Happening and other effective technologies
The processally conditioned communicative situation of igrorealization on television can be described as happening , i.e. a certain representation in which the plot is variable, and the action takes place depending on the case (from English, happen - happen, happen) - on the degree of participation in it not only of the actors completing the plot together with the director, but also the audience, who may be involved in the action. In short, all participants actions are at the same time (or at least can feel) and directors, and "actors", and viewers.
Speaking about happening as a form and way of activity of an impersonal communicator (newspaper, TV channel, in short, the media in general), we contrast it with the realizability of an individual communicator (a specific journalist). The essence of the selection in each case is a pragmatic prediction or lack thereof. Classical happening involves direct participation, direct communication of viewers into action.
Happening is an interrupted (interrupted), incomplete plot. Or a few seemingly unrelated plots. With a string, but not necessarily with a culmination or denouement. This "representation", which is thought out, pre-directed, played out, and most importantly - is thought up, for example by the same viewers at the expense of the context space, depending on newly discovered circumstances, on the behavior of the participants in the game.
An example of happening was the program "Press Club", apparently memorable to every journalist. Constant in it were the conditions and circumstances accompanying the beginning of "representations" (the composition of the participants, the declared plots, the political situation in the country, etc.), the variables-the behavior of the actors, the moderator, the viewers, their predisposition (or, on the contrary, the disposition in a particular program) to polemics, to cooperation or confrontation, the variability of action and result, etc. and the like.
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Especially evident, in our opinion, the procedurally conditioned communicative situations are manifested when the media implement this or that concept of activity. The image of the publication, direct orientation to its reader core, tasks solved in connection with the search for mutual understanding with the administrative structures of society - all this and many other things puts the newspaper or magazine before choosing a certain role , which they are called upon to play in the course of practical work.
For example, literary critic Pavel Basinsky even built the concept of "aesthetic relations between" old "and" new "newspapers to reality." The success or failure of the activities of a publication, he associated no more with the ability to quickly create a sect among the public, i.e. The collective of their fans who exclusively prefer it to other publications & quot ;. If you do not take into account the terminology of the author, then this will be nothing more than one of the components of the pragmatically conditioned gameplay of the media.
In general, among the planned media communication situations, the following elements can be distinguished:
• The context of the publication (political or economic situation in society):
• communication participants (journalist, the intended audience of a particular publication or program);
• design and solution of organizational tasks (genre, language, form of presentation, furnishings, paralinguistic elements of communication, etc.);
• the alleged psychological effect (the effectiveness of the communicative act).
This allocation is, of course, in principle determined not only and not so much by pragmatic tasks, but primarily by the role (or even situational) of a given media, as well as by the experience, knowledge, professional skills of individual journalists , the editorial staff as a whole.
So, the content analysis we conducted showed that each of the above elements is usually associated with the "role design" activities of the media. Let's illustrate this situation with examples from "Nezavisimaya gazeta", whose role we conditionally defined as "the newspaper for self-identification".
The context of most publications "NG", the composition of the authors of publications and their "heroes", as well as the design and presentation of material on the pages of the newspaper, as we have identified, are closely interrelated and predetermined by this role. So, in 211 publications of analytical genres, analyzed by us, there are characteristic features of what we call a "a sign of the communication role" . In this case, it is primarily an original and creatively non-standard interpretation of specific political
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and economic events (in 122 of all 211 publications or in 58% of cases out of a hundred). Comparison we made on the example of publications on the same occasions of Izvestia, Komsomolskaya Pravda, newspapers Labor. It is noteworthy that these publications, on average, only 18-20% of the publications showed an interpretation different from the official or common to everyone else. Authors from among freelance editors in "NG" also presented in a very peculiar way: over 80% of them, firstly, were not published anywhere except for this newspaper during the analyzed period; secondly, they were more often (on average 65% of cases) experts in this area . At the same time, in the other newspapers analyzed, in the overwhelming majority of publications (over 80%), the authors were full-time employees who focused on the information side of events in the materials. And, at last, originality of genres, forms of giving of a material, style, etc. publications such as "NG", as "Ideas and People", "Forecast", "Lifestyle" and a number of others allow us to conclude that in this case the characteristic features of the communication role are also present.
This particular example, it seems to us, makes it possible to visually see one of the technologies of media activity modeling implemented in practice. To ignore this aspect of the gameplay of an impersonal communicator in today's practice means, in our opinion, in many ways one-sided approach to the work on forecasting the activities of a particular periodical, television or radio channel.
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