Journalistic work as a phenomenon of publicism
The concept of journalistic work not in the honor of theorists and practitioners connected with the media. In common use neutral terms: text & quot ;, material & quot ;, publication & quot ;, less commonly as generalizing terms note & quot ;, article & quot ;, performance & quot ;. Meanwhile, journalism is a kind of creative activity that creates an idea of the laws of the processes taking place in society, with the help of conceptual means that motivate the audience to actively perceive the real world.
The subject area of journalism is social situations that deserve public attention. The most important function of publicism is cognition, comprehension of the laws of the development of the social and moral being of society. The main method of research is a figurative-conceptual analysis that helps to give an idea of both the integral picture of people's life and its individual fragments. The content of journalism is the reproduction of facts, problems, characters in their evaluation by a specific subject of the utterance. In its form, journalism is the body of works aesthetically organized by the subject of the utterance, depending on the tasks that he sets for himself.
Publicism is an integral part of journalism, which is understood as a kind of professional activity related to the receipt, processing and transmission of information through media channels. In combination, journalism and journalism contribute to the formation, formulation and expression of public consciousness, representing a single mechanism for informational interaction with society, helping to create certain attitudes, attitudes and interests that activate processes that take place in society.
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The subordination of journalism and journalism favorably affects the interaction of the media and QMS within the information and communication space. The result of this interaction is the continuous process of updating the tools for processing the vital material and its arrival to the audience. As a product of such processing, a publicistic work appears.
Concept of the concept journalistic work is formed as follows. Thought, packed in a word, acquires the status of a text, in this case, a journalistic text. The publicistic text is a connected sign complex, which contains a complete sense and is aimed at influencing the audience in the process of transferring socially significant information through the media channels. Μ. M. Bakhtin wrote: "The event of the life of a text, that is, its true essence, always develops on the boundary of two consciousnesses, two subjects. That is, there is an event in question, and the event of the story itself & quot ;. This also applies fully to the journalistic text. It should be added that in journalism, as in no other form of creativity, there is not only an event of telling, but also an event of perception of the text by the audience. Perception is largely dependent on the nature of the presentation of the event, including its aesthetic processing.
The text, packed into the genre, acquires the status of the work. The journalistic text realizes its information and communication resources in specific genres. Genre is a type of aesthetic organization of vital material, possessing a number of stable features and revealing the author's attitude to reality (for more details, see paragraph 4.2). The genre is designed to fully influence the audience. His most important task is to invite the audience to co-reflect, to co-creativity. The publicistic text exists only in a specific genre shell. But gaining the status of a particular genre, the journalistic text simultaneously becomes the owner of a higher creative title " - a publicistic work.
There is a great temptation to declare these concepts synonymous. However, no matter how close these terms are in everyday life, there are serious differences between them. There is no aesthetic component in the definition of the text. Its basis is a message sprinkled by the author's thought. In determining the genre, emphasis is placed on the character of the aesthetic processing of the message. In the definition of the concept journalistic work the essence of the message, its aesthetic processing, and the personality of the author as the subject of the utterance are equally important.
It is clear that all these concepts - communication, aesthetic organization of the material, the author - are present in each of these terms, but the share of their significance in each of the definitions is different. It is the recognition of the status of a publicistic work that facilitates the transformation of the message into a co-public addressee and addressee. It is the recognition of the status of a publicistic work that turns the creator of the message and the consumer into the author and co-author, the creativity of one - in the co-creation of the audience. It is the recognition of the status of a journalistic work that makes it possible to feel the coexistence behind the retelling and analysis of the event and to combine the subject of the utterance and the subject of the message's consumption into a holistic moral and aesthetic category - a reflecting person, a thinking person.
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Publicistic work is an aesthetically valuable text that reveals in the conceptual-figurative form of a particular genre the transpersonal meaning of the author's utterance and contributes to the further self-generation of the text. The concept of journalistic work incorporates the notion journalistic text and journalistic genre & quot ;, giving an essential meaning to the term being introduced.
Securing the right of an author's statement to be called a journalistic work gives grounds to see its contextual space - context and subtest. In communicativistics and linguistics, these concepts have long and firmly associated with the actual textual basis of any message. In journalism, when one speaks of the specifics of the chronotope encapsulated in a specific genre publication, they use the usual slogan "Here and Now", thereby emphasizing the timeliness and topicality of the author's appeal to the audience. The conceptual possibilities of the journalistic work allow changing the customary slogan to a different one - "Always and everywhere".The semantic, spatial and temporal limits of the perception of a message contained in a journalistic work are expanded due to the fact that the text has retrospective memory and promising relations. This feature of the text is easy to follow, studying the nature and fate of journalistic genres. Genre - in art, literature, journalism - always appears in time. And it also disappears with time.
The feuilleton appeared in the French newspaper "The Journal de Deba" January 28, 1900 - first as a rubric, and later as a genre - not by accident. The editorial staff wanted to bring to its publication a broader, more democratic audience in the face of the third estate. New readers were offered information, which was published under the line - in the lower columns of the newspaper. In these columns there was no policy - only cultural and educational materials. The Jourdains, who for forty years spoke prose without realizing it, these materials were interesting. In order to strengthen the impact on the audience of this kind of material, the author appeared, uniting his point of view with disparate materials under the "feuilleton" line. And there was a new genre - a casual conversation on topics close to the audience.
Today, the genre of the column is formed in the same way. Originally it looked like a special design of the material on the newspaper strip. Then it turned into an author's rubric. Today the column turns into an independent genre.
Why is this happening? Because in the world of journalism the era of essayism is coming, electronic journalism is being created - messages transmitted, as they say, from ear to ear. Mobile media are oriented towards individual servicing of the audience, which, suffering or not suffering from loneliness, tends nevertheless to self-knowledge.
The format of a journalistic work is convenient for a modern audience, as it allows to correlate the present and the past, the present and the future. Publicistic work contributes to the emergence of co-authorship, in which quality bloggership claims today. But it's not just the wide spread of blogging. Due to the presence of the textual space in which the journalistic work functions, it allows the audience to reveal its own meanings, based on author's statements. A publicist, of course, wants to lead an audience, but no less responsible, and another task - to encourage the audience to contemplate.
Talking about the nature of the journalistic work means to take into account that its essential feature is the increment of meanings born in the process of mastering the ideas put into the text by the author. That is why the journalistic work knows more than the text underlying it. After all, a work is a point of intersection of two wills, two consciousnesses - the transmitting consciousness of the author and the perceiving consciousness of the audience. In this knowledge is a huge resource of the author's statement, contained in the work and constituting its semantic basis. Any work carries a personal and transpersonal meanings - it is also a product of the creative activity of the person of the creator and a product of perception and reproduction of the meaning discovered in the text by a multifaceted audience. Hence the eternal inexhaustibility of the work of art and the duration of the perception of the publicistic text by an ever-renewing audience.
The publicistic work performs a number of functions:
- the publicistic work at its status level expands the limits of perception of the meaning of the author's statement, actualizes the audience's attention to the point of view of the subject of the statement;
- emphasizes the importance of the axiological potential of the author's statement;
- enhances the role of imaginative means of influence on the audience;
- increases the importance of the author's statement, activates its interactive essence.The outstanding philosopher of culture, MS Kagan, emphasized that the process of perception of a work of art is isomorphic (equal to) the process of its perception. The method of comprehending the meaning of the author's statement in journalism is similar to the artistic one. The author-publicist comprehends the reality - the audience comprehends the model of this reality. The author proposes a system of concepts and images, from which a certain picture of the world is formed, the audience correlates this picture with its own idea, accepting or not accepting the author's point of view. The author creates a model of the world - the audience, peering (vchityvayas) in this model, will create not just a model - it creates itself. Creativity is an act of self-assertion of personality. This applies to the self-creation of the author's world, and to the self-creation of the audience. The perception of a publicistic work is an act of co-creation. The event turns into co-existence.
However, co-being does not necessarily mean unanimity. The emergence of new meanings that arise in the audience during the development of the journalistic work, can lead to disagreement. It's not just the lack of convincing author's reasons; Perhaps the very problem under discussion can not be solved unambiguously. The author of the journalistic work is variable in its conclusions. You can not demand from the publicist the proclamation of truth in the last resort. The task of the publicist is to find the optimal version of the relationship with the audience, in the ideal case - in encouraging an independent search for a possible solution to the problem. Publicism teaches us to think. Audience thinking is one of the options for motivating to action.
Self-creation of personality is an act bi-directional. The worlds of the information source and its consumer operate in resonance mode. It is not by chance that the audience's responses to the publicists' appearances appear on a daily basis, SMS and portals work on radio and television, print publications publicize the opinions of readers, use the practice of public answers to audience questions. Events of the real world are transformed into events of an individual person. Empathy engenders co-feeling.
Involving the audience in the process of self-assertion is not a game with the reader, spectator, listener, it is a form of active influence on the addressee to achieve the goal. Another thing is that this goal has obvious commercial interest: the audience next in the media's wake is a potential consumer of advertising that supports the life of the publication. Modern domestic publicism is not free from advertising and PR and in the author's speeches. It is clear, however, that the elements of advertising and PR are not the nature-forming features of a journalistic work. Its fundamental properties are metareferentnost, anti-entropy, relativity, discursiveness, dialogue, intertextuality, conventionality, narrativity.
Metareference works - is the ability of the work to be included in a certain communicative situation. Publicistic statement is appropriate in a specific situation, characteristic of this level of social relations. This relevance is determined not by the subjective desire of the author of the utterance, but by the need to draw the attention of the audience to situations and problems that require public attention, which are natural (or help to understand the pattern). The process of co-creation proceeds the more actively, the deeper the study of the real world undertaken by the author, the more expressive is the virtual picture of the world created by the imagination of the creator.
The anti- entropy of a work is the ability of the text to exist in the negative time, i. not to lose the relevance of meaning for a long time, a peculiar ability to actualize the author's statement, the ability to reconstruct the broken "connection of times". Factors prolonging the life of the work include the quality of the author's statement (the rollover of ideas and problems in time), the aesthetic qualities of the text (the system of images, the character of the narrative), the authority of the publicist's name (the timeless significance of the subject of the utterance). The antientropic nature of the text is actively supported by its textual components - under the text and the implication.
Relativity works - is the ability to enter into a relationship with external reality. The reproducing consciousness of the subject of the utterance not only activates the perceiving consciousness of the audience. The facts and problems fixed by the author require an explanation. This explanation can not always be contained in the text of the work, but it naturally arises in the process of further investigation of what happened. The question "why?", About the importance of which for the journalism mentioned above, requires an answer.
August 20, 2012 Madonna was late for her own concert in Moscow for an hour. First responses: Madonna can afford this. The responses of the next day, formulated on "Mayak": Madonna's concert for the general public of summer residences to the singer 4 million dollars, a concert arranged for a group of oligarchs, brought her 7 million. Naturally, the question from the plane of the material interest of the singer flows into a purely ethical plane: how is the artist's dignity measured - his personal skill or his relationship with the powerful of this world? What is the price of the powerful of this world in the moral dimension?
Questions do not necessarily raise the creator of the work - they are generated by an audience that has extracted from the author's statement an excuse for the emergence of an independent stream of consciousness. The more complete and diverse the audience's experience, the more coherent the audience looks.
The discursiveness of a work is the ability of a text to demonstrate the author's goal-setting in the process of contacts between the subject of the utterance and the audience. One of the first to talk about the phenomenon of discourse was the American scholar Harris in 1952. The idea was picked up by political scientists, sociologists, philosophers, and literary critics, and the concepts "political discourse", "social discourse", "economic discourse", "legal discourse" and others. "Discourse," writes N. D. Arutyunova, "is a coherent text in conjunction with extralinguistic - pragmatic, sociocultural, psychological and other factors; text taken in the event aspect; speech, considered as a purposeful social action; as a component involved in the interaction of people and the mechanisms of their consciousness (cognitive processes). "
Accordingly, the phenomenon of discourse in a publicistic work is clearly manifested in the fact that it always contains a certain author's goal-setting, determined by a specific situation (the relevance of the moment, the anger of the day, the interests of the author of the statement, editorial policy, etc.). Publicistic work exists only in a certain space, characterized by a system of political, ideological, sociocultural and other relations. It is clearly inscribed in the context of event and space-time coordinates, significant for society.
Situation is the first specific feature of the discursiveness of a publicistic work. The second feature of the journalistic discourse is the actualization of the author's relationship with the audience. Functioning in the space of the information and communication system, the publicistic work is aimed at being perceived. The growth of the number of sources of information has engendered a fierce struggle for the audience. As a result, the audience is clearly segmented. Today the price is not the press for everyone, but the press, oriented to a specific audience. And for a specific purpose.
Discourse increases the dialogue resources of a publicistic work as a deliberate utterance. Orientation of the subject of the statement to a certain audience allows the publicist to achieve the maximum understanding from the audience, even in those cases when the author tries to look deliberately dispassionate. Characteristic in this sense is the note
Cubans escaped by plane & quot ;, published in Izvestia October 13, 2002
Another group of Cubans illegally left the island of Liberty, reaching the American coast on an airplane of agricultural aviation AN-2. Last Monday, at the Ginardel Rio airport, the pilot took eight passengers on board and brought them to Florida. The circumstances of the escape are not clear. The pilot, the Associated Press reported, is known as a loyal supporter of the Cuban regime, and his unauthorized flight to the US caused surprise to his relatives. In Havana, the incident is viewed as an act of air piracy and requires that the US authorities return the aircraft and the people on board. Under American law, any Cuban fugitive gets the right to permanent residence.
An anonymous journalist-Izvestian is emphatically objective. But the journalistic text can not fail to demonstrate the author's point of view. Therefore, in the text of the note appear the words illegally & quot ;, Cuban regime & quot ;, island of Liberty & quot ;. Does the island of Liberty leave illegally? And yet again? Moreover, on a Soviet-made plane (in subtext: this Soviet Union helped the Castro regime for many years, and now it demonstratively distances itself from it)? The newspaper neatly distances itself from the communist regime, although it keeps diplomatic etiquette: the escape of illegal immigrants is called an "unauthorized flight", an "air piracy act". But then - the "Cuban regime". Liberty Island and in one text are combined poorly.
Discursivity expands the semantic space of the journalistic work, prompting the audience to contemplate, to the emergence of additional meanings hidden in the author's statement. But discourse is not the antithesis of interpretation. These qualities of the text complement each other. Discourse, as Sergei Datsyuk reasonably points out, is the order and rules of the communicative space of communicative action. This allows us to see in the discursiveness of the journalistic work a significant resource of impact on the audience.
The publicistic work as a text with discursiveness, directs the word at once through several semantic directions: the word characterizing the author; a word perceived by the audience; a word fixed in the genre. Discursiveness, strengthening the significance of the spoken word, prolongs the creative life of the journalistic work, because, as already mentioned, the thought fixed in the word is updated in the process of contacts with the new audience.
Dialogue works - is the ability of the author to maintain a communicative relationship with the audience. The meaning of these communicative relations is not to convey a message from the addressee to the addressee, but to ensure that the author's statement generates an adequate reaction of the perceiving consciousness. Publicistic work involves a two-way movement of thought, despite its seeming monologism. The communicative basis of the media is the dialogue of the transmitting and perceiving consciousnesses. The energy of the dialogue between these two consciousnesses is supported by the desire of each side to understand each other.
Dialogue in a journalistic work is a kind of test of an idea. Since any journalistic text assumes a roll call of opinions of the subject of the utterance (within the text) and the subject of perception (comprehension of what has been said), then this roll-call facilitates the search for a joint solution by the author and the audience. Dialogue turns the journalistic work into a kind of optical device that gives the author an opportunity to see (imagine) the audience, and the audience - to feel (understand) what the author is. "Understanding the text," wrote TA Van Dyke, "presupposes not only the knowledge of the language, but also the understanding of the world." This understanding of the essence of what is happening is born in the process of the author's dialogue (from his to outsider and back) with a pragmatically thinking audience. The position of a critically thinking audience is only their own & quot ;. An audience that is inclined toward interpretation is inclined to the form of "someone else's plus". A passively tuned audience sees foreign as their .
Each genre has its own dialogue capabilities. A note and a replica provide an opportunity to learn (this is their dominant function). The interview gives an opportunity to hear, the report - the opportunity to see, the article - the opportunity to understand, the essay - the opportunity to reflect, the review, the commentary - the opportunity to evaluate, the essay - the opportunity to feel the character, the correspondence - the ability to reproduce a specific situation, comic genres of journalism - the opportunity to mock the claim for significance .
The following types of dialog states are distinguished in publicism: a macro dialog (different texts and different authors enter into a dialogue with each other), immediate dialogue (in conditions of direct contact of the utterance subjects) , inner dialogue (the search for truth by the individual subject of consciousness is a dispute with oneself).
Unfortunately, an actively thinking addressee is washed out of today's information and communication space, and one does not see an orientation toward an equally active thinking addressee. The semantic level of dialogue is reduced. The parity inherent in the dialog relations within the work is formally preserved, but its level is constantly decreasing: a matrix source of information forms a matrix audience that passively consumes information disseminated through media channels. "People all shava - a common formula for the relationship of the author and the audience with which the media work at the level of the now popular entertainment ("inform entertaining").
In place of a serious conversation comes his imitation. This is called the competition for the audience. TV news programs begin with criminal information, and an intimidated audience easily loses social reference points. Discussion of acute conflicts between the authorities and society is replaced by a retelling of pseudo-conflicts arising in the world of iconic figures - politicians, oligarchs, cultural stars, sports stars. Signed figures do not object: a scandalous PR is also a PR. Another common method of imitating the dialogue between the author and the audience is post factum (from Latin post factum -> after the happened ") character of the so-called resonance case studies.
The simple and clear rules of professional dialogue organization are forgotten:
- the efficiency and significance of the information transmitted;
- the correspondence of the transmitted information to the interests of the society as a whole (and not only the interests of its individual segments);
- the decoding of the transmitted message;
- the disclosure of the genre of the work;
- the authority of the subject of the utterance;
- a steady appeal to the reasonableness of the perceiving consciousness (respect for the audience, recognition of her right to intellect).
The modern domestic information and communication space is filled with works, the dialogue in which is conducted at a different level. For example, Arguments & Facts reported that, it turns out, at the age of three, i.e. in 1873, Volodya Ulyanov disappeared for three days from the real world, and then emerged, silent and focused, and uttered a mysterious phrase: "In seventy-five years, Israel will be reborn." What made the venerable publication (once "AiF" was the body of the Society "Knowledge") publish this nonsense? The struggle for the audience, flirting with her. Arguments & facts neither arguments nor facts are needed, so it turns out. Although the weekly publishes, for example, the original political comments of Vyacheslav Kostikov and other qualified analysts. "In one cart you can not harness a horse and a quivering doe"? It turns out you can.
Serious dialogue is replaced by paparazzi - information mockery of common sense, professional ethics of the information community. When a plane with a hockey team "Lokomotiv" crashed near Yaroslavl, a video was shown on many television channels: a miraculously saved member of the crew in a semi-faint state wandered about the knee in the water, and from the shore shouted to him: "Come here!" It's not deep here! And no one - neither the employee of the Ministry of Emergency Measures, nor the TV operators - was in a hurry to help him. There is no pain or compassion. Only interest in the picture in the frame. But the audience sees a real picture of what is happening.
Between the concepts picture and Picture - The distance is huge. The essence of this distance is the absence of a matter of principle "why?". Who is to blame for the catastrophe? Technological disaster? Human factor? Natural conditions? Months later, a message flashed through the media that the investigation was resumed: the previous explanations of the disaster (the pilots are to blame) do not suit him. Paparazzism is an imitation of professional curiosity. It's flirting with the audience, not a dialogue with her. And as a result - the craft cancels creativity. The author's speech ceases to be a work.
Intertextuality of a journalistic work is its ability to interact with other works (both within this publication and outside it). The principle of complementarity, characteristic of all forms of cognition of the world, is also characteristic of publicistic speech: the genre classification in journalism is such that it serves the interaction of individual texts with each other, creating an integral picture of the world. Number as a whole - a concept born of the ability of journalistic creativity to collect together different materials, thereby creating a representative picture of events and problems characteristic of a given period of time. It is clear that this picture should objectively reflect the essence of what is happening, and not be performed by the task of the publishers of this media.
Narrative (lat narrare - "to tell") is the ability of a publicistic work to attract the attention of the audience by organizing narrative within the chosen aesthetic processing of the material. In the journalistic work thematic expectations of the audience, its genre expectations, its personal expectations (meeting with a certain author). In his desire to influence the audience, the author resorts to aesthetic design of the message, making it attractive and convenient for perception. To this end, the author uses a narrative narrative strategy. The essence of this strategy consists, first, in the introduction of a special subject of utterance (the author is a participant in events, the author is an active commentator of events, the author is a neutral observer of what is happening); secondly, in the nature of the presentation of the material (the level of expressiveness of the utterance); thirdly, in the nature of the coding of meaning (using reasoning or referring to the system of images).
The conventionality of a journalistic work is the ability to realize a special type of collusion between the author of the utterance and the addressee of this statement.
Since the journalistic work is anti-entropic, it is very important that not only those codes and circumstances of the functioning of the text that operate at the time of its perception are understood by the consumer of information, but also those meanings that in due time gave rise to this text. Publicistic work exists in the space of constant renewal of its meanings, and this update is possible only in the conditions of constant updating of the audience - participants in the dialogue.
In other words, yesterday's The text remains a journalistic work today, if its codes are perceived by the modern audience. It is important that in the conditional pact of perception of the work there is a point: without renouncing the principle of equality of parties in the dialogue, the publicist nevertheless does not follow the audience, but leads it with him, influencing her with the arsenal of rational and emotional methods of influence available to him. The convention is based on clearly felt trust of the parties to each other.
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