In search of a solution to this contradiction, the companies have accumulated considerable experience. Thus, the management of the company "Hewlett-Packard", on the one hand, seeks to support the flexibility of researchers, their receptivity to new ideas, on the other - constantly be aware of all commercial events, market conditions, etc., which is achieved thanks to presence of various kinds of connections of researchers with employees of marketing departments. According to the management, this network of ties plays a decisive role in the successful operation of the company. In the company Hewlett-Packard It is customary to assign each year to each of the six research centers a number of strategically important areas for the company's activities, which are determined jointly by the laboratory leaders and the vice president responsible for R & D. The company's researchers are advised to spend as much time as possible in production units so that, knowing the problems of production, they can put forward ideas of improving the output of products or production processes that meet the needs.
Within the company, there is a strict rule for developers of new products to closely monitor the progress of new products from their birth in the laboratory to practical development in the form of finished products. Each year, the director of each laboratory calculates the approximate ratio of the annual amount of funds allocated to the laboratory for R & D, with the amount of profit the company receives, which can be attributed to the work performed by this laboratory. This is not a strict accountability, however such an approximate estimate of the real contribution is considered useful, as it reminds researchers that their work is controlled.
Of course, it is easier to manage R & D and it is easier to control costs when sales offices formulate specific R & D goals, since researchers concentrate their efforts in certain areas. However, in this case, researchers are forced to operate within a limited range, which hinders their creativity. To resolve this controversy in the company "Hewlett-Packard staff are allowed to spend 5-10% of the time on research that has not been officially approved by management. In addition, in order not to hamper the creativity of researchers, the company's management prefers to give laboratories a name of the most general nature and about every three years to change the instructions regarding the general direction of work.
In the event that any significant technical or commercial changes occur, the administration can quickly stop working on a particular project. In this regard, one of the company's leaders said the following: "Researchers should be more comfortable with the fact that the work on the project they prefer is terminated. Research laboratories are often "swarming" with projects that no one knows how to stop. We must recruit people who are able to switch jobs from one job to another. "
By working in Hewlett-Packard researchers are subjected to stringent requirements. First , they must have great flexibility, which is acquired due to the fact that during their service they have to change the work profile 5-6 times. Secondly, they should be familiar with the theory and practice of marketing, management and production. Thirdly, they must be able to work on projects that are designed for practical returns both in the short term and in the more remote - from 2 to 10 years.
In general, the management of the company seeks to build the work of research laboratories so that by eliminating the "chase" with little success in terms of technical improvement of products or processes, the likelihood of large research achievements would increase.
One of the key tasks of the Concept of long-term social and economic development of the United States for the period until 2020 is "building human capacity in science, education, technology and innovation". This task involves increasing the population's susceptibility to innovation - innovative products and technologies, a radical expansion of the "class" innovative entrepreneurs, creating an atmosphere of tolerance in society " to risk, the propagation of innovative entrepreneurship and scientific and technical activities. Adaptation of all levels of the education system for the purpose of forming knowledge, competences, skills and behavior models necessary for an innovative society and innovative economy for the population from childhood, forming a system of continuous education. For an innovative economy, we need an "innovative person" - not only able to make full use of the achievements of science and technology, but also focused on creating innovations, introducing them into all spheres of public life. Without increasing the susceptibility of the economy to innovation, investment in the rest of the NIS will be characterized by low returns.
This task is supposed to be solved by:
1) increasing the investment attractiveness of promising high-tech sectors of the economy, the development priorities of which are defined by the US President, facilitating the flow of capital and attracting the most qualified personnel to these sectors by implementing a set of measures of tax, tariff and other types of state regulation, various types of financial support, 2) the development of competition in the sectors of the economy, the stimulation of innovative behavior of companies with state participation and natural monopolies, including by improving the quality of corporate governance, forming requirements for the innovation of their investment programs, improving the quality of external expertise of such programs;
3) elimination of barriers to the growth of innovative activity in the system of state regulation (including technical regulation, customs and tax regulation, etc.). As a result of the implementation of the first phase of the strategy, the regulatory environment should be comparable in quality to the leading OECD countries;4) outstripping the increase in spending on co-financing innovative projects by private companies (including through the implementation of a project to support business cooperation and national research universities), through building work with state companies to develop and implement innovative development programs. It is also planned to expand the support of start-up companies (start-ups) through the existing development institutions - the RVC seed fund, the Foundation for the Promotion of Small Forms of Enterprises in the scientific and technical sphere, through regional programs for supporting small businesses, and through supporting the implementation of specific projects in key high-tech sectors within the framework of relevant government programs and subprograms (energy-energy, space, aviation industry, radio electronics, composite materials, etc.).
It is supposed to form public-private partnership mechanisms that ensure the interaction of the state and business in the development of priorities and financing of R & D, including the institutionalization of Forsyte procedures and the formation of efficient technological platforms. Rosnanotech, Vnesheconombank and the Skolkovo Foundation will play a significant role in the implementation of public-private partnership projects.
The key emphasis of the policy on fundamental science and education is expected to be made on a radical increase in the effectiveness of their functioning within the framework of existing funding, "clearing" science from non-viable organizations with a redistribution of funding from ineffective directions to promising and renewal of management personnel. It is also planned full-scale integration of national science into the global scientific community.
Priority in the field of knowledge generation will be the creation of "competence centers" through the establishment of national research centers (SIC) in the areas of the remaining scientific and technical world-class reserves (aircraft construction, composite materials, etc.) based on the model of the SIC "Kurchatov Institute" and bringing to the world level of competitiveness of a part of national research universities and state scientific centers.
It is also planned to launch a number of pilot projects to develop mechanisms for supporting large-scale innovative business programs at the regional and industry levels, in particular, support for cluster initiatives and the formation of technological platforms.It is expected that the priority in education will be the restructuring of the higher education sector, focused on the development of the research and development sector in universities, the deepening of cooperation between higher education institutions with advanced real sector companies and scientific organizations, a radical expansion of international integration of United States universities in the field of educational programs, and in the field of research and development, the strengthening of academic mobility and the development of a network organization of educational and research programs am. At the same time, the concentration of funds will be oriented towards supporting leading universities and globally competitive scientific teams and individual scientists.
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