Organization of innovation management system
The content of management of innovation, as well as any activity, is always connected with information processes and management processes. The management process consists of a number of system elements: preparation, collection, processing, transfer of scientific, technical, technological and management information, development and decision making, "descent" made decisions on the management vertical, monitoring of implementation and evaluation of results.
The structural and organizational specifics of the innovation management process in its implementation are largely determined by the uncertainties of all levels. Uncertainties in the innovation process lead to a restriction of the use of optimization management methods, necessitating the use of adaptive approaches.
Speaking about the innovation management system, it is necessary to take into account two main existing levels: state and entrepreneurial.
The state level is a national system of innovation management, consisting of many elements (subsystems), such as: regulatory, financial, economic, organizational, social, etc.
The task of the state in implementing innovation management is to maintain a flexible balance between state regulation and a free enterprise initiative. In other words, in ensuring effective, market and competitive conditions for the development of the innovation market, while carrying out supervisory, control, fiscal and other necessary functions of state regulation. It should be a dynamic, constantly adapting process that accurately and responsively responds to changes and demands of the market.
The system of management of innovation and development at the state level is characterized by the following aspects.
1. The direct influence of the state should be carried out by:
1) budgetary, grant, project and program-target financing at various levels, carried out on the basis of adopted federal, regional and local regulatory legal acts;
2) effective and planned state stimulation of innovative technologies within the state order for innovative products.
2. The indirect influence of the state should be carried out by:
1) reducing the tax burden, creating a tax break for innovative enterprises/innovative products;
2) Income tax benefits accrued on the basis of the results of the use of intellectual property (license agreements, know-how) and other intangible assets;
3) reduction of the taxable base of income tax in respect of contributions to various funds, the sphere of investment of which is innovation activity;
4) the implementation of the protection of domestic innovative enterprises and the market (protectionism);
5) the provision of investment tax credits for profits directed to R & D and innovation.
The role of the state in the management of innovation is extremely high. The state policy in the field of innovation support is formed not only from tax breaks and financial assistance, but also from the comprehensive development of scientific, technical and technological potential. As it was already mentioned many times before, innovative activity is a complex, complex, systemic process. The system of state management of innovation activities should include:
- development and support of fundamental scientific and applied research and development;
- the development and timely updating of the regulatory framework in the field of science and technology support;
- formation and development of the national innovation system;
- ensuring the processes of convergence and interaction between science, education and production;
- the development of international cooperation and cooperation;
- development and development of ways and mechanisms of interaction between all participants of innovative activity;
- development of existing and creation of new innovative objects (business incubators, technology parks, etc.) and provision of appropriate infrastructure;
- support of small innovative entrepreneurship
- the development of specialized educational components within the state standard in relevant disciplines, providing practical skills in universities and business incubators created with them.
At the entrepreneurial level, there are two main approaches to building an innovation management system in an organization:
1) consolidation of all stages of innovation activity into a common and continuous process, with a change in the structure of each level of management and coordination of inter-level horizontal and vertical links;
2) highlighting the management system of the innovation process as an independent management object, i.e. separation of innovative units from all others (manufacturing, etc.).
In practice, you can find the use of both approaches. In Western companies, especially large ones, in order to organize innovative production, they reorganize the existing research and production complex, thereby regrouping technical, technological, labor and financial resources.
Innovation management can also occur through the creation of a separate affiliated organization (structure). Moreover, this organization can be created outside the location of the parent company-resident, for example, for the purpose of simplifying entry into a new market or minimizing taxation.
A separate issue is the choice of the form and type of organizational management structure. There is no universal or uniform organizational form for all types of innovative enterprises. Depending on the goals and objectives, as well as on the specifics of the proposed activity, the following types of organizational structure can be distinguished:
- companies that create specialized innovative units;
- companies that do not have specialized innovative units. The innovation process occurs within the framework of linear-functional and matrix interactions between existing divisions;
- companies of mixed type. A specialized department (service) is established, which interacts with other departments of the organization and has priority in realizing its activities and solving common organizational tasks within its competence.
The management of innovative activities in the context of a combination of external and internal factors and market competition is carried out by modern companies in the following ways:
- introduction of separate innovative divisions into the structure of the company;
- the development of market, strategic structures and their varieties;
- the use of horizontal coordination forms (project management).
Analysis of the organizational systems and forms of management of innovative activities used in the world practice shows that there are no fundamental differences between them among the leading and all other companies.
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