"I myself am deceived gladly ... - Psychology of journalism

I myself am deceived glad ...

The reasons why the media resort to manipulation can be grouped into three main groups.

1. The people, working in the sphere of mass communication, caused by partiality and subjectivism: i.e. distortions that are caused by their individual psychological, personal characteristics, political preferences and sympathies, etc.

2. Called by political, socio-economic and organizational conditions, in which the mass communication media operate. The main one is the dependence of the latter on specific social subjects. It can manifest itself in two main forms - economic and administrative. The economic form of dependence is manifested in the fact that mass media in a market environment work for certain clients, for example, advertisers and other customers from among representatives of large capital. The administrative form of dependence is manifested in the fact that the media are subject to their owners and founders.

3. Due to the very process of the functioning of the media. In order to attract attention and win a mass audience, the media are guided by certain general rules or principles when submitting materials and preparing messages for various programs.

At the same time, as VP Pugachev notes, the material selection principles they use are poorly compatible with profound analytical messages and often hamper the creation of an information picture of the world, a more or less adequate reality. He also singles out five such principles, which in general terms can be formulated as follows:

Priority (real and imaginary) and theme appeal for citizens. In accordance with this principle, most often media reports concern such problems as threats to peace and security of citizens, terrorism, environmental and other disasters, and the like.

originality of facts . This means that information about other extreme events - hunger, wars, extraordinarily violent crimes, etc. - dominates over the illumination of everyday, everyday life. This explains, in particular, the media's tendency to information of a negative nature and sensations;

novelty of facts . To attract the attention of the population are more capable of messages that have not yet become widely known. This may be the latest data on the results of economic development or the number of unemployed, on flights to other planets, on new political parties and their leaders, etc.

Success . According to this principle, the reports and articles contain reports on the successes of political leaders, parties or entire states. Particular attention is paid to winners in elections or in rating polls. The cult of stars in politics, art, sports - a typical phenomenon for the media in a market society;

high social status . The higher the status of the source of information, the more important is the interview or the transmission, since it is assumed that their popularity, other things being equal, is directly proportional to the public position of the people reporting the information. By virtue of this rule, people who occupy the highest places in political, military, ecclesiastical or other hierarchies have the easiest access to the media: presidents, military commanders, ministers, etc. The first pages of newspapers and the main radio and television programs are devoted to them.

Therefore, the content of the concept of "information-psychological security" in general terms can be designated as a state of protection of individual, group and social psychology and, accordingly, social subjects of different levels of community, scale and organization from the impact of information factors that cause dysfunctional social processes. In other words, we are talking about social processes that hamper or impede the optimal functioning of the state and social institutions of United States society and man as a full and free citizen. The central object of information impact, of course, is man , individual

You can also highlight a number of concepts that reflect certain methods, general mechanisms and generalized schemes of the process of hidden coercion of people. Among them, in particular, include misinformation, bluff in politics, manipulation in politics, political intrigue, propaganda and agitation, dishonest advertising, etc.

The pathos of this textbook is due to the proof of a simple thesis: to resist manipulation and the subjects of manipulation behind the media can only be the organization of a truly interactive relationship with the audience. Or, as we have shown above, by modeling such approaches. And the most successful practical technologies of this kind are discussions, the organization of "straight lines", igrorealization.

thematic pictures

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