14. Market technologies of innovative management
The main types of market technologies of innovative management at the enterprise: engineering, reengineering, benchmarking, brand strategy, price technologies, front-line market, merger. Their advantages, opportunities, risks of implementation.
The movement of innovation from its emergence to diffusion is accompanied in the market economy by a flow of money resources, investments. Therefore, all organizational technologies of innovation management are implemented in the form of money flow in the innovation market.
The common basis of organizational management technologies is that they are regulated by market relations that arise between the producer, or the seller of innovation, on the one hand, and the buyer of this innovation, on the other.
In the diverse practice of modern management, the following basic market technologies of innovative management have developed:
o Engineering innovation;
o Innovation reengineering;
o brand strategy innovation;
o price technologies for innovation management;
o front of the market;
o the merge.
The impact of innovation management technologies is directed to the organizational and technical system of their production and/or the process of promoting innovations to the market.
1. Engineering innovation.
Engineering (English engineering - ingenuity, knowledge) is an activity aimed at the design and development of new structures, objects and processes in the organization.
Accordingly, innovative engineering means a set of works and services to create a new project related to the production, implementation, promotion and diffusion of innovation, with the greatest impact on investment.
Innovative engineering has its final product a useful effect in the form of a project model, product drawings, production plans and product sales, process schedules, etc., as well as in the form of services - personnel training, consulting, expertise, evaluation and .p.
Engineering innovation as a service, the object of purchase and sale has the form of property rights, as well as the corresponding commercial characteristics.
Innovative engineering is a reproducible commercial service, the price of which is determined by the market. The costs of innovative engineering include the remuneration of specialists, payment for the volume of services actually rendered, payment of a percentage of the cost of the innovative project, payment of the profit process received from the project.
2. Reengineering Innovations
Innovation reengineering is a complex of engineering and consulting services for restructuring, radical reorganization of entrepreneurial activity on the basis of production and implementation of innovations, which gives an increase in the performance of the organization (enterprise, firm) by 100% or more. That is, innovative reengineering is a radical redesign of business and business processes to achieve a spasmodic growth in indicators - cost, quality, service, business dynamics.
Innovative reengineering can be oriented both to operational, tactical, and strategic tasks.
Crisis reengineering and reengineering of development are singled out for this criterion.
Crisis reengineering is used as a technology of innovative management in a situation when the sales volume of a product falls sharply, demand for it decreases, profitability falls, the position of the company in the traditional market, etc. In this regard, there is a need for immediate intervention in the established business process, conducting operational measures to prevent the projected bankruptcy of the organization.
Reengineering of development is focused on systematic and gradual introduction of innovations for perspective business reorganization, optimization of all set of business processes of the organization.
At the same time, innovative reengineering has its content not the solution of individual tasks, but the reorganization of the entire business process of the organization, not the change of certain parameters of the business process, but the implementation of measures to achieve a qualitative systemic leap in production and sales, the position of the organization on the market.
Important factors for success in such radical transformations of business processes in an organization are the presence of an interested and competent leader-creator, corporate motivation for the project, transparency of the project and its results, acceptability of risks, support of the project by the organization's personnel in the context of increasing social tensions and conflicts in the organization , professional project consulting and its technological support.
Benchmarking is the technology of systematic study of the organization's activities by economic competitors, with the aim of using their experience in organizing business processes in their work.
Benchmarking as a system of events includes a set of tools and tools that allow you to find, evaluate and implement all the benefits of the experience of firms competitors.
Innovative benchmarking is aimed at identifying the experience of competitors for using it in their work, their innovation policy, the system of innovative management.
Innovative benchmarking in terms of the goal orientation is classified into general and functional.
Overall benchmarking is focused on a comparative assessment of the overall production and sales of its products and performance indicators of producers - competitors of the same products operating in this market segment.
Functional benchmarking as the object of comparative analysis has parameters that reflect the results of the implementation of individual business functions (operations, technologies, sales, etc.) by the best competitive enterprises operating on the market.
Functional benchmarking is especially important when implementing innovative projects aimed at gaining competitive advantages in the market of innovative products and services, when each business function must correspond to or exceed the best business indicators.
The choice of parameters for comparison depends on the content of the business function. This can be the value of the costs of an industrial or trading operation, the level of profitability, the degree of risk, profitability, duration, etc.
The application of benchmarking technologies allows innovative firms to systematically monitor the best business strategy samples in the innovation market, evaluate their business from this point of view and, accordingly, develop and timely implement projects to improve their own business.
4. Brand strategy innovation.
In the innovative business, the brand (image) of an enterprise (firm) is of particular importance in the conquest of markets, as it reflects its long-term business reputation, a stable set of characteristics of the enterprise (firm) products, so necessary for the promotion of a new product.
As technology of innovative management, the brand strategy is a form of managing the process of selling new products and services on the market based on the use of the company's competitive symbolic capital - the brands of its innovations. The innovation brand can be defined as the aggregate of the material, technical and non-material (symbolic) properties of a new product or service that can influence the consumer's (customer's) preference and thus position innovation in a competitive market.
The product brand of innovation includes, as a rule, non-material characteristics that determine the competitiveness of a new product - reliability, ease of use, comfort, availability of service, corporate style of the appearance of the product, quality of functions, etc.
Brand strategy as a market technology must meet the specifics of the competitive situation in the relevant segment of the innovation market. Therefore, the content of brand strategies is a set of operations to analyze the market and the formation of demand for innovation, including:
o analysis of the market situation and evaluation of the most promising segment for the enterprise
o generating ideas and designing the production of innovation and its promotion to the market;
o conducting field marketing research locally or globally;
o holding an advertising campaign;
o Development and implementation of activities to promote and diffuse innovation within the chosen product brand.
The brand strategy of innovation, therefore, adapts innovation to the conditions of a competitive market, creating the best conditions for its commercialization.
5. Pricing technologies for innovation management
Pricing technologies of innovation management are a system of methods and methods for shaping the mechanism of the impact of prices on the implementation of innovation in a competitive market.
Pricing technologies take into account the whole range of factors affecting the price of innovation production (the price of raw materials, equipment, electricity, labor, etc.) and the price of implementation of its promotion on the market (the price of advertising campaign, transportation, storage, sales and .p.).
Pricing policy is the key tool of the company when promoting the product to the market of innovations.
The price policy is based mainly on a reliable forecast of the demand for innovation and its sustainability, the dynamics of the factors that determine the acceptable price of innovation (inflation rate, fluctuations in prices for energy carriers and raw materials, market volume, etc.).
Depending on the objectives of the strategy of bringing innovation to the market, its price can be at a certain stage below the cost price, in another phase of conquering the market - it can also have a monopoly character.
6. Front of the market.
Front of the market (English front - go to) is a set of measures to seize a company on the market where competing enterprises operate.The frontier of the innovation market involves the use of five major marketing strategies: market segmentation, the choice of the target market, the choice of the way to enter the market, the definition of marketing strategy, the timing (time) of entering the market.
The segmentation of the innovation market and the choice of the target market is carried out in the process of marketing research on such criteria as the structure of individuals and legal entities, the main institutional and socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects of demand (population, entrepreneurs, firms, government agencies, etc.) , as well as the object-commodity structure of demand in the innovation market. The choice of ways and time to enter the market, as well as the nature of marketing strategies are determined depending on the financial and investment potential of the firm, the evaluation of the capacity of competing firms, the degree of monopolization of the market, the level of state support for the firm.
Merid (french maied, lat major - senior, large, later) - technology of absorption of the company (firm) by a stronger company.
Merger, as a rule, is connected with the fact that an innovative product offered for sale and having a clear qualitative advantage in comparison with that available on the market is implemented sluggishly, unstable due to the active opposition of a competitive firm.
In this case, one of the effective management strategies may be the takeover of a competitor's business.
In this case, there are three types of technology of the controller:
o The company buys the property of a competing firm - buildings, structures, equipment, vehicles and other fixed assets, as well as intangible assets (trademark, patents, licenses, etc.).
o The company (firm) issues its shares to exchange them for shares and other securities of a competitive firm.
o The entity (firm) buys a controlling interest in a competing firm that entitles it to manage it.
In this case, having concentrated in its hands a controlling stake in a competing firm (which becomes a subsidiary company), the firm itself becomes the parent company. As a result of these events, a new business entity is formed-a holding company whose products now dominate entirely on this segment of the innovation market.
The considered market technologies of innovation management are advanced in the world experience of management and in some cases very sophisticated ways of developing innovative entrepreneurship, expanding the innovative segment of the economy and gradually moving to the new - the fifth and sixth technological structures of the modern global economy.
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