Managing the process of preparing the production of new technology
The preparation of production for the production of new equipment is of a complex nature . This process can be visualized in Fig. 5.3.
Fig. 5.3. Preparation of the production of new equipment:
R & D - R & D and experimental design work; KPP and CCI - design and technological preparation of production; OP - pilot production; OSP - development of industrial production; OESPP - organizational-economic and social preparation of production; PROPP - production preparation software; PPI - acceptance testing
Managing the preparation of production is the responsibility of functional managers. Preparation of production is divided into internal and external.
External training is carried out by design and research institutes, design offices and other organizations.
Internal training is conducted directly at the enterprise. The creation of new designs is based on the results of the analysis of the demand for new equipment, which formulates the requirements of consumers for the technical parameters of the product, their economy.
The design of the product consists of the following steps:
• performing the necessary calculations;
• Experimental work;
• design, construction;
• production of prototypes;
• correction of design documentation based on the results of the acceptance of the acceptance panel of the prototype (batch), the installation series, the head (control) series.
After that, the production technology is developed:
• creating documentation for technological processes;
• design and manufacture of special technological equipment and accessories.
The next stage is the production of new equipment for production:
• adjustment of technical equipment of production;
• Acceptance tests of serial and mass production.
Each preparation stage consists of the following works:
• research (theoretical and experimental);
Production preparation is determined by such factors as novelty, complexity, type of production, frequency of product renewal.
Design preparation of production includes the formation of a complex of engineering solutions for production facilities that ensure the readiness of production for the rapid development and stable release of new products. The design preparation of production consists of the following elements:
• Engineering Forecasting;
• Parametric optimization of production facilities;
• development work using FSA;
• Ensuring the production, operational technological design of the product.
The following indicators are used to evaluate the structural design:
• the laboriousness of manufacturing the product, which is measured in the norm-hours;
• the specific material consumption of the product, defined as the ratio of the material consumption per product to the value of the useful effect.
These indicators are compared with the established standards. The organization of development and quality control of a new product is made according to the scheme depicted in Fig. 5.4.
When designing with a computer, four stages are identified:
• search for basic decisions;
• Development of a draft design version;
• refinement and refinement of the structure;
• development of working drawings.
Fig. 5.4. Scheme for the organization of development and quality control of a new product
Technological preparation of production is a set of measures to ensure the technological readiness of production. Technological readiness of production means the availability of complete sets of design and technological documentation, technological equipment for the production of the planned volume of products, taking into account the established technical and economic indicators. The manager ensures consistency in the work of designers and technologists. This is important for ensuring a high level of standardization, unification of technological processes and their elements, reducing labor intensity and shortening the time for preparation of production.
Technological processes are divided into typical and prospective.
Typical technological process is characterized by the unity of content and the sequence of most technological operations and transitions for a group of products with common design principles.
A promising technological process involves anticipating or matching the progressive world level of technology development.
Managing the design of the technological process is carried out on the basis of routing and operational technological processes.
The route technological process is made out by a route map, in which the list and sequence of technological operations are established, the type of equipment on which these operations will be performed; used equipment; Enlarged norm of time without indication of transitions and processing modes.
The operational process is more detailed. It details the processing and assembly technology before the transitions and processing modes. Here the operating cards of technological processes are made out.
The first batch of new machines is manufactured on the basis of the route technological process. The technological process is checked and specified, the future equipment is projected and the need for labor, equipment, etc. is determined approximately. On the basis of the route technological process, a prototype product is manufactured and assembled, which is presented to the acceptance commission. The prototype can also be demonstrated at special exhibitions in order to identify consumers of new equipment and form a portfolio of orders. The manager together with technologists can participate in the development of methods of technical control, since in any design of machines there are parts that require testing their quality in the manufacturing and testing processes.
To organize the technological preparation of production (CCI), the organizational structure of the services of technological training is formed or improved, its interrelations and relationships with other services, responsible executors, their duties and tasks are determined.
The organizational structure must meet the following requirements:
• rational distribution of functions between CCI services;
• a clear organization of workflow;
• the ability to quickly respond to new challenges;
• avoid duplication of functions.
CCI is carried out according to the plan, which contains the following information:
• composition, volume and terms of work;
• distribution of work for technological units and production services;
• a plan for rational organization of work, taking into account the possibility of reducing the time.
When planning CCI, the type of production, the program and the nomenclature of products, the complexity of products are taken into account; availability of appropriate technological processes, technological equipment, equipment, technical level of production and management. Control over the course of CCI provides for identifying deviations, establishing their causes and making operational management decisions to normalize the process of preparing the production. The CCI documentation includes a technical task, a technical design, when the principal technical and organizational decisions that are the basis for a working project are taken. For the validity of technological parameters and the quality of products installed in the technological documentation, the chief technologist is responsible .
Thus, the creation of a new product is a complex and multifaceted process. It is closely connected with science and production. From the level of organization of the preparation of production, from the speed and accuracy of the performance of all necessary work depends the length of the path from scientific and technical developments to the full development of the release of a new product. High quality and completeness of work at all stages ensure achievement of the projected technical and economic indicators.
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