Psychological research in journalism - Psychology of journalism

Psychological research in journalism

It is natural that the media are constantly under the spotlight of public attention. But besides, for a number of objective reasons, they are constantly the object of scientific humanitarian research (as we noted above all, as a factor of socialization of various groups of society), and in modern conditions also a subject of commercial marketing activities (as a carrier of various types of advertising). All this within the psychology of journalism determines the different ways, forms, methods of analyzing mass-communication practices, including interdisciplinary ones.

Among the main types of psychological research in the field of mass media can be identified:

• content assessment, or content analysis using various kinds of dominants (for example, who are the media heroes - what groups of society are they from, is there violence in the content of mass communication texts, what is the " geography publications, etc.);

• Using the method of working in focus groups and describing the mental reality of the different subgroups of the media audience (finding the answer to the question: "What becomes the basis for the formation of attitudes in specific people and further patterns of their behavior?" );

• Evaluating the effectiveness of the duration of the impact of media products on various audit groups using experiments (analysis primarily of the so-called irritability factors, "rejection of communicators");

• study the effectiveness and systematization of impact technologies on the audience of various types of mass communication (journalism, propaganda, public relations, lobbying media, advertising)

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• Evaluation of factors of the cumulative (cumulative) effect of mass media activities: such as behavioral consequences, setting effects, cognitive consequences, physiological consequences, etc.

With. M. Vinogradova and GS Melnik, based on the fact that "new sociocultural theories demonstrate different approaches to determining the essence of value, its emergence, production, modes of existence, to explain the interaction of values ​​among themselves, with social and cultural factors and structure personality ", it is quite right, in our opinion, to consider it methodologically important to address also the axiological aspects of the development of modern social processes and the influence of the mass media on them.

However, the phenomenological features and functions of the psychology of journalism, as practice shows, can be actively associated with the methods and results of research conducted in a number of "boundary" her scientific and practical disciplines. So, the monograph with the title Medialogy as synthesis of sciences could not attract the attention of researchers of the mass media, if only because much of this book, beginning with the title, has a debatable character. After all, you start immediately formulate for yourself: "Medialogy as a synthesis of sciences?" or Medialogy as synthesis of sciences! Involuntarily, an analogy is also being made with the work of researchers who are developing the direction called social informationology, also claiming that the subject of study and analysis is "problems of journalism and media activities, mass communication, information management, new humanitarian information technologies impact on different levels social psyche ". And in the light of acquaintance with the novelties of literature on this topic, you assume that the famous Moscow researcher A. A. Kalmykov in the monograph "The Internet Mediology" in this concept puts a slightly different, purely applied meaning. After all, he considers the Internet as a permanently expanding media environment and explores first of all a new sphere of professional journalistic activity - Internet journalism (web journalism). The author, in particular, proves that the basic properties of Internet journalism - hypertext and interactivity - are factors of qualitative complication of the modern information and communication space.

In general, is it even possible to assume today that some scientific or even scientific and practical discipline will be able to sublimate and develop in its bosom a single methodology for understanding and analyzing the permanent changes that occur almost daily in the media sphere? But in the end, you come to the idea: while the authors in their studies of modern times do not pretend, and can not pretend to be exhaustive all-embracing. Speech, as a rule, is about understanding the process of formation and development trends, as well as the contradictions in the development of the branch of science that they represent.

The era of globalization and the intensive improvement of information and communication technologies that affect the public consciousness and the process of socialization of the individual, presupposes the total impact of media on a person, his way of life, moral values. In these conditions, of course, media psychology, psychoanalysis of media and media ethics are of great importance. And in this we fully agree with Professor II. B. Kirillova, whose book allowed us to turn to this topic and discover a direct relationship between the mediology and psychology of journalism.

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After all, the subject of mediology as a whole, as noted in her monograph, is the problems of the formation and development of media culture in historical representation, its anthropology and genesis, language, sign system and social functioning, influence on modernization processes in society and the world. " And its object is, first of all, the principles of spiritual regulation of various spheres of life, conditioned by technological progress ... ". At the same time, it seems to us, in this context it would be appropriate to once again focus attention on the professional culture of the subjects of media activity. As for, for example, the professional culture of journalists, the Faculty of Journalism of the UrFU (now the department of the "Faculty of Journalism") during 2005-2012. conducted a series of studies and produced three inter-university thematic collections of articles and materials devoted to this very topical topic. At the same time, a curious trend has emerged, for example, in the field of training media professionals - often the focus is on improving the technology of preparation and transmission of texts. At the same time, you will agree, the approach in which the technological components of training future journalists and improving the skills of working colleagues are interrelated with the problems of the formation of a generally harmoniously developed personality, systemic thinking or the development of creative creativity - is more promising.

There is no doubt that the study of media is possible only in connection with the development of a culture of society. Today, it is often possible in a different context to meet with the point of view of young researchers who to some extent idealize the Global Network as a channel for communication and communication. There is very little information on the Internet (in its traditional sense) and there is almost nothing from society, since the individual in this space is in every possible way rebuilt from his society, if he does not set goals for the representation of some experience or the realization of other goals, usually latent in nature. Analyzing information as a phenomenon, it is necessary to clearly distinguish the message (or message), its interpretation (or perception) and communication. A message is a transmitted product of a person's intellectual activity. Interpretation is acquired knowledge, expansion of our ideas about something. Denoting information as a communication that leads to action, we can not say that the Internet is a decisive step on the way to a certain communication society. It, we shall repeat, more likely certain medium, ie. at the same time a means and environment for the virtualization of society, the transformation of something into a kind of virtual reality.

American researcher Lev Manovich quite rightly, in our opinion, notes that "now we can not share culture and technology." It is thanks to technology that culture is changing. People have become content producers, and if earlier the standard form of the text was a book, now it's a short status or tweet. The availability of Internet technologies has turned people into media producers: before, no one has spent so much time and effort to photograph, download content, share it. Of course, there was a tradition of amateur photography, but it was just one of the possible hobbies, and now everyone started to do it. "

A well-known French researcher on the problems of mass communication D. Volta notes the fact that social networks return us lost interpersonal communication: "The Internet, the lord of information systems, once again raises the eternal question of interpersonal communication:" Is there somewhere, who loves me?". And social networks, such as Facebook ( Facebook ), are nothing more than the modern version of Le Chasseur Frangais [French popular magazine], with all the search for emotional and social connections . The word "social networks", by the way, in itself already speaks about it. Behind the networks are social connections, i.e. communication between people, they are priority. How easier is it to meet someone? With the dream of equality, noticeable in this logic of peer-to-peer contacts: people are looking for each other, and they are equal. In the World Wide Web, in blogs, on Twitter and in numerous networks, it is always looking for other communication between people, more free and genuine. This is also, it must be admitted, a cure for loneliness. This creepy loneliness, terrible in the urban environment, where all social and family structures collapsed, causing, it is quite natural, the need to create new connections, new communities. Internet, a means of fighting against this new reality: free and lonely people ".

At the same time, we emphasize that the foregoing does not at all contradict what we will describe as a creative component of a successful professional journalist. After all, in any case, the audience of the mass media singles out and especially appreciates quality articles, texts filled with useful (exclusive) facts and thoughtful analysis. The narrative in mass media activity as a form will not go anywhere.

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