Fundamentals of Project Management
Aims and tasks of project management
Project management is not an invention of the newest time. Managed already such famous projects as the construction of the Egyptian pyramids or the Great Wall of China. Project management, and not unsuccessful, was carried out in the industry of the USSR.
Although project management originated in antiquity, it took shape relatively recently, in the second half of the 20th century, due to the fact that in a number of industries the number of projects and their complexity began to increase sharply. This trend was especially noticeable in the aerospace industry and other science-intensive and technically complex areas of the economy (power engineering, electronics, communications, transport, microbiology, etc.). Not the least role in this was played by such factors as:
• stricter requirements of investors;
• Complicating the results of investment projects;
• Strengthening the interconnection and interdependence of the end products of projects and the outside world
• acceleration of rates of succession of generations of equipment and technologies;
• increased competition;
• increasing the degree of uncertainty and risk.
The impact of these factors led to an increase in the duration of implementation and costs for projects, a decrease in product quality, a decrease in the expected profit, unprofitable future production.
In the literature, you can find many definitions of the concept of "project management". So, according to the American "Project Management Knowledge Project", project management is the art of leadership, coordination of human and material resources throughout the life cycle of the project by applying modern methods and management techniques to achieve results in composition and volume of work, cost, time, quality.
The English Association of Project Managers believes that project management is the management task for completing the project in time, within the established budget, in accordance with technical specifications and requirements.
In the domestic literature, the following definition is given: Project Management (project management) is the process of managing human, financial and material resources throughout the project cycle with the help of application of modern management methods to achieve project-defined results on the composition and scope of work, cost, time, quality and satisfaction of project participants. "
Management is, first of all, a process aimed at achieving the set goals. Any actions of talented managers can turn out to be untenable if the goal of management is chosen unsuccessfully, and executors doubt the success of the solution of the task. To select a goal, you first need to understand what problems the enterprise faces.
In our country, project management has developed in line with global trends, albeit with some backwardness from the West, which was caused by a lack of computerization and the introduction of information technology. But the first software complexes for management, which appeared in the USSR in the early 1970s, were quite progressive for their time. They performed time and cost analysis, optimization, and resource allocation. Soon from the management of individual projects went to the management of the whole organization. Then the first software systems for multi-project management appeared.
Successful project management in investment activities requires the creation of new project-oriented organizations and the necessary restructuring of organizational structures and management systems. Priority tasks in the field of project management should be:
• study, generalization, wide propaganda and explanation of the theory and practice of project management through the media;
• Improvement of the legislative and regulatory framework for project management and its effective application to investment projects
• creation and development of national scientific and methodological support and project management standards taking into account world experience and domestic achievements;
• improvement of the methodology of feasibility studies, calculations, evaluation and management of project and program costs;
• the formation of a civilized domestic market of software products that meet modern requirements and take into account the peculiarities of the national economy;
• Expansion of a network of investment companies, engineering and consulting firms;
• the creation of technology centers, technology parks, innovation fund firms and the promotion of innovation.
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