Practical implementation of innovation policy
Practical implementation of innovation policy
As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
• features of the market for innovations and innovations, their structure;
• problems of determining the price of innovative products;
• strategies for the implementation of innovative products and the conditions for their application;
be able to
• formulate the main differences between innovative products and traditional ones;
• Identify the motivation factors for the production and consumption of innovative products and services;
• methods of bringing innovative products to the market;
• How to promote innovative products on the market.
Keywords: innovation market, innovation market, investment market, innovation producers, consumers of innovation, motivation, competitiveness, demand for innovative products, elimination strategy, pricing.
Innovation market, its infrastructure and features
Scientific and technical products are the logical result of intellectual (scientific, research, scientific, technical and innovative) activities. Scientific and technical products are recognized as goods, if it acts as a means of deepening, expanding and obtaining new knowledge, and its use ensures the saving of social labor while preserving the consumer value of the material product created on its basis. At the same time, the market of scientific and technical products is a form of economic relations between the owner of intellectual property and the buyer of the right to own, use and dispose of as a result of which an equivalent exchange of the effective demand of the buyer for the consumer value concluded in scientific and technical products.
The subjects of the innovation market are the state, enterprises, organizations, institutions, universities, foundations, individuals (scientists and specialists).
Innovation market objects are the results of intellectual activity presented:
• in the embodied form (in the form of equipment, aggregates, pilot plants, tools, process lines, etc.);
• in an unrealized form (data of research, design and engineering work in the form of an analytical report summarizing the description of the method, design and technical documentation):
• in the form of knowledge, experience, consulting in the field of consulting, marketing, project management, engineering and other scientific and practical services related to the maintenance and servicing of innovation activities.
Common in the world practice is the generalization of the entire spectrum of economic relations regarding the sale and purchase of the results of scientific, innovative activities and the provision of services in this area in the concept of "technological exchange" or technology transfer & quot ;. This approach is based on a modern understanding of the essence of technology, which includes both technical means, a system of relevant skills and knowledge, and financial, material and technical, human and information resources, industrial culture, an adequate management system, social and environmental which realizes the technological process, as well as a system of socio-economic consequences (primarily environmental).
The market for innovations is characterized by a number of distinctive features:
• It is traditionally new for an emerging organization (because of the novelty of the developed product, it is necessary to deal with unfamiliar consumers);
• is inelastic due to the limited impact of pricing policy on sales volume;
• characterized by a limited number of buyers and sellers.
Demand for innovative products can come from the scientific community itself, industry or from society in its broad sense.
In many cases, the creation of a new technology does not entail demand, since a high degree of market and technological uncertainty is a characteristic feature. Market uncertainty lies in the lack of information on the nature and degree of satisfaction of a particular market demand with the help of new science-intensive products. In the case of the appearance on the market of fundamentally new products, it is difficult to provide for the consumer's reaction because of his ignorance of his requests.
Market uncertainty is caused by the following conditions:
• the consumer does not yet know to what extent new products can meet their needs (or to what extent new products are better than those already existing);
• Consumer behavior is influenced by many factors and can not be predicted even if new products are purchased;
• if the consumer recognizes the merits of new products, the problem arises of its compatibility with other products already used by the consumer;
• It is difficult to predict the speed, scale of the spread of innovation and the saturation of demand, to determine the capacity of the potential market and the intentions of competitors.
Technological uncertainty lies in the manufacturer's lack of confidence in whether products will meet the conscious requests of potential consumers.
Technological uncertainty is due to the following hard-to-predict conditions affecting the position and behavior of the producer:
• the instability and underdevelopment of sales channels and the threat of disrupting the agreed and agreed delivery times;
• lack of after-sales and after-sales service opportunities
• the manifestation of unforeseen side effects, which carry the risk of conflicts with the law and the public in case of using the new technology;
• The difficulty in determining the timeliness of the output of new products to the market, on which there are still enough goods to which the consumer is accustomed.
Technology transfer can take place in various forms, in different ways and through different channels. It can be transferred on a commercial and non-commercial basis, be intra-organizational, domestic and international. Forms of technology transfer on a non-commercial basis: special literature, computer data banks, patents, reference books; conferences, exhibitions, symposia, seminars; training, internship, practice; cross-licensing on a parity basis; migration of scientists and specialists from scientific to commercial structures and vice versa, etc. The main stream of technology transfer in non-commercial form is accounted for non-commercial, non-patentable information: fundamental research, scientific discoveries and unpatented inventions.
Non-commercial forms of technology transfer, including intra-organizational transfer, are carried out freely and do not need to be legally formalized and regulated.
The main forms of commercial information transfer are: the sale of technology in a materialized form; direct investments and their construction, reconstruction, modernization of enterprises and industries; portfolio investment; sale of patents; sale of licenses for all types of patented industrial property, other than trademarks; sale of licenses for non-patented types of industrial property - know-how, secrets of production, technological experience, etc .; joint carrying out of experimental-design works, scientific and industrial cooperation; engineering, etc.
Commercial forms of technology transfer, both domestic and international, are formalized in the form of an agreement (licensing, scientific and technical cooperation, joint production or a contract of sale).
In addition to the above, you can classify the transfer of technology by the following features.
1. In the direction of technology transfer (the following forms of technology transfer in practice can complement or mutually replace each other):
• vertical transmission is an interorganizational process carried out through the stages of the cycle "research - production";
• Horizontal transmission is an intra-organizational process of transferring information from one scientific area to another.
2. By the number of participants and the degree of their participation:
• active transfer - an intermediary between the transmitting and receiving hosts necessarily acts as a neutral organization that assumes the responsibility to help the transmitter find a more profitable buyer of his technology;
• passive transmission - the technology maker itself is looking for a partner, taking on all the risks, both the initiation of innovation and their commercial implementation.
There are other forms of technology transfer: imitation - leading to the support of the production process without its fundamental change; adaptive - adaptive production to the new technology without its essential change; Innovative - requiring a complete change in production.
Technology transfer using the example of US universities
Considering the provision of technology transfer using the example of US universities, it is worth noting a document called the act of Bai-Dole.
The Bai Dole Act, adopted by the US Congress in 1980 and named after its creators (Senators Birch Bayah and Robert Dole ( Birch Bayh and Robert Dole )) , created a universal legislative framework for US federal agencies that fund research in the non-profit sector and the small business sector. The Act allowed all recipients of federal funding for research and development to retain ownership of their patents and ordered commercial use of inventions created with federal financial support.The Bai-Dole Act allows universities, other non-profit organizations, such as the basic hospitals of medical academies and, in most cases, commercial federal contractors, to retain ownership of inventions made or for the first time practically realized under a federal grant, contract or agreement cooperation, in exchange for certain obligations on the part of the contractor.
Considering the implications and requirements of the Bai-Dole Act, it is important to remember the objectives of the Act, mentioned in its preamble:
• Promote the practical application of inventions made in the framework of studies funded from the federal budget;
• involve the largest number of small business representatives in studies funded from the federal budget;
• promote cooperation between business entities and non-profit organizations;
• Ensure the use of all inventions made by non-profit organizations and small businesses in the spirit of free competition and entrepreneurship
• Promote the commercialization and public availability of inventions made in the United States;
• Provide the Government with sufficient rights in state supported inventions to meet the needs of the government and protect the people from not using or misapplication of inventions;
• Minimize management costs in this area.
In accepting public funding to support a research project, the recipient of funds also accepts the obligation to comply with the requirements of the Act.
These obligations are not trivial. They explain why universities and non-profit organizations should make a significant contribution in terms of resources in support of employees and infrastructure necessary to meet federal requirements set by the Bai-Dole Act.
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