Typology of innovative projects - Innovative management

Typology of innovative projects

Ideas, plans and technical solutions, as well as implementing projects, have different levels of scientific and technical significance:

upgrade, when the prototype design or the basic technology is not fundamentally changed (expansion of the series and product range, installation of a more powerful engine, increasing the productivity of the machine, the car);

innovative, when the design of a new product is significantly different from the previous one by the appearance of its elements (the addition of new qualities, for example the introduction of automation tools or others previously not used in the constructions of this type of products, but used in other types of products);

advanced, when the design is based on advanced technical solutions (the introduction of airtight cabins in aircraft construction, turbojet engines that have never been used before);

pioneer, when there are previously existing materials, structures and technologies operating on the old or even new features (composite materials, the first radios, electronic clocks, personal computers, rockets, nuclear power plants, biotechnology) .

The level of significance of the project determines the complexity, duration, composition of performers, scale, nature of the progress of the innovation process, which affects the content of the project management.

From the point of view of the scale of the tasks being solved, innovative projects are divided as follows:

1) mono-projects - projects, usually carried out by one organization or even one unit; differ in the setting of an unambiguous innovative goal (the creation of a specific product, technology), are implemented in a rigid time and financial framework; a coordinator or project manager is required;

2) multiprojects - are presented in the form of complex programs combining dozens of mono-projects aimed at achieving a complex innovative goal, such as the creation of a scientific and technical complex, the solution of a major technological problem, the conversion of one or a group of enterprises in the military-industrial complex; Coordination units are required;

3) megaprojects are multi-purpose integrated programs that combine a number of multiprojects and hundreds of mono-projects linked together by one tree of goals; require centralized funding and guidance from the focal point. On the basis of megaprojects, such innovative goals as technical re-equipment of the industry, the solution of regional and federal problems of conversion and ecology, and the enhancement of the competitiveness of domestic products and technologies can be achieved.

The formation and implementation of megaprojects may require the combined efforts of a number of industries, regions, financial and industrial groups and large corporations, a group of countries. For the scope of work and duration, projects can be short-term (1-2 years), medium-term (up to 5 years) and long-term (more than 5 years). The composition of the stages and stages of the project is determined by its sectoral and functional membership.

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