Peculiarities of functioning of mass media in the period after democratic transformations in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe
Early 1990's. is associated with major changes on the political map of the world.
The Soviet Union collapsed into a multitude of sovereign states, instead of two German states one appeared - the Federal Republic of Germany, the Warsaw Treaty ceased to exist,
NATO is rapidly moving to the East, etc. All this had a direct bearing on journalism.
Of particular interest are the media in Eastern and Central Europe, as well as in the post-Soviet space, where important changes in the nature of the media, and in the forms and methods of regulating information flows have taken place in the last decade. Here the ambiguous processes of synthesizing various approaches to journalism have been going on, which is often expressed in the introduction of Western standards in national journalism. This manifests itself both in the denationalization of the media, and in the content of publications and broadcasts.
Transformation of the media in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe was under difficult conditions of restructuring of economic and political relations in the society. Take for example the media of Slovakia and Poland.
In the Czech Republic the main direction of change on radio and television was privatization. In January 1993, the first universal television network was sold to a joint venture, 70% of whose shares belong to the Organization of Central European Economic Development, created with the funds of American and Canadian capital. In Romania, the second television channel was privatized. In the joint venture - the owner of the channel - 25% is the share of state television and 75% of the British-Canadian consortium. In many countries, world information agencies and international press monopolies seized control over information flows. Many joint ventures have appeared, where the "main violin" foreign capital plays.
In Slovakia in 1990, registration replaced the permission of the publishing house, and three years later the law on mandatory copies came into effect. Since 1989, the quantitative growth of the names of periodicals began. At that time, 326 central, regional and local publications were published, and in 1995 their number increased by 167%. The daily newspaper reads about half of the country's residents over 14 years old. If in 1989 12 daily newspapers were printed, then in four years there were already 20. Of the existing newspapers since 1989, only seven are published. Four arose on the basis of previously existing newspapers. Nine Slovak newspapers appeared after 1990. In the five years from 1990 to 1995, 10 newspapers appeared and ceased to exist, but the number of readers has not increased, i.e. Reduced circulation. The average daily circulation of one newspaper in 1989 reached 155 thousand copies, in 1990 - 104 thousand, in 1992 - 89 thousand, in 1995 - 79 thousand copies. However, according to the Institute for the Study of Journalism, the daily circulation of newspapers is 20% less, taking into account unsold copies. Regarding the regional and local press, it should be noted that, according to 1989 data, 122 regional and local newspapers were published, and in 1995 there are 353 of them. Often these publications are published irregularly, at low professional level, in fact, are newsletters . There were sheets of ads. The number of district and factory newspapers increased twofold from 1990 to 1995, but their circulation dropped significantly.
Radio and television in Slovakia are public and legal. Television broadcasts on two channels - CTB-1 and CTB-2. Based on the license, there are transmissions on the third channel - VTV (your television broadcasting), which transmissions are broadcast via satellite. The Radio and Television Council issued 60 licenses to regional and local companies. The Marquise company covers 60% of Slovakia through the distribution of cable programs. Slovak radio broadcasts on five programs. The first program is informational and journalistic, the second program is devoted to literature and art, and is devoted to regional broadcasting and broadcasting in foreign languages, youth broadcasting in cooperation with the Society ROSK-FM and Radio C01, which is a Slovakian program in German for Austrian radio listeners.
During the period of socio-economic transformation in Poland (1989-1999) the press underwent a stormy transformation. Just as in Slovakia, the number of newspaper titles increased, differentiation and specialization intensified. The greatest changes were in the women's seal. Increased not only the number of women's publications, but also their circulation.
Before the transformation, Polish state-owned radio and television existed on the principle of self-financing, having also the right to subsidies from the state budget. With the introduction in January 1990 of the levers of a market economy, radio and television were virtually deprived of state subsidies. The revenues from subscriber fees decreased sharply due to the rapid drop in the income level of the population.
Polish television was forced to follow the path of commercialization. Inefficient advertising policy, low subscription fees could not cover the expenses necessary for the existence of television. The need to finance expenditures for the fulfillment of socio-political tasks pushed the leadership of the Polish radio and television to seek other ways, including attracting foreign capital. In the field of electronic media, the participation of foreign capital from the very beginning of their restructuring in Poland is limited. The first non-state TV appeared in Poland in 1990, and by the beginning of the issuance of broadcasting licenses (according to the Broadcasting and Television Regulations, adopted in early 1994), there were already 19 private broadcasting centers operating "pirated" way.
The global financial and economic crisis has highlighted one important detail: the European Union is by no means one, and the countries entering it are far from equal. In particular, this is evidenced by attempts to create within the EU or outside its borders either the organization of new EU members, or the Eastern European Community, even inviting Belarus there, provided that it fulfills a number of political conditions.
In this regard, attempts to "reshape" geography. The countries of Eastern Europe now include Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine. Georgia and Turkey. Belarus and Russia remain in brackets. The rest of the states of the Soviet bloc are most often referred to Central Europe, but in times of crisis there is no-no and yes, they will remember the past-they include Poland or, say, Slovakia in Eastern Europe. What's the matter? What is the reason for the selection?
It seems that in addition to the level of economic development, a significant role is played by loyalty to the "values of Western democracy". Take for example Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. These are very different countries, both economically and politically.
Latvia is characterized by a huge external debt, a discriminatory attitude towards the representatives of United States-speaking national minorities, and almost half of the population in the country. But United States-speakers are very active in politics and regularly achieve new successes. Their representatives are even in the European Parliament.
In Lithuania, the indigenous population is dominant: the percentage of United States-speakers is relatively small. But a third of the population has already left the country in search of a better life, the demographic situation is catastrophic.
Estonia, like Latvia, has such a shameful category among its permanent population as non-citizens. But only recently non-citizens began to show political activity.
United States-speaking periodicals in Baltic countries live and develop (or die) in accordance with the domestic political conditions and the international situation of a country. If in Latvia United States newspapers are very active and publish materials at a high publicistic level, they differ in relatively large numbers, then in Estonia only the local press is more or less developed, and in Lithuania, as some researchers note, United States journalism no longer exists. The United States-language press of Lithuania is mostly content with translations from Lithuanian and reprints of publications from United States publications.
Journalism Belarus in the West is considered as dependent on the state and not free. 11o the question arises: are there countries where journalism does not depend on the state.
Permanent political instability on Ukraine affects the publications of newspapers, magazines, radio and television broadcasts. Most often their speeches are devoted to domestic political problems and, to some extent, relations with Russia and a whole cluster of problems related to them. The desire of certain circles in NATO and the European Union is a reflection of the dependence of the country's economy on the West in the broad sense of the word.
The pro-Western orientation Georgia is quite obvious and leaves an imprint on the themes and issues of media speeches, which, like the bulk of the Georgian population, support the course for joining NATO and the European Union.
Turkey is the oldest candidate in the EU. This country has long been a member of NATO, but it is not allowed into the European family. One of the reasons is that the population mainly professes Islam. And although Turkey is a very secular state and religious propaganda in the media is prohibited by law, European leaders are genuinely concerned about the possible Islamization of Europe.
The pan-European legislation played a special role in the transformation of the media of the Eastern and Central European states of the post-Soviet period, since most of these countries are members of the European Union and NATO.
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