of the future assuming that there's a larger software foundation and that it becomes less expensive. 100 ALSO REVEAL House windows AND LINUX BEIGN THE CHEAPER OPTION IF Macintosh personal computer WILL BE TO EXPENSIVE?
1. 1 References
http://computer. howstuffworks. com/operating-system7. htm (MAKE SURE IF U HAVE TO ADD ALL THE Webpages U DO)
http://www. foogazi. com/2006/12/19/5-advantages-of-using-linux-over-windows/
http://www. theregister. co. uk/2004/10/22/linux_v_windows_security/
http://www. albion. com/security/intro-2. html
http://www. computerhope. com/os. htm#03
http://www. buzzle. com/articles/difference-between-windows-and-macintosh. html
http://www. operating-system. org/betriebssystem/_english/bs-windows. htm
>http://www. operating-system. org/betriebssystem/_english/bs-msdos. htm
http://www. applematters. com/article/mac_v_windows_no_real_difference/
http://www. macvswindows. com/index. php?title=MacvsWindows_Comparisons
http://www. familyresource. com/lifestyles/technology/buying-a-home-computer-mac-vs-windows
1. 2 Glossary
1. 2. 1 Proprietary
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