Form of journalistic material
So far, we have talked mainly about the content of the text. Now we will think on what parameters to evaluate its shape. On the one hand, the form follows from the content, on the other hand it itself reproduces its multidimensionality. After evaluating the form, the structure of journalistic material, we simultaneously take into account its thematic and genre attractiveness, we consider it as important constituents of the plot, author's style, image system, vocabulary, etc.
The plot in journalism is different from the story in fiction. Often it is not deployed; in it, as a rule, there is no composition; the outset and development of the action are maximally conjugated, and the culmination and denouement usually become the main part of the entire plot structure. Plots vary depending on what becomes the basis of the material - an event, character or problem. An interesting plot move should be tried to find more during the development of the topic, to try to portray events in such a way, to construct facts in order to express the content as expressively as possible.
If the plot is an action, dynamics, then the composition is construction, stability. Composition is the architecture of the text, in its handling such questions as how to start and how to finish the text, what parts to divide it into, what to report to the reader at once, then - on whose behalf ( or from whose point of view) to lead a narrative, etc. In short, the composition is a means of organizing the text, acting as a system of rules for its construction from the point of view of combining subtopics (composite nodes).
What is this system of rules? The first rule says that the necessary and sufficient number of sub-topics in a journalistic text should be reduced to four:
1) entering the situation;
2) the designation of the problem;
3) presentation of estimates and arguments;
4) practical statement of the question.
The second rule of composition is related to the arrangement of the sub-topic and states that the sequence of sub-themes can change, but it must be motivated by the genre and justified by appropriate techniques.
A journalistic image must be accurate, bright, understandable, fresh enough, not zezzhen before the banality.
Finally, material should be elementary literate - in terms of logic, vocabulary, and stylistics, not to mention spelling and punctuation.
The factors determining the features of media texts, as we have already noted, are also a theme, an idea, a structural and compositional solution, a genre. There are three groups of genres : information, analytical, artistic and journalistic genres. As the basis of division in this classification is the degree of author's assessment and analysis in the work with information.
Finally, any media text has its own specific structure . According to AI Soloviev, it includes:
• the implication (the original design, the author's idea);
• the context (activation of knowledge contained in the memory of the audience, the proximity of the described events, the factor of associative connections, etc.);
• Context (the atmosphere of text formation);
• subtext (implicit intentions of the author);
• message (from English subliminal message - a message acting on the subconscious, a deep meaning, is of a cooperative character, as it is the result of collective creativity).
Sometimes the term concept - the semantic and logical structure of the text depends on it. Reflecting the author's intentions, it is the concept that sets the communicative orientation of the text, i.e. verbal implementation of any particular situation.
The text looks preferable to just an oral word that has a reputation for being superficial, lightweight, and that's why the analysis of the influence of the text is so important.
It's hardly possible to overestimate the psychological significance of skilfully worked headers or in general header-design complexes , as they perform several important tasks. The main one is to say everything - and shortly.
First of all, the title should lead the reader directly to the text of the article. Unfortunately, this does not always happen. Since the interests and information requests of readers are very diverse, the headline that attracted the attention of one will leave the other indifferent. It can also happen that the reader will receive all the necessary information already from the header. This is typical for readers who like to skim through the material: they are very demanding in the choice of articles for detailed reading.
Headings also help to distribute materials in terms of importance. With their size and location, they let the reader understand how the editors consider these materials to be important or interesting.
Headings break the text of materials, thus performing design tasks (using design resources, infographic). Over the years, headlines have evolved as if in a circle. One hundred years ago the newspapers used headings and subtitles in several lines, which could take up to a quarter of a page. Their compilation took a lot of time, not to mention the purely technical difficulties of typing. It took a long time to select the key information to fill all the lines reserved for headings and sub-headings.
Later, studies appeared that proved that many readers - because of selective interest or lack of time - are satisfied with the information obtained when reading the headings, and never read the materials themselves. For this reason, designers today use one subtitle in some materials in addition to the main header. In the meantime, the new technology has saved editors from having to squeeze the essence of a complex article into a strictly numbered number of positions. In times of hot recruitment, it was often not possible to place a heading in this "Procrustean bed". Such headings were called "degraded" because they had to be reduced. Today, with the proliferation of computers, you can tighten the title, which takes, for example, 48 positions, to 46. Studies show that for the eye this compaction is almost imperceptible.
Generally, it's easier to work with top-down headings, i. with those in which only the first word and proper names are written in capital letters, and everything else is lowercase. Since lowercase letters already, in the space allocated for the title they can fit more. The ability to write headers, however, does not mean only fitting the number of letters under the assigned positions. The headings should contain the substance of the material. They should not underestimate or exaggerate the significance of the facts of the material - only an accurate reflection is necessary. Many lawsuits against newspapers were initiated due to incorrect, inaccurate, misleading headings.
Weak headings are obtained by using words that are not related to the material. Often there are a lot of "water" in the headlines of an inexperienced journalist. The title should contain only exact, keywords. When a journalist has to dig too long into the material in search of an exact title wording, this means that the idea of the material itself is vaguely expressed, or, as the journalists say, "buried the leader."
There are certain subtleties. The verb is the main element of the header - in the multiline variant it should be in the first line. It is better not to disperse complex predicates, adjectives and nouns defined by them, as well as established phrases, on separate lines. It is necessary to avoid unfamiliar, mysterious reductions, but those that have become widely known are fully usable. In search of short words that fit into the allotted positions, journalists often in vain sacrifice a more precise sense of the longer word-synonym. You can compose a short vocabulary for headings, but you need to use it intelligently, without repeating. There is a trick: write a simple narrative sentence that conveys the essence of the material, then remove the extra words. As a result, there is usually a good headline.
The title is usually written in the present tense, which helps create a sense of momentaryness. But there are, of course, exceptions. Accepting as an axiom that headings increase readability (even if only they are read), you should choose the font size of the headers that would correspond to the importance of the material. In the editorial rush, headlines are often not given enough attention. This is a serious mistake, from which materials are lost and, ultimately, the newspaper as a whole. In a highly professional newspaper, unsuccessful headlines are often rewritten. And in a number of newspapers, in particular in "Komsomolskaya Pravda", there are even journalists, whose duty is only to come up with headlines for publications. After all, when a newspaper is impeccable in headlines, it is usually impeccable in many other respects.
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