ΓΛΑΒΑ 2. Peculiarities of the development of newspaper editions of different countries in conditions of convergence
As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
• what external and internal factors determine the development of the convergence process in a particular country or region and in a specific edition
• about different versions (models) of editorial development under conditions of convergence;
• the importance of the experience of newspaper editions of different countries in mastering the ideas of convergence for the practice of modern media and the work of a journalist
be able to
• Analyze and apply the experience of foreign and domestic media companies in using new channels of content distribution, searching for new forms of information provision and organizing the production process;
• The skills of planning multimedia materials.
External factors affecting the development of the convergence process
The abundance of different definitions, making it difficult to formulate a definitive, well-established understanding of the term "convergence", is also due to the fact that experts from different countries, speaking of it, often rely on their experience of developing this process in a specific wording. Often it differs from the experience of editorial offices in other countries, which may be due to a number of external factors.
The process of media coversion is associated with a number of national characteristics of the country, which largely determine its development. Convergence is often perceived in various forms and sizes, this is due to the influence of both internal factors (practices, customs, practices, culture) and external factors (regulation, competition, stakeholders, target audience).
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Taking into account the specifics of the development of the convergence process associated with a number of national characteristics of the country, let us consider the development features of newspaper editions of different countries in terms of convergence, taking into account the following external factors:
• legislation in the field of cross-media ownership;
• the level of Internet development and the number of Internet users;
• level of development of the mobile industry and ICT market;
• specifics of the media market (competition, target audience).
The development of newspaper editions of different countries in the context of the convergence process, regardless of the influence of the above external factors, is based:
• using modern digital technologies;
• Multimedia content delivery
• One-time production of content and its multiple distribution on different media platforms;
• Joint creation of content by journalists from different divisions of the media company.
These provisions are components of the convergence process and the development of newspaper editions in each of the countries considered below is based on them.
We will disclose features of the development of newspaper editions of Great Britain, Spain, the USA and the Asian region (Japan,
Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand) in a convergence environment. The experience of the publications of these countries in the development of new technologies is quite interesting and allows us to single out various variants of the development of the convergence process that are possible to date.
Features of the development of newspaper editions of Great Britain under conditions of convergence
English newspaper editions in the convergence process are actively using new media platforms for content distribution (mobile, PDA, e-paper - and kindle - platforms). The main focus of British publications is on the development of audio and video content on websites.
The specifics of the development of newspaper editions in the UK under the conditions of the convergence process are due to a number of external factors. First of all, it should be noted that in the UK there is a strict approach to regulating cross-ownership of the media, which largely determines the development of the convergence process in this country. The owner of a newspaper with a circulation of 20% or more of the national newspaper circulation is not entitled to receive licenses for analog terrestrial television and licenses for analogue terrestrial broadcasting (both national and local). If the newspaper has a circulation of less than 20% of the national circulation, the holder is entitled to obtain such licenses, but they are subject to verification for public interest.
Newspaper companies can not compete in the television and radio broadcasting market. In addition, the BBC has historically dominated these markets. The BBC also has the most visited news site in England. Therefore, convergence in the UK is carried out mainly through the integration of the printed and Internet platform.
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A mobile platform should also be added to these two media platforms, the development of which British newspapers pay great attention to: the mobile market in the UK is growing at a very fast pace. And also e-paper - and kindle - platforms, which today use the main British publications. Since 2010, they have added applications for the iPhone and iPad. Financial Times (Financial Times), Times (Times), Telegraph (Telegraph) Daily Express (Daily
Express) and San (Sun) were the first English editions to develop their own iPad applications.
Like many other world publications, British newspapers focus on the development of the Internet platform, the creation of video and audio content on the site. In Great Britain (in comparison, for example, with other European countries) a very large number of users of the worldwide network. Back in 2002, the number of Internet users in the country was more than 20 million people. This is one of the highest rates among European countries. In 2009, the UK ranked seventh in the world in terms of the number of Internet users - 71.8% of Britons periodically visited the Network. This is still one of the highest rates among European countries. The UK is only ahead of Germany in terms of the number of Internet users. In 2010, the UK became the leader among European countries in terms of the penetration of the Internet (the ratio of the number of Internet users in the country and its population).
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