Features of the release of various types of media
Media technology base and work on the number
The nature of the work on the release of the media depends primarily on their specific nature and to some extent on their typological focus. The processes of preparing numbers in the editions of the daily and weekly newspapers are noticeably different, the preparation of monthly journal numbers is even more specific, especially the production of programs on radio and television. A significant role is played by the technical and technological base of editorial production. The development of technology directly affects the technology of labor. For example, with the advent of the Internet media, it became necessary to develop a new system for organizing the work of journalists, including in convergent editions. In this regard, it is useful to follow the evolution of the printing industry and its impact on the production of newspapers and magazines.
Printing developed immediately but several areas. At the same time, development of pre-printing (compositional, reproductive, verstal) and printing processes was uneven, which was due, on the one hand, to scientific and technical factors, on the other hand, to economic and organizational factors.
If we talk about a complex of printing and publishing processes, the purpose of which is to get the printed text of the publication, i.e. about typing processes , it is known that for four centuries, manual typing dominated in polygraphy. Then came the lettering machines (monotypes), which were replaced gradually by stitch-draining (linotype), phototypesetting machines and automatic machines. And finally, at the end of the XX century. in the editions appeared desktop publishing systems that allowed to carry out computer set.
If we talk about the totality of technological operations for the production of printing plates from illustrative originals, i.e. about reproductive processes, at first the image was transferred from paper originals to zinc dashed plates (cliches); then came the time of halftone (including color raster) cliches. Later, when the installation of films was mastered, proportionally reduced or enlarged slides (in rare cases negatives) of illustrations were applied. Computer imaging began to use files of illustrations scanned from paper carriers, and files extracted directly from a digital camera.
As for layout, then the first printed forms were completed from a metal typographical set and a cliche, metal or plastic. With the advent of the phototypesetter, an intermediate form was created by mounting the films on which the text set and illustrations were imprinted. With the arrival of computer technologies, the virtual master layout began to "collect" from text and image files using various layout programs on the display.
At first the printing form was placed in the frame, and the print run could be produced directly on the thaler (a metal plate in printing machines for installing the printing plate). Later in the rotary printing presses, cylindrical printing forms (stereotypes) began to be used, in rotary machines of offset or gravure printing - mono-, bi-or trimetallic plates. By the way, the material of the printing form (non-ferrous metals, alloys, plastic, rubber, wood, metal or paper foil, etc.) significantly affects the print quality and circulation of publications.
Thus, the evolution of typing, reproduction, verstal and printing processes can be expressed in the form of a successive change of formulas (Figure 6.3).
Fig. 6.3. Evolution of typing, reproductive, verstal and printing processes
In the pre-computer era, the process of preparing and publishing the issue of the newspaper took place simultaneously in the editorial office and in the printing house. At the editorial level, planning, preparation of text and illustrative originals, prototyping, artistic editing and proof-reading were carried out; on typographical - first only manual, then manual (for some headings) and machine text, cliche making, layout, matrixing, stereotyping and replication.
Planning of editorial work was carried out on the basis of long-term (year, quarter, month) and short-term (week, number) plans. Long-term plans were considered and approved at the meetings of the editorial board, short-term plans were discussed at planners (the plans were adjusted on the flyers). The departments had departmental plans that could be a grid - a sample from the editorial network.
Correspondents read the manuscript typed on the typewriter, filled out the passport of the text original and handed over the material to the head of his department. Edited and, if necessary, reprinted material (no more than five corrections were allowed on the page) was signed by the head and surrendered to the secretariat. Photo correspondents, usually subordinate to the deputy executive secretary, and in major newspapers - the head of the department of illustrations (bildredaktirovaniya), also prepared publications that were illustrative originals with the corresponding signatures and also surrendered to the secretariat.
In many ways, the editorial work on the modern technical and technological basis is built in a different way. Let us consider the pre-press process of preparing and issuing issues of periodicals, in which computer and digital technologies are used. To this end, we turn to the organization of the work of the multimedia edition of the weekly "MY!".
The leader in the Voronezh market of print media, the weekly newspaper Voronezh and the Voronezh region "MY!" was founded in 1994 and came out first as a digest. The newspaper, whose founder is CJSC "Free Press" Publishing House ", is a part of the city's weekly" MOE! " - "Live-Being", which are distributed in Belgorod, Voronezh, Kursk, Lipetsk and Tambov with a total circulation of more than 260 thousand copies. In addition to the paper version, there is an Internet resource "MOEionline". On this information-service portal, the weekly "MY!" Is published weekly; and a variety of services work: News Horoscope & quot ;, Calendar, Communicate Contests and others, partially duplicated in the printed version of the newspaper.
Staff of the editorial staff of the weekly: editor in chief, his deputy, editor, editor of the issue, executive secretary, portal editor, three web-editors, three senior correspondents, four correspondents, photo correspondent, art editor, two artist-designers and bildredaktor. The release group includes four editors, a responsible secretary, an art editor, two designer artists, a bildreader.
Release Editor Mine! answers the questions of the questionnaire related to the organization of work of the editorial office:
Operational materials are planned in the room "MY!", analytical materials, as well as essays and interviews - for two or three months in advance. The network schedule does not apply. The schedule of issue of the number is: Tuesday - planerka, delivery and editing of texts; Wednesday - delivery and editing of texts; Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday - delivery and editing of texts, layout; Monday - delivery and editing of texts, layout; delivery of the number to the printing house.
After learning about the event, the journalist visits the event site with the photojournalist, promptly prepares the publication for the portal, handing it over to the web-editors. A photo correspondent takes pictures.
The editor checks the text originals for compliance with editorial standards, United States language norms. Also all facts, figures, dates, quotations, etc. are checked. If necessary, the text is sent for revision to the journalist. Edited text is sent to the proof-reader for proofreading. After the layout and cuts the newspaper strip is sent again to the proof-readers. After editing the strip by the coder, it is viewed by the editors, if necessary, the last changes are made, and the page is signed for printing.
The news appears on the portal, and the journalist continues to develop it for publication in the newspaper, sating with new details, comments, analytics, etc. The ready text is handed over to newspaper editors. Simultaneously, the journalist writes off additional news on the portal, if the development of events has to do with it. One of the editors reads the text and gives it to the art editor or design artists. Having picked up the illustrations together with the editor who read the text, the artist-designers together with the make-up artists make lines. Simultaneously, newspaper editors look through the readers' comments on the site to the news on their topic and, when new information arrives, make the necessary changes to the text of the article.
News on the site is updated daily, including weekends, from 8:00 to 21:00. The audience is provided with other content that appears with different frequency, but regularly. Materials from the room, which came on retail on Tuesday, are laid out on the site on Saturday.
The design is carried out on the basis of the developed and approved design layout (model), which takes into account the world trends in the design of newspapers. Design is engaged in an art editor or one of the artist-designers. A graphic layout of the strip is created for which photo illustrations are ordered, if necessary, they search for photos in the editorial archive or buy them in photobanks or specialized agencies. Illustrations are also used as illustrations, caricatures, and infographics. Then the graphic layout of the strip is transferred to the layout. After the layout of the materials, the strip is submitted for approval to the editor-in-chief.
As you can see, in comparison with the times of metal and monomedic production process has become much more dynamic and diverse in the types of activities and forms of publication, it assumes the continuous variability of the proposed audience of materials and interaction with it. However, the main links of the editorial cycle remained, in fact, the same, as well as the circle of main actors and their functional load.
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