Journalist's participation in media planning and production
This chapter shows the activities of a journalist as a participant in the collective work to produce a media issue. Functional, technological and psychological aspects of production interaction in the editorial office are disclosed.
As a result of the study of Chapter 6, the student must:
• the organization and stages of work on the issue of the number (program);
be able to
• plan and organize their professional activities in its various forms;
• participate in the issue of the media number (program);
• culture of production interaction in the editorial office.
Planning and organization of issue of the number
The release of a quality media issue is the goal of the daily work of the editorial team and is included as a separate link in the editorial management system. Editorial management becomes effective if it is a systemic activity, i.e. is regular management. The miscalculations of many editorial offices of United States newspapers are due precisely to the fact that they do not follow the system, destroying one or the other of its elements. Perhaps, 100% fundamental management functions (planning, organization, management, control) are not realized, or managers do not have a full set of required qualities (conceptual skills, decision-making skills, analytical, administrative, communication, psychological and technical skills). There are often mistakes in the selection of journalists, in determining and using their opportunities, interests, in distributing responsibility between creative and technical workers, between correspondents and managers of the lower, middle and senior level.
Particularly difficult is the editions of local publications, sometimes represented by only three or five creative employees. There, the more it is necessary to adhere to the thoughtful - economical and effective - marketing and management policy. After all, the set of tasks and functions of producers of newspaper-goods, managers of the production and creative collective, which is any edition, remains unchanged regardless of the size publication. Even the smallest edition that produces a small newspaper enters the market, and if it thinks about its future, it must also optimize the process of preparing and publishing the publication, and developing financial policies, and dissemination, and advertising, and sociological research, and personnel policy .
Management (English, management - management, management) - is the art and science of management, the professionalism of power, manifested in skilful administration, in method and manner treatment of people. This is a system of actions taken by managers, but optimization of the human, material and financial resources of the editorial staff to achieve some organizational goals. The effectiveness of management is influenced by many external and internal factors: from the economic situation in the country and the region, the state of the information market, the existing legislation, the level of technology to the technical weapons of the editorial staff, the nature of the publication, the specifics of marketing communications implemented by a specific editorial board.
The management model should take into account the key management characteristics: the orientation towards success (for example, the influence of the newspaper with a relatively small circulation); the consideration of the opinion of the reader/consumer audience; independence (encouraging the initiative of staff); understandability of the form of management; providing sufficient freedom with strict discipline and control. Models are specified in connection with the specifics and scale of the goals and objectives of a particular editorial board, but any of the models should be based on the principles of management that have been developed by mankind for many centuries (the classical school - the scientific organization of labor and administrative management approaches, the school of human relations, the administrative scientific school of "quantitative analysis", which are associated with the names of F. Taylor, A. Fayol, M. Weber, M. Follett, E. Mayo, etc.).
Today, the editors carry out the personnel policy as follows:
- are engaged in the selection of employees on scientific grounds, resorting to the analysis of questionnaires, formal and informal testing (general culture and literacy, professional readiness, knowledge of foreign languages and the ability to use computer and other modern technology, physical and mental health, knowledge of the economy Media);
- train or raise the qualifications of employees directly in the editorial office, at special seminars, courses, providing an opportunity to obtain professional education in universities;
- take care of the most complete disclosure of the abilities of workers in the division of labor within a particular specialization;
- understand the importance of incentives for wages, creating an effective system of material, moral incentives based on the fair distribution of responsibilities between ordinary employees and managers;
- create the conditions for the manifestation of initiative and the strengthening of the corporate spirit.In some editions deliberately depersonalize managerial functions, legitimizing impersonal and used in all cases the official duties of each employee, selected on the basis of their qualifications and working according to certain rules, appointing the most suitable persons for the posts, fixing the salaries of officials who are not owners of the media.
There are pyramidal and flat schemes of the editorial structure . Both have their own merits and demerits. The first (Figure 6.1) assumes a complete division of labor, one-man management, personal responsibility, and this is a plus; to the cons but we refer to the slow passage of information of a very different nature, which is reflected primarily on the speed of decision-making and on the publication of the publication as a whole.
Fig. 6.1. Pyramid structure of newspaper edition
1 - the chief editor; 2 - Chief Accountant; 3 - Deputy Chief Editor; 4 - editorial board; 5 - executive secretary; 6 - Manager (Commercial Director); 7 - heads of departments: a - Sobkorov network, b - economy, c - politics, d - social problems, d - information, e - letters, g - illustrations; 8 - correspondents of departments; 9 - the browser; 10 - special correspondent; 11 - own correspondents; 12 - technical services of the editorial staff: a - typewriting bureau (computer center), b - proof-reading office, c - library, d - archive, d - dossier, c - issue service, g - informatics department, h - economic service; 13 - commercial part of the editorial office
With a flat structure (Figure 6.2), funds are saved, managerial and journalistic information itself turns around faster, but the workload on managers is sharply increased.
Fig. 6.2. Flat newspaper editorial structure
1 - the chief editor; 2 - Chief Accountant; 3 - editorial board; 4 - Deputy Chief Editor; 5 - executive secretary; 6 - Manager (Commercial Director); 7 - own correspondents; 8 - special correspondent; 9 - the browser; 10 - correspondents; 11 - photo correspondent; 12 - technical services of the editorial staff: a - typewriting bureau (computer center), b - proof-reading office, c - library, d - archive, d - dossier, e - release service, g - informatics department, h - economic service; 13 - commercial part of the editorial office
Unfortunately, many editorial offices of local newspapers, even having a solid staff and a well-established system of departments, are increasingly turning to the second type of structure, often bearing serious losses. After all, the real department of the newspaper is a mini-editorial staff with its own staff of correspondents and a manager dealing with long-term and operational planning and control over the implementation of the publication plan for certain thematic areas. The profile of the department is reflected in the set of headings of the department, thematic collections and pages, in the presence of a permanent asset of freelance correspondents, and their mail. The department, as a rule, occupies one or several rooms of the editorial office, has telephones, other means of communication, office equipment, maintains its archive. Such an association of employees is quite easy to implement any editorial and publishing project, including the launch of a separate application.
It should also be recognized that small editions are forced to adhere to a flat structure, distributing responsibilities between a small number of employees. And here again it is important to emphasize the following: the reader is not at all interested in knowing what the size and structure of the editorial staff is, offering him the product of his activity - a specific publication. The reader to local newspapers makes the same demands as federal ones, because they all compete on the same information field. Therefore, the importance of the scientific approach to the organization of the activities of the editors, especially the small ones, is increasing. to editorial and publishing marketing and management.
So, the modern edition is on a scientific basis a manageable collective, acting according to the principles of system, rhythm and cyclicity, using various scientific methods to realize the goals and tasks set. For example, using the linear programming method, newspapers can create an optimal thematic structure of the publication (headings, thematic collections and pages), define a set of special applications, types of additional activities (publishing, research of the marketing department or advertising sector), selection of kiosks that the most likely to realize a certain part of the circulation. The method of business games allows you to predict real economic situations and find solutions to solve competition problems. The theory of queuing is used in the context of specific sociological studies of the audience (questionnaires, telephone surveys, etc.). Modeling the process of journalistic creativity, the structure of the editorial board, the subject matter, the design of the newspaper, the process of issuing and realizing numbers helps to develop the most rational marketing strategy, to minimize the amount of costs. Network planning (network schedule) has been used for many years in editions adhering to the NOT, and in audiovisual media, a stable broadcast network is the main condition for effective work. Methods of communication theory that studies the effectiveness of information and communication flows within given systems are successfully applied both in the analysis of the feedback mechanism and in the improvement of information and communication within the organizational structure of the editorial office.
What exactly do the concepts of management of the modern editions and the one that operated in the "home-marketing era" differ? "
Previously, editors were appointed, and in their role often acted if not former party workers, then journalists who passed the party school. Naturally, they saw their main mission as fulfilling primarily ideological tasks. As a gift of fate, the journalists considered an editor who understood creative problems, and even more "writing" editor. In the new conditions, the editor is also not so much a writer as an economist, a marketer, a financier (or his first deputy, or less often - a responsible secretary, who by definition is responsible for editorial management and organization of the creative process). Conflicts of interest often arise when the editor underestimates the creative basis of journalistic work, focusing on making a profit by any means.
General newspaper columnist Albert Plutnik, over 30 years of experience in "Izvestia", in the article "Old Songs on the Main" writes: "There is a certain law according to which any publication, by inscrutable at times, acquires content, that is, beliefs, tastes and character, and, in many ways, the image of its Chief Editor ( VT). The weak character will not have a newspaper with a strong character. Duplicate does not create a principal publication. Colorless can bloom the newspaper with any "light" effects, similar to brightness, but the essence of the materials still reproduce its dullness. And the editorial board will reign exactly the atmosphere at which it is only possible to create the Main Edition that corresponds to the representations.
Tracking the history of the editors of "Izvestia since the 1960s. up to the present day, paying tribute to such remarkable people and professionals as LN Tolkunov and ID Laptev, the well-known publicist is perplexed: "... did the design engineers who identified both Tolkunov and Laptev's editors know more thinly the cadres than later, say, bankers or people, that is, the editorial staff? Or the whole point is that under any system, no matter how banal, much is ultimately determined by the person of the FRIEND? & Quot ;. Apparently, it is not accidental in "Izvestia" there was a split when the election of the editorial board was abolished, when the staff was not accepted "individually", but collectively, when all those who disagreed with the editor's opinion were automatically included in the number of disputants, rebels and demagogues, when editorial mores were extremely simplified when the reign began to prevail the method of the chief "work with texts"; and the institute of department editors rapidly deteriorated. Part of the team left Izvestia and created "New News". But today both newspapers are far from their legendary predecessor, both are experiencing difficult times, and above all in personnel.
Of course, journalism is changing. Previously, internal opportunities (personnel and production resources) played a decisive role; the general resources of the editorial board were linked with the requirements of journalistic creativity and production. The media won prestige thanks to the qualifications of journalists ("golden feathers", "stars"). Now quite often the external market conditions become the decisive factor - the general resources of the editorial board are linked to the market opportunities. Strategic planning (organizational model, KGM, business plan) became the requirement of the day, the priority direction of marketing and editorial management; it, carried out "by science", allows you to stay in a competitive race, and perhaps, to become a leader, a trendsetter.
In 1999, the Eurasia Foundation was supported by a project to create guidelines for the development and implementation of business plans editorial. The author of the project, considering the business plan as the core of enterprise management, gives him the following definition: it is a product of internal management activity, which, in addition to the enterprise team, can be investors, lenders, business partners, but only on condition of your personal initial success secured in time, confirmed economically and psychologically. " Extremely valuable for both current professionals and students of journalism faculties, the textbook includes the following sections:
- the subject of the business plan (properties, typology of plans, preliminary activities);
- business plan structure (summary, enterprise development level, target market analysis, competition, marketing strategies, production plan, management and organization, long-term development, risks and exit strategy, financial plan, logistics);
- a description of the structure of the business plan, including such parameters as the production schedule, prime cost and unit standards, operational policies, a table of functional duties and a working day planning table.
Any publication striving to gain a foothold in the market, to be economically sound, and therefore independent, must adhere to the method described above. Moreover, for more than ten years it has been approved by many editions of United States newspapers, and the author of the technique VL Ivanitsky prepared a course "Fundamentals of Business Media Modeling" and issued the same textbook for senior students of journalism faculties.
The main problem of managers in journalism is the balance of interests and objective needs of the readership. If earlier people, experiencing a deficit in the usual information - everyday, easy, entertaining, bought up information and advertising weekly newspapers with mandatory TV and radio programs, today such publications are clearly an overabundance. Apparently, over time, readers will become saturated with such themes as they are saturated with Western militants, thrillers, and turn to more serious problems. Depoliticization, deideologization of the press, which is referred to today as a characteristic time, does not mean the absence of politics, ideology in the media. But, firstly, journalism itself must realize the danger of antisocial roll (monsters generate monsters); secondly, declaring a marketing approach, it must take into account the whole range of human motives and needs - from the simplest to the most complex, spiritual, the heterogeneity and at the same time the high intellectual potential of the United States reader.
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