Information openness of local self-government
Complex approaches to ensuring information openness, similar to those described above, are necessary and at the level of municipal authority. According to the concept of the structure of United States society, presented in the US Constitution, and even simple everyday logic, local self-government is the closest and most accessible way for people to manifest civil activity. In Art. "2 of the Federal Law of October 6, 2003 No. 131-FZ" On the general principles of the organization of local government in the United States " it is defined as recognized and guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States independent and under its responsibility the activities of the population to address local issues directly or through local self-government bodies, based on the interests of the population, its historical and other local traditions.
The more important for citizens and political correspondents is the implementation of the principle of openness of this power. This provision is too general to become an tool daily use, and needs to be specified for each individual territory. This is especially important because, under the current legislation, giant cities (republic and regional capitals) and microscopic municipal entities (rural municipalities and townships in districts, districts in urban areas) fall into the category of local self-government bodies. Specification is implemented in the laws of US subjects, charters and other legal acts of local government. In particular, in accordance with the Federal Law "On providing access to information on the activities of state bodies and local self-government bodies"; the leadership of municipalities develops their provisions on the procedure for providing access to information on the activities of the administration. As a rule, these documents describe the opportunities that are provided to journalists covering the work of local self-government bodies.
Concluding the consideration of the relationship between the press and the authorities, one can not avoid touching duties editorial staff and political correspondents. The dialectical combination of free access to information and responsibility before the law for this use attracts the attention of legal experts. "The problems that must be resolved on the basis of media policy," they believe, "can be formulated as" mutual understanding and observance of order of interaction between the media and public authorities and other institutions about access to journalist information, openness on the part of the state ... determined by law, but at the same time openness on the part of the media " . It is obvious that you can achieve harmony of rights and obligations by various means,
including the education of media employees in the spirit of respect for the law and interests of partner organizations in political life. However, first of all, it is necessary to consider the legal consolidation of duties. As applied to journalism in general, it is widely represented in the US Law "On the Media", according to Art. 18 of which, in particular, the founder (in the capacity of which the state or municipal authorities act as well) has the right to oblige the editorial board to post a message or material on its behalf for free. Especially these relations are devoted to the Federal Law of January 13, 1995, No. 7-FZ, "On the procedure for publicizing the activities of public authorities in the state media," which is a fairly lengthy document, the essential elements of its content are presented below.
First of all, the state recognizes the media, the founders of which are the highest federal bodies of representative, executive and judicial power or bodies of legislative and executive power of the United States. Hence, the effect of this normative act applies to a limited number of revisions, and it is not necessary to automatically expand the scope of its application to each and every media. In fact, as follows from the text of this act, it refers only to audiovisual (television and radio) media. When describing the content of the law, the media will be understood only as state television and radio.
The press services of the federal government are responsible for maintaining, storing and providing journalists with audio and video recording of the most important official events. At the same time, the right of accredited journalists to keep their own record is not restricted. In turn, the media should cover stage events in the activities of government bodies (an exact list of such events is provided) either in full or in the form of messages in their news programs (ie, in news releases, with the exception of copyright programs). Reports on the work of higher authorities of the media, as a rule, are transmitted by a separate bloc. It should be noted that in this case it is not a technical function (broadcasting from official events) but a full-fledged reporter and analytical parliamentary journalism.
The Federal Law under consideration is supplemented and partially amended with the entry into force of Federal Law No. 95-FZ of May 12, 2009, "On guarantees of equality of parliamentary parties in the coverage of their activities by state-owned public television channels and radio channels." The parliamentary parties refer to those parties whose deputies are officially represented in the State Duma; under the state channels - all-United States and regional broadcasters.
The coverage of the activities of parliamentary parties is based on the following principles:
1) dissemination of information on the activities of each parliamentary party in an equal volume;
2) publicity of state control over the coverage of parliamentary parties;
3) creative independence and professional independence of editorial boards when covering the activities of parliamentary parties, including independent determination of the grounds, forms and methods of such coverage;
4) comprehensive and objective information to TV viewers and radio listeners about the activities of parliamentary parties.
Lighting refers to the placement of information about the activities of parliamentary parties, their bodies, structural divisions, as well as individuals and factions of political parties, composed not only of the Duma, but also of the legislative bodies of the authorities of US subjects and municipalities.
If we go beyond the scope of the law outlined above, then we can continue the logic of its authors. Obviously, on the one hand, some similar obligations should be imposed on state print media, not just audiovisual ones. On the other hand, regional authorities also have certain expectations from the media, and they should be consolidated in the legislation of the subjects of the Federation. Finally, within the limits of their powers, the model of press duties can build and local self-government - of course, without a literal repetition of the federal law.
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