Perception of innovation by consumers - Innovative policy

Consumer Perceptions

The basis for the formation of demand and increased sales is the most complete knowledge of the client, his goals, intentions, behavior, needs, motivations for buying, the type of reaction to innovation. The process of studying the client is focused to the greatest extent on the expectations, needs and degree of customer satisfaction. To maximize satisfaction of customer requirements, research is conducted on the factors affecting the degree of customer satisfaction. These factors are: 1) the level of the client's income; 2) belonging to a certain group of customers (wholesale and retail customers, intermediaries, consumer organizations, consumers of raw materials, equipment, etc., end users, etc.); 3) the level of awareness of the client; 4) the possibility of obtaining additional information about the firm and product; 5) the type of client behavior (conservatives, moderate, innovators and avant-gardists); 6) the degree of satisfaction with past purchases from the firm; 7) the type of reaction of the perception of a new product (primary recognition, identification with its needs and capabilities, a negative attitude, etc.).

According to the provisions of innovative marketing the process of perceiving a new product consists of the following stages .

1. Primary awareness. The consumer learns about innovation, but does not have enough information.

2. Recognizing the goods. The consumer already has some information, shows interest in the novelty; it is possible to search for additional information about the novelty (advertising, prospectuses, reference books).

3. Identification of a new product. The consumer compares the novelty with his needs.

4. Evaluation of the possibilities of using innovation. The consumer decides to approve the innovation.

5. Approbation of innovation by the consumer in order to obtain information about innovation and about the possibility of acquisition.

6. Decision-making on the results of a test of acquiring or investing in the creation of innovation.

In addition to the stages of perception of a new product, marketers need to classify consumers according to the degree to which they are receptive to innovation. So, most consumers have a psychological threshold for perceiving innovations. However, after effective advertising and marketing activities, the ratio between perceived and not perceived innovation changes, the number of the first is steadily growing. Then the distribution of attention and perception by the consumer of the goods acquires a form corresponding to the curve shown in Fig. 9.1.

The distribution curve of consumer categories by the time they perceive innovation

Fig. 9.1. The distribution curve of consumer categories by the time they perceived innovation

From Fig. 9.1 shows that more than 80% of consumers over time perceive the innovation. And although different categories of consumers have different terms for their perception, the group of the early majority (34%) and the belated majority (34%) make up the decisive category. The number of consumers who do not perceive innovation is less than 16%. The small number of the innovators indicates a high sensitivity and susceptibility to commodity novelty only in a limited part of society. Innovative susceptibility in the rest can be enhanced and strengthened by the activation of expensive marketing developments.

The characteristics of certain categories of consumers of innovations are given in Table. 9.1.

Table 9.1

Characteristics and classification of categories of consumers by the time they perceived innovation

Consumer Category

Share,

%

Characteristic

Innovators

2.5

Are prone to risk, try new products, while taking risks

Early followers

13.5

Opinion leaders in their midst, innovation is perceived early, albeit with caution

Early majority

34.0

Discreet consumers, accepting innovations before the average, but rarely are leaders

The belated majority

34.0

Are skeptical, perceive the novelty only after it was tested by most consumers

Lagers

16.0

Consumers bound by tradition. Either they do not perceive the novelty at all, or perceive it after it becomes traditional (it will cease to be a novelty)

The nature of innovation affects the pace of its perception. Some types of innovations are gaining popularity just one day, others take a long time to do this. Innovative susceptibility (innovation) and the pace of innovation perception depend on a variety of economic, organizational, psychological, social and technical factors. In particular, these are general properties:

• the comparative advantage, or the degree of its apparent superiority over existing ones. For example, the higher the speed, the more memory, the smaller the PC, the sooner they will be perceived as an innovation in the field of computing;

• continuity and compatibility of methods, i.e. degree of conformity to the accepted consumer values ​​and experience of consumers of innovation. So, the success of software products for accounting, for the innovative use of computer technology depends on the adaptability of the system to the psychology and habit of consumers, the established working procedure and the ability to minimize psychological stress;

• Complexity, i.e. the relative difficulty of understanding its essence and principles of implementation, as well as the benefits of use;

• the divisibility of the innovation implementation process, i.e. the possibility of a phased introduction of innovations and a gradual evaluation of the results;

• Communication clarity, i.e. the ability to clearly describe the utility and benefits of applying innovation;

• Innovations, the utility of which can be quantified (materially), often seem at first sight more attractive than innovations aimed at qualitative improvement of the functioning of the production system as a whole, although in practice the objective and subjective usefulness of the latter can lead to much more a significant indirect effect.

In addition to the general properties required for the introduction of innovations to the market, specific indicators of quality are of great importance for the consumer: design characteristics, design, consumer properties, operational capabilities, comfort and, of course, chain.

To ensure the necessary and sufficient level of perception of the innovation economy, it is necessary to create conditions that ensure the formation of the necessary and sufficient initial effective demand for innovations and to achieve, at least, the minimum necessary level of development of the innovation sphere for the formation of an innovation and investment process that ensures continuous generation innovation and able to meet this demand for innovation.

Tasks of "organized changes in demand for innovation" and "reaching at least the minimum required level of innovation sphere development"; are institutional, relate to the sphere of state strategic management, planning and forecasting at appropriate levels of the economy, including priority, advanced development of the innovation sphere; formation of the necessary and sufficient level of knowledge capital by preparing sufficient quantity and appropriate quality of innovative management, increasing the educational level of the population as a whole; increase the innovative management culture of economic entities at all levels in terms of capitalizing knowledge held in their possession, in possession and disposal, and require state regulation.

It is a question of the need for the transition to an innovative type of development of the formation of a balance in relation to innovation-investment and production processes within the framework of the state social and economic development strategy through state regulation of the demand for innovation. When forming the necessary and sufficient volume of effective demand for innovations, the following are the necessary forms of state regulation:

1. Increasing the level of people's susceptibility to innovation , including:

1.1. Increase the value of labor capital and ensure, orientation primarily , engaged in the knowledge sector as the main individual consumers of innovations that have in fact, or in the short term, more than 50% of the income (ie, effective demand) of all employed in the state economy and due to their level of education and the availability of creative abilities to evaluate the consumer, aesthetic and social value of intellectual products, as well as increased ability to perceive, use and work with innovations (commercialized intellectual products), to ensure the multiplicative-accelerated growth of the GDP of the subject of the economy.

1.2. Increasing standards for products, services, technologies, living standards through a policy of technical regulation and the implementation of national projects, FTPs that force economic entities as the main collective consumers of innovation and the rest of the population to acquire and work with innovation.

On the one hand, the standardization of products makes it possible to reduce production costs when mass replicating due to economies of scale and experience, especially if production is located near the territory of mass demand with cheap labor. On the other hand, the demand for innovations arises only if the subjects of the economy are faced with the challenges posed by changes in the conditions of their activities, and there is an understanding that without changes they will no longer be able to continue to perform their tasks efficiently, moreover, to exist. The role of technical regulation, the basis of which is standardization, as one of the most important state tools for the formation of solvent demand for innovation, forcing economic entities as the main collective consumers of innovation and the rest of the population to acquire and work with innovations, as well as the development of technology and high technologies, raising standards and quality life on the basis of a permanent quantitative increase in GDP with a qualitative change in the factors responsible for its growth, namely: m ogokratnoe increase in the share of the output of innovative activity in the structure of GDP.

1.3. Formation of expectations of value, utility and image of innovation, reducing the efforts of consumers to make decisions (the costs of choice) for their acquisition. The increase in sales of intellectual products does not depend, as a rule, on reducing the price for them, since under the conditions of the "innovative monopoly" The price reduction takes place mainly only for morally obsolete innovations. Such expectations should be created through marketing, the Internet, the development of innovation market infrastructure and segments of innovative investment market facilities and high-tech securities companies (such as NASDAQ ) .

2. Stimulating the export of domestic innovations to the states that do not have the technology for their production, in exchange for investment resources that ensure the maintenance of an effective domestic innovation-investment process.

3. Increasing the cost of investment resources in the state, which will stimulate the transition of organizations to increasingly resource- and energy-saving, environmentally friendly, high and knowledge-intensive technologies, as well as innovative strategic management and organization that ensure the saving of expensive investment resources and their replacement by knowledge capital.

4. Development of mechanisms: a) Identification of current and forecasted social interests and the formation of state innovation programs, national projects, federal targeted programs; b) the gradual formation of demand, its growth and orientation to a model of increasingly sophisticated goods and services inherent in the markets of neo-economy countries; c) reorientation of social and economic activity at the micro level from the purposes of consumption and (or) development of the industrial type for the purpose of innovative development.

The listed forms of state regulation of the formation of the necessary and sufficient volume of the initial solvent demand for innovation through the mechanisms of investment and innovation multipliers-accelerators and other multipliers increase the cumulative investment process in an innovation-type economy, providing a basis for increasing the investment activity of economic entities in the area of ​​aggregate autonomous investments , independent of the state of the economy, into the capital of knowledge in all its forms and in knowledge in general and innovation, in interrelated activities and the economy as a whole, the formation of an interconnected and complementary innovation and investment process that ensures the continuous generation of innovations.

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