PSYCHOLOGY OF JOURNALISM IN THE CONTEXT OF HUMANITARIAN RESEARCH
As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
• Functional regularities of co-evolution (co-development of interacting systems) of human higher mental functions and psychological mechanisms of mass communication;
• the fundamentals of the theory and practice of psychological research in the field of journalism psychology;
• the main scientific concepts in the field of psychology of journalism and related scientific disciplines;
be able to
• Identify the psychological and socio-psychological functions of the media;
• analyze from a psychological standpoint the phenomena of journalistic practice;
• The methodology for analyzing mass communication;
• skills to work with sources of psychological knowledge for professional purposes.
Individuality (uniqueness) of a person is a manifestation of its genetic and physiological characteristics, the phenomenon of social development and the result of strong-willed aspiration to develop a universal human culture and creative self-realization.
Victor Frankl, among the most important and possible dimensions of human existence, called the vital (from Latin vita - life) the basis that biology and psychology are studying. The social position of a person is the subject of sociological analysis and it in a generalized form represents a person's personal position, an attitude, a personal attitude to any vital basis and to any situation. This attitude, in his opinion, "can not be the subject of the above sciences, but exists as if in a special dimension."
Personality and personalized "spaces"
The concept of "personality", describing the social side of a person and denoting a human individual as a subject of relations (primarily dialogical), presupposes primarily a conscious activity, as well as a stable system of socially significant features that characterize the individual as a member of a society or generality. All this is concretized in a huge array of scientific, special and popular literature. We will highlight only those characteristics that are important for practical journalists when organizing interactive relations with the media audience.
If we generalize the definitions of the concept of "personality" existing within various philosophical, sociological, psychological theories and schools (K. Jung, G. Allport, E. Krechmer, K. Levin, J. Guilford, A. Maslow, G. Etc.), then one can say that a person is traditionally understood as a synthesis of all characteristics of an individual in a unique structure that is defined and changed as a result of adaptation to an ever-changing environment. Emphasis is also placed on the fact that the personality of a person is a social in nature, a relatively stable and lifelong psychological formation that is a system of relationships determined by motives and needs and mediating interactions (including mass communication) of the subject and the object.
In domestic psychology there are also several directions, the mutual influence of which contributes to its development: the theory of relations V. II. Myasischev, SL Rubinshtein's theory of the unity of consciousness and activity, LS Vygotsky's cultural and historical theory, BG Ananiev's theory of the basic life orientation, AN Leontief's theory of activity, the theory of the installation DN Uznadze, theory the typological features of the personality of BM Teplov, the concept of the dynamic functional structure of personality KK Platonov, the theory of integral research of personality VS Merlin, etc.
Thus, VS Merlin described the following hierarchical (that is, in the order of "subordination" and the transition from lower to higher) levels of a large integral personality system of any person.
1. System of individual properties of the organism, including subsystems:
• biochemical (hereditary factors);
• general somatic (physiological properties of the organism)
• Neurodynamic (properties of the nervous system).
2. System of individual psychic properties with the following subsystems:
• psychodynamic (temperamental properties);
• the psychological properties of the personality.
3. System of socio-psychological individual properties with the subsystems included in it:
• social roles in a social group and team;
• social roles in socio-historical communities.Personality, in the figurative expression of A. V. Petrovsky and V. A. Petrovsky, "is clearly closely" under the skin "of the individual, and it transcends the limits of his corporeality into new" spaces "." To the number of such spaces in which it is possible to discern the manifestations of the personality, to understand and evaluate it, in the authors' opinion, it is possible to refer to the "space" the psyche of the individual (intra-individe space), his inner world. The second space - this is the area of interindividual connections (interindividive space). And, finally, the third "space" the realization by the individual of his capabilities as an individual is not only outside his inner world, but also abroad of actual, momentary ties with other people (metaindividualized space).
In our opinion, the phenomenon of mass media as a phenomenon characterizing certain trends in the development of society is largely due to the specifics of the media and their initial desire to invade each of these three spaces. With certain reservations, of course, the mass media can even be attributed to the fourth "space", for which the ideal representation (personalization) of subjects and objects of mass communication activity through media in other people is most characteristic. Targeted overcoming of borders each of the three above-named spaces sometimes can be caused by the tasks of socio-political manipulation of the mass media audience.
Multimedia as a new approach to the organization of mass communication activities in general and the creative work of journalists in particular has become a kind of wreath of the process of transformation, which began with the rapid development of electronic media first, and subsequently the Internet. Multimedia, as a practical realization of the fantastic idea of a multidimensional, limitless and multicode method of information transmission, initially ascended, oddly enough, to the prehistoric forms of the "unmediated" technique of human communication. Another thing is that, as the author of the paradoxical edition of the "Media in Ancient Greece" notes, Corinne Koole, it was then that the means and media of communication, which occupy a leading position in our life today, were invented: rhetoric, theater, political meetings, Olympic games ... All aspects of life, originally completely different, are naturally composed of concentric circles around the policy, habitat of the Greeks ". But scientists also note the undoubted fact that a man of the XXI century. is very different from its predecessors even of the "pre-digital era", not to mention the ancestors who communicated in a pedigree campfire or in an ancient Greek policy.
In the new millennium, the type of thinking that the researchers call "NET-thinking" dominates. It is characterized by a fragile attention of the audience and a visually kaleidoscopic way of presenting information. The birth of this culture can be called, among other things, a network text that is distinguished by polyphonic, equal-status communicator and recipient, nonlinearity of presentation and other characteristics.
In general, the predominance of visual information in traditional media, in various types of advertising, the Internet space is indicative not only of the emergence of a new mode of communication, but also of a global transformation of the thinking style of a mass audience. The modern world, influenced by information technology, forms a type of perception, different from the traditional text, otherwise - "book".
To denote a new type of consciousness around the mid-1990s. was introduced in the science of the concept of "clip-consciousness/thinking." As K.G.Frukmkin formulated the culturologist, "his essence is that he knows how and loves to switch quickly between scattered semantic fragments. Owners of the clip perception are characterized by a high processing speed of information, as well as increased ability to multitask. But, of course, the payment for multitasking is distraction, hyperactivity, attention deficit and the preference for non-textual, figurative information, visual symbols of logic and deepening into the text. "
Such an approach to information requires certain skills - in particular, the skills of "read diagonally" and quickly respond to new incoming data. In this case, a homogeneous sequence of verbal signs that are not diluted with images (like, for example, an illustrious book or newspaper material), it is difficult to perceive the holders of clip-like thinking.
Those who describe a new type of thinking often use metaphors. There were such concepts as "digital natives", "multitasking generation" etc. In fact, we are talking about the formation and development of a new psychotype - a man born at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. and interconnected with the earliest childhood with multimedia information and a computer environment.
The well-known philosopher Alvin Toffler considered the clip culture and clip consciousness inherent in the "digital aborigines" as the consequences of the formation of a new infosphere, in which the information flow increased to unimaginable dimensions. Some researchers note that the wedge consciousness acts as some kind of defensive reaction of a person who is trying to master the huge volume of transmitted messages. The brain in this case, not having time to process it, selects only bright "patches" information "blanket", which covers the person every day from reality.
This is directly related to the growth in the number of so-called creolized texts and their special relevance - another form (linear mono-code) becomes obsolete for a mass audience, it simply ceases to be perceived by it. KG Frumkin also noted that the "text for the modern reader is a kind of set of hidden keys necessary for understanding the situation: it extracts the information needed for the solution of a particular question, something that can be useful in practice." The basic skill of working with the text that the carriers of the clip consciousness possesses is conversion (some kind of mental transformation) into the instruction. Completely verbal texts, unlike creolized ones, are extremely inconvenient for this task.
Creepiness - not only the style of thinking, but also the way of life. This is a model of the behavior of a person engaged in a variety of different projects and switching between them - typical of our time. Naturally, this character has a need to quickly assimilate information on various topics, and illustrating the verbal text in this situation is more than useful.
Thus, it can be concluded that the texts creole, culturologists, anthropologists actively researched by creologists, or saturated with visualized media products, are the most appropriate way for the individual and for the majority of modern audit groups of the media to transmit information. And this is the reason for their increased relevance.
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