Sports information and communication capabilities of modern electronic media
Sports information on the radio
The emergence of radio as a means of communication at the turn of the century and before last century has largely changed the picture of information flows within the framework of modern civilization. The operability and immediacy of a story about any event that could be heard by a multi-million audience with the help of radio became possible. In parallel, the formation of a system of national and international sports competitions was taking place. Sport was a very comfortable sphere of information activity for radio journalists. First, excessive events and saturation with facts. Secondly, the growing popularity of this socio-cultural phenomenon, which has become an integral part of mass culture. Thirdly, the information entropy, which is not yet realized by the audience, but with the exciting unpredictability of the final outcome of a match, a race, a tournament.
It can be argued that sport in no small measure contributed to the release of radio to the first position in the system of mass communications in the period between the two world wars. Let's note that the beginning of regular broadcasting in the largest countries of the world in the 20-ies. XX century. separates from the appearance of the first radio broadcasts of various sports just a few years. This priority was retained by the radio until the middle of the 20th century. Let us cite one cinematic example. In the film of the German director Rainer Werner Fassbinder, "Marriage of Mary Brown" (1978) tells of the difficult fate of a woman in post-war Germany. In the final of the picture, when the heroine appears hope for the possibility of happiness, the famous radio report of the commentator Herbert Zimmerman on the last minutes of the final World Cup match between 1954 and the Hungarian and German teams sounds behind the scenes. Thus, the director with the help of such a sounding symbol denoted the significance of that famous football "Marvel in Bern", which was important for German national identity after the collapse of Germany in World War II and which was "heard" the whole nation by radio.
You can recall the legendary broadcast of the football match in May 1942 from the besieged Leningrad. The very fact of holding this match, supported radio, has become a powerful mobilizing incentive for residents of the besieged city. He was also a psychological audio cassette for the Wehrmacht soldiers, since the broadcast in German was conducted using loudspeakers on the position of the German fascist troops surrounding the city. In the same series, Vadim Sinyavsky's radio reports about the Moscow tour of the "Dynamo" in 1945. In short, by the time the emergence of a direct competitor to radio television in the practice of sports journalism, not only the traditions of radio commentary have developed, but also a certain system of informing the audience about sports events.
Without special changes, it exists today. The system of working with sports information presupposes, first of all, the consideration of the fact that the main carrier of information is either the text sounded by the announcer or the story of the journalist himself.
In the first case, sports information becomes an integral part of news releases, which at different stations have different duration and different frequency of output. On private radio stations, the temporary step between news releases, as a rule, is one astronomical hour. On air, old & quot ;, conversational stations - this step varies from one to two hours. But it is at such stations that the traditions of the preparation of thematic issues of sports news are preserved. So, on the radio Lighthouse for today only two thematic sports programs have survived - "On the sports wave" Lighthouse " and Sports Channel & quot ;. In addition, sports news is published every hour by a separate block after the main news release. Special issues of sports news are published on the air and "Echo of Moscow". During the day, these news are grouped in a special edition of the "Sport Courier", which is published five times a day. The duration of each issue is up to 3 minutes.
On the radio Petersburg (part of TRK Fifth Channel ) daily thematic editions of sports news of up to 5 minutes duration are prepared. Similar trends can be observed in the air of regional radio stations.
The preparation of broadcast texts for news releases about sports from the point of view of methodology and general rules practically does not differ from the preparation of information on events in other spheres of human activity. However, it is worth paying attention to the fact that due to the excessive abundance of digital statistics in official materials about the results of this or that sports competition, one should not abuse their full-scale scoring on air. Especially, to report about tenths of a second, characterizing a specific result. A listener at a radio in such a situation simply can not catch: why the result shown in the finals of running at 800 m for men by United States athlete Yuri Borzakovsky is better by 0.11 s than his opponent, and for more than two seconds worse than the world record. It's easier to say which place in the final race was taken by the same Yuri Borzakovskiy - 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or not at all in the top three.
In the event that the journalist reports directly about a sport event, it is worth remembering the need for "sketches" pictures of the place and the situation where the broadcast event occurs. If the report is prepared in advance and goes on the air in the recording, then it is necessary to think over its installation, as well as timing options, taking into account the program in which it will be aired. There can be a variety of options - from 1.5-2 minutes to several tens of minutes. Although in modern radio broadcasting practice, stations prefer not to give the whole match or a live run, but to use a discrete storytelling method when direct inclusions from the scene occur. However, other events at such stations as the radio "Zenith" and " or "Peter BM", go on in a continuous broadcast.
Speech stamps of sports journalism
Wards (such and such a coach)
At the Limit of Opportunities
Do not need recommendations
Flies to the finish (gate) ...
Briefly about the composition of the commands
Strike on goal! A blow above the gate ...
Breaks into the penalty area
Feet goes faster along the route
Shot by zero
First Attack Attack
Fight for survival
Most of the five "
Ahead of a fraction of a second
Feed for Departure
Toughly played against ...
Skill and Youth Fusion
With a judge, it's best not to argue. "
Fans drive the team forward
Judges, of course, see
Fast transition from defense to attack Pressing all over the field Goalkeeper in place!
The final whistle of the referee notifies that ...
Features of the comment of the sporting event we will consider further. In the meantime, let's designate a few requirements for sports information, which sounds on the radio.
First of all, the priority in working with sports information should be the speed of receiving and processing news when preparing them for airtime. Radio in this aspect has significant competitive advantages, since technologically radio journalist is less dependent on cumbersome equipment, which often accompanies his colleague's work with television. "The desire to be first is important in any case, but it becomes an absolute priority when it comes to key events", - the agency's employees "Interfax" believe. I think that this opinion is applicable to the work of a radio journalist.
The ability to be the first to recognize and report on major sporting events and results is an undeniable testimony to the professionalism of a sports journalist. She demonstrates the existence of his strong and broad connections and reliable sources of information sought, characterizes the ability of a journalist to distinguish news from news. To implement the principle of be the first today there are many opportunities. For example, the use of mobile phone communication, when a journalist can call a remote editor (or sound engineer) and, by prior arrangement, go on air with a brief message about what he saw. Most often, these organizational techniques are used when the outcome of a particular sport event is positive for a potential listener audience, most of whom are interested persons, including fans.
One of the authors of this textbook not so long ago became an unwitting participant of such an audio experiment. September 28, 2011, the day when the St. Petersburg Zenith took at the stadium "Petrovsky" Portuguese "Porto" command, he had to return from Moscow to Petersburg just at the time the match was held. In the train there was no Internet connection, so online broadcasting on special sites did not have the technical ability to see. From the difficult situation the passengers of the train left as follows. They established a telephone connection with their friends in St. Petersburg, who watched the match, or watched it with the help of messages on the Internet. And after each event (ie, scored goal), we received either SMS messages or phone calls. The final result of the match was 3: 1 in favor of "Zenith". And the passengers of the train learned about it with the help of direct phone inclusions immediately after the match.
"The speed of news," the specialists of the information sphere note, "is a direct consequence of the journalist's ability to highlight the most important thing he has heard, read or seen, to put the message in an adequate and understandable form, its ability to strictly follow the rules for the transfer of urgent materials." However, it is worth remembering about the reverse side of the speed of the transfer of sports information - accuracy. Not without reason many leading mass media of the world more and more often prefer the accuracy and reliability of the information of the speed of its reporting and bringing it to a potential audience. Here comes the reputational factor when the solidity of one or another subject of information activity in the media market is preferable to the rapidity of the message of unverified but sensational information and facts.
A typical example of such an approach can be the coverage of events on July 7, 2005 in London, when a series of terrorist acts in the metro and ground transportation was carried out in the capital of Great Britain. It is characteristic that the leading pro-government corporation of the Air Force actually disavowed the placement of photo and video footage from the events' sites on its television. There was no airborne air information and unchecked information on the number of victims, whereas Sky News, owned by tycoon R. Murdoch, on the contrary, constantly stressed the scale of the tragedy, showing what had not been broadcasted by the Air Force. The impact was heightened by the emphasis of verbal information about the possible number of victims of the explosions.
Accuracy involves the validity of sports information. First of all, what are the final results of a particular sporting event. In the practice of modern electronic media, there have been cases when, without waiting for the final whistle, the correspondents relayed information about the result of the match to the editorial office. There are also cases of disqualification of one or another athlete or team for violating the rules of the competition. Therefore, it is worth remembering the corresponding Latin proverb "Festina lente".
How things can change in the sport in one minute
May 30, 1999 in Barcelona at the stadium "Nou Camp" in the final match of the Champions League, the English football club "Manchester United", losing 0: 1, managed to score 2 goals in the third added minute and wrest victory from the German team "Bavaria" (Munich). This match was judged by the famous Italian referee Pierluigi Collina. Here is how he described in his memoirs the last minutes of this legendary match:
There are more than 90 thousand spectators in the stands. The situation is fantastic. At the beginning of the first half, Basler from Bayern scored a goal, and with the score 1: 0 the game was going without any problems: the Germans controlled the match, and the British could not create an assists situation ... German fans, who, compared to the English, were fewer, already jubilant, foreseeing victory.
For 10 seconds before the end of normal time, I showed the alternate referee that I decided to add three minutes. They have become one of the most dramatic in the history of football. Approximately 20 seconds after the transfer from the left flank, Effenberg beats the ball to the corner, and even Schmeichsl (goalkeeper Manchester United - CA, S.I.) rushed into the penalty area Bavaria in a desperate attempt to level the score. German defender slightly punches the ball from the penalty area; the ball is picked up by Giggs, who finds Scheringham with a well-defined transmission, and he accurately sends the ball into the corner of the goal - a blow irresistible to Kahn (goalkeeper Bayern - KA, SI.).
While the British rejoice, I return to the center of the field, thinking to myself: "We just did not have that, now there will be extra time ... That's bad luck!" In fact, a draw for us is not the best; until the match went perfectly, no questionable episodes, no disputes and criticisms, a fair result - and no problems for the arbitrators. If the account is tied, additional time is required, bickering and disputes will begin, since in some 30 minutes some controversial episode may occur and I can make an erroneous decision. Then all the good things that we have achieved will go wrong.
But the goal is scored. It is necessary to continue; the game is resumed, the player Manchester is almost immediately captured by the ball, and with a blow from 50 meters the ball is sent to Sulscher, but the ball is knocked out by Kuffur, and again at the corner.
A corner kick is assigned to Beckham when the second half time is 47.45 and only 15 seconds remain until the end of the match. And the British after the filing of a corner and hitting the head of Solshera scored a fantastic winning goal for a few seconds before the end. I'm sure that none of those present this evening at the stadium can not forget the roar of English fans, a monstrous roar. Do not forget the faces of players "Manchester", distraught with joy, jubilant and rushing into the arms. And, on the contrary, glass faces with empty looks of German players who did not believe that in two minutes you can miss the right victory. Many of them fell to the ground, as if from them released all the energy, both physical and mental.
However, there were still ten seconds left, and, as Freddie Mercury sang, "the show should be continued". Then I went to the captain of the "Bavaria" Effenberg and patted him on the chest, then tried to raise the sobbing Kuffur and, finally, resumed the game. A few seconds later the match was over.
Could anyone have thought of such an epilogue a few minutes before him? But this is football, capable of delivering joy, almost immediately lead to despair, turn a normal match into the finale of the century. "
(Cited by: 100 great football matches, M., 2010. P. 332-333.)
The requirements for reliability in the current competitive environment of the media with each other are the basic position in determining the information standards of a particular media. The logic of professional competence prompts the list of requirements that are mandatory for performance by a sports journalist. First of all, he must check all the component news, since it is he and no one else who is responsible for the correctness of the facts, quotations, references, names of teams, names, titles. In sports journalism, the correct use of the terms used is an extremely important evidence of the reliability of information and the competence of its author. Synchronous audio recordings should be given exactly in the recording if there is such a technical capability. In the case of its absence, the quotation must be direct and, preferably, short, but necessarily with an indication of its author.
The structure of the audio information containing the results of a particular competition must be arranged in such a way that the listener for as long as possible can not hear the final score or distribution of seats in the race. Although the practice of the current news radio releases is most often based on the preliminary announcement of the leads containing the expected information on the results, which reduces the interest of the audience to the subsequent voiced texts of the announcers or presenters. For example, in the announcement the leader of sports news reports: "The St. Petersburg ice hockey club SKA team lost to the guests from the Atlanta club". " It is clear that the rest of the information for listeners and fans of the SKA is only a weak informational "comfort" that does not make much sense.
There have been other cases in the history of sports radio journalism. For example, on September 10, 1972, the All-Union Radio reported that the USSR national team basketball team won the final match against the US team with a score of 51:50 at the Olympics in Munich and became Olympic champions. True, the message sounded the phrase that our athletes lost one point to Americans in three seconds before the end of the match, but managed to snatch victory. At that time no one knew what the phrase meant - "to snatch victory". And in the evening of the same day, according to the first program of Central Television, this famous final match was shown in the recording, and the whole country saw: WHAT was happening on the court in the end of the duel, which went down in the history of world sports. Commenting on the USSR-USA match, Nina Eremina conducted her reportage late at night from Munich live, but at the then technical conditions this entry was issued to the all-Union broadcast the following day. However, this report even in the recording still makes an indelible impression. The following year, journalist Anatoly Pinchuk published in the magazine "Youth"; sketch Eight seconds in which with participants and witnesses of that historic match revealed the whole drama of confrontation between the two teams-leaders of the world basketball in the final of the Olympic tournament in Munich. Through the refrain in the text of the report were excerpts from the commentary of Nina Eremin. 1
Nina Eremina remembers those famous "three seconds" (Nina Yeremina, On Television, Basketball and Three Seconds, "Moskovsky Komsomolets", 2001, August 5) Sports commentator Nina Eremina worked in the program "Time" 18 years. In her 67 she is cheerful, energetic, charming. He drives a car, smokes strong cigarettes, grows decorative tobacco in the dacha ... She talks bitterly about the television past and is surprised when they remember her. "- As a European champion, the world basketball champion got on the radio?
- I started writing my impressions and sketches in magazines, and then I was offered to work on the radio. For four years I was on the air. With us engaged Yuri Borisovich Levitan, Olga Sergeevna Vysotskaya. They put diction, breathing, they taught us to follow the stresses, the construction of the phrase, and so on. Then the editorial team teamed up with television, and sports TV programs began, and then in the program "Time" the sports news needed a man ...
1 For the full text, see Appendix 3.
- And why did they choose you?
- The United States name was needed. Invert Nazimovich Mamedov, first deputy. Sergei Georgievich Lapin (chairman of the State TV and Radio Broadcasting Company) decided that we needed a "talking head", but it was necessarily United States. Whom to take? Rashmadzhan is no use, Maslachenko is no good; I do not remember where Ozerov was at that moment ... They chose me. I got on my first program right from the plane. I flew that day from Germany, from the World Handball Championship. It was scary terribly! The speakers are already finishing the program, and here you are. It is necessary to have time: God forbid to make a mistake, God forbid not to wear it!
- In those years, much talk was forbidden - how did the commentators relate to this?
- I consider all these conversations about freedom of speech to be empty. When there was the Moscow Olympics, we were forbidden to name several countries. Well, to hell with them! It did not bother me at all. I have always adhered to all the rules of my reports: never criticize, demean and teach neither an athlete, nor a coach without doing anything. Because I myself knew what it was.
We had a brilliant team on the program "Time". We were all deserved masters of sports, and everyone had the right to say: "I believe. .. Mayorov - in hockey, Dmitriev - in tennis, Maslachenko - in football. This team will not be anyone else. Now they also say: "I believe ... - but how does the viewer perceive it? ..
- What about the match with the Israeli team that you could not call?
- Yes, I called them "rivals". Because it was unacceptable to talk about Israel in the USSR. The match was not shown in the end - all because of the same Israel, although we won the European Championship finals!
- And about the fact that at the Olympics in Munich terrorists took the Israelis hostage, having shot several people, it was also impossible to speak?
- All countries then broadcast reports live. The Germans even showed how the terrorists blew up the hostages right in the air. And we came there and pretended that we were also passing it on. It was scary. Insanely. There was a break for a day: they declared mourning. We with our correspondent Tolya Malyavin secretly went to the village, where all this was happening. Then eight hostages were shot at once and four - then. I dreamed that I was soon taken home, not suspecting that I would have to comment on such an awful final match, when our first won "gold" for Americans.
- This is the one on which you allegedly broke the voice? ..
- Our then broke all records, and there was an amazing sense of ownership and pride in the country. This can not be explained in words.
When I yelled: "Victory! Hurray !!! - in Ostankino all zashkalilo. Lapin half a year at all meetings talked about this. I could not stand it, I signed up for him and asked: "Did you watch the game?" Tell me, did you look calmly, or were you ill for ours too? .. He replies: "Okay, it's okay, go work, child." And left me alone.
- You were a famous basketball player. Do you remember your first match abroad?
- Well, if Poland does not count abroad, then the first time we flew to Brazil. There is no diplomatic relationship with Brazil. To fly far. We flew for three days and arrived just on October 3, 57th, when our satellite was launched. Brazil does not know anything about us. We lived in Rio de Janeiro on Capacabana. The people around! .. We watched how we eat, can we use a fork ... - Well, polar bears were brought, not otherwise.
I remember this trip so far. We lost the world championship to the Americans, although the second place is also good. When we returned, we were not even sent a bus. We did not receive a prize either - we simply flew away.
- You were called fast and soft player ...
- Basketball is a tough game, it's not up to gentleness. At me all fingers are beaten out, the nose is broken, stretching of back muscles very strong. Then everything healed like a dog, but now everything is affected. When we first played in the US, there was an interesting case. They played such Edith Washington, who "kept" me " and beat mercilessly. In the end, I'm sick of it, especially since the game did not add up. And then I see: it flies past me, and Washington runs across. But not to intercept the ball, he wants to take me out. I missed the ball and palmed her hand. She bumped into her nose and broke it. What was there! .. I was replaced, the leader of the delegation ran up, says: "You ruined our relations with the United States - the Cold War will begin!" And I have one idea in my head: how am I going to go home, have not I spent the daily allowance? ..
On the second half, our coach Stepas Butautas released me, Washington quickly put in the tires, sealed the nose and also withdrew. I went to the beaten one, kissed her and said in United States: "It's her fault - next time do not climb." The audience burst out with applause and the war did not take place. And I bought a fur coat for daily allowance.
- Athletes at that time could become rich people?
- No, of course, we were given a scholarship from the State Committee. She was slightly more than the average wage. Prizes were given, but a large percentage was deducted from them. Maybe it's loud words, but we played for the honor of the country and for the sake of sports interest.
- And who followed your moral image abroad?
- We were required to put someone from the KGB. In Brazil, we traveled a certain Novikov. We made fun of him. He dressed very well. He had such fashionable shorts, expensive Swiss watches ... We were sick of the fact that he was always waving around us, and we decided to get rid of him. On the beach, the boys sold fish, and we say to him: "We want a sea horse." He: "Okay, watch over the things I have now." We, of course, did not follow, and things immediately evaporated ...
- Did Soviet sportsmen take dope?
- There was no control, but there was no question of any doping. At least in our team. We were coached by Ivan Fyodorovich Lysov - the greatest basketball player, technician, he just left himself to play. So we ran until he himself gets tired.
- Who followed the appearance of the announcers?
- Behind our appearance we were watched only by ourselves and Sergey Georgievich. We even combed our hair in the "Enchantress", later a hairdresser appeared. If Lapin did not like something, he said: what are you dressed up like a Christmas tree?
I have good relations with many announcers: with Sveta Morgunova, Tanya Vedeneeva, Vera Shebeko, Natasha Fufacheva. The announcers are a serpentine tangle: someone on the First Channel will put someone on the second, it even matters who is dressed in.
- What do you think a commentator should be?
- Emotional - necessary. I have always defended my right to support our team in the international arena. Internal matches are another matter. Zalgiris I always thought that I was rooting for CSKA, although I was rooting for the Balts.
By the way, I have a record. I'm the only sports commentator who told four times about the victory of our basketball players at the Olympics. Twice about men and two about women.
- Why were you taken off the air?
- The first time it was like that. My colleague and I managed to register and decided to leave the studio. The Holy Law is not to leave the studio until the end of the broadcast! And we left. I'm sitting at home, I turn on the TV and I hear the phrase: "It's the World Chess Championship ..." That is: "Good evening, comrades, today Karpov (and this was Lapin's first friend) won the World Chess Championship in Merano." That is, the film was launched ahead of time, and I left the middle of the phrase. Lapin suspended me for three months. This meant a loss in money, well, it hurt my pride. The second time I was suspended for a month, when I talked about the 1/32 draw of the USSR Cup in football. I prepared myself, wrote the tables and instead of "Vinnitsa Niva" said the "Vinnitsa Neva". Who knew this command? But nevertheless.
- When the "Time" program was closed, how did you feel about it?
- It turned out that I left there myself. It was March 2, 1992, when the famous skater Konstantin Kudryavtsev turned 80 years old. He was in the hospital, and they sent me to do a report. All great sportsmen-skaters came there. The report turned out to be very warm. And on this day, as is known, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev celebrates his birth. Before my story, Tatyana Komarova, presenter of the program "Time", did about this story using photographs of Mikhail Sergeyevich. I went through that story - after it should be mine ... It was necessary to see Komarov! She grabbed the phone and hissed: "Are you out there crazy? Immediately stop the film & quot ;. And the film was cut down. I got up and left the studio and from the program "Time". None of the authorities said a word in my defense. The next morning my story was given completely, but no one apologized.
- Have you ever regretted this?
- I think this is an act, because I answered openly rudeness. In addition, I always loved the radio more, so I never threw it. On television, you depend on anyone: an illuminator, a sound engineer, a director, but not on your own. On the radio, there was a lot of interesting, however, we really did not like the broadcasts of mass sports, in every way shirked from them. I once did a story from the plant "Rostselmash". I come there, they tell me: "We are holding a sports day, a very large influx, everyone is willing to participate." I ask: "How do you do it?" - "And it's very simple. We put a glass on the finish line, who first comes running - he drinks ".
- And what about the statement that television is a drug?
- I calmly reacted to my absence on the screen. I was always a burden that they would recognize me.
- Have you watched the last Olympics?
- Now the Olympics are not enough to show, there is nothing to choose from, and it's too late. Strangely enough, recently I'm only interested in tennis and chess. I really love Anatoly Karpov. She also watched synchronized swimming, athletics: Privalova won simply fantastic.
- What do you think, why is the interest in sports so reduced in our country today?
- All paid, and very expensive. People call and ask to arrange a child in a sports school for money. We played for free, studied for free, the form we had was free, the trips were also free. The second reason is that all our stars have left, and there is nobody to grow new ones. If they grow up, they are quickly seduced abroad. Previously, we went to hockey for Kharlamov, Mikhailov, Fetisov, Larionov. They were stars. In basketball went to Korneeva, Wolnova, Zubkov ... Television "did" figure skating and hockey. It was thanks to him that they became so popular. Basketball, too, showed a lot, because Grechko said that the victory of CSKA raises the morale of our soldiers. Whichever a supernumerary match is, it is still shown on the First Channel & quot ;. You do not know what to say, but all the same you babble and mumble, because the order. Now I'm not interested in sports. Recently I watched our girls play with the Novosibirsk "Dynamo". Maybe it seems to me, but earlier we played more interesting, faster. And now all the long and barely run around. Our basketball can not be watched, just like football. I remember, in addition to two-time training every morning for an hour she ran to train throws. Because I wanted to. I do not believe that our girls who now receive such big money can not jump, run, play. Proceeding from the principle that elephants in the circus are taught to dance, you can learn everything.
- And how do you feel about today's commentators?
- It's bad. They talk a lot, do not give a look. There are, of course, good, but not enough. I understand them, they express themselves on the air, and this is very much felt. Attitude towards people is also felt. You can not hide anything in front of the camera.
- You played yourself in the movie of Vladimir Men'shov. How did you get to it?
- Strangely enough, they invited me. Vera Valentinovna and Vladimir Valentinovich are amazing people and so benevolent. It was very interesting. I did not have to play anything. But I would not want to be in a movie, it's very tedious and boring. We could not laugh, as the director asked. He showed us how to do it, and I thought that I never will.Recently, the widow of our sports commentator Vladimir Rashmadzhan Alla told me: "What an ungrateful profession you are, you do not need anyone." I did the transfer of "Sport-Courier". on Ren-TV, which was closed. I loved her, I had good memories from the collective and from that period. Now I do not need Ren-TV. I was invited to the "Silver Rain", but I myself refused. I'm already not interested in reading the news.
- And do not invite the commentator?
- No, and I do not want to. The one that was, will not be, and one can not work all his life. Now the repair is over, and I will wave at the dacha. It's so beautiful, so good. "
The stylistics of sports radio messages should meet the general requirements that are used today in modern radio journalism. For example, a journalist should try to avoid evaluative concepts that characterize the content of a sport event precisely because the information function, rather than the descriptive function, should be placed in the forefront. "Do not say beautifully", - this is now an indispensable condition for those who work in the field of sports information in journalism. The listeners, perhaps, did not see the match, the result of which they are informed by radio, and from this quite naturally there can be a moment of irritation or regret.
As domestic experts write in the theory of journalism, "radio information is less variable in creative possibilities, as it lacks visuality." Therefore, its effectiveness is achieved not so much by a combination of different expressive means as by working on the text and its reproduction on the air.
The conciseness and clarity of phrases, the accuracy and expressiveness of intonation, the rightly found rate of speech - the basic parameters of professional information dictated by the nature of broadcasting.
At the same time, there is a specific specificity of sports information that allows you to adjust existing requirements for general rules of working with information. First of all, this refers to the balance of opinions and judgments, to providing the audience with two opposing points of view on one problem, an event, a fact, a phenomenon. Sport as a sphere of human activity is so good that regardless of the course of the event, the content and the vicissitudes of its development has a clearly fixed reality, determined by the result of the competition. Discussion of sports results is possible in radio programs related to a group of analytical or journalistic genres, but not in the structure of information genres.
Another necessary property of sports information in the air - a combination of its brevity and saturation. The information message on the course of the international tournament in figure skating should contain information about the places that are occupied by competing athletes - couples and singles. It is advisable to indicate which country they represent. But the message about who is the coach or what places the athletes occupied in previous competitions, can hardly "fit" in an information message within the same issue. That is, there is information required and necessary, and there is additional information. The saturation of the information message is determined by many circumstances, above all the importance of the sport event itself. It also affects the layout of the news release, when the announcement of a victory at a major international tournament of the national team should be ahead of the information about holding a regional surfing championship.
By the way, such a requirement for the news release, as a balance of information in the event of sports events, also looks optional. After all, none of the leading or editors of the issue can foresee how the results of speeches of certain teams and athletes will go in specific competitions that take place on the same day or within the same period. It is also permissible for a situation where a favorite team or an athlete representing a country can fail simultaneously with each other in different competitions. And this objective information sports reality should be reflected in the news release.
It is important to note the requirements for sports information as a kind of information in general. Some of them have already been indicated, but we still list them, since there is a paragraph devoted to sports information on the air ahead.
So, in journalistic practice, there are general requirements for information. These are:
- reliability (documentary);
- the completeness of the message; -Laconism;
- genre certainty;
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