As a result of studying the material in this chapter, the student must:
• the classification of epic and lyric-dramatic genres as a generic characteristic of ways to reflect life;
• Typological signs of information, information-journalistic, artistic-journalistic genres of photojournalism, features used by famous photo artists in 1.1 times the amount of funds;
be able to
• choose the appropriate genre when shooting photos on a particular topic;
• Use the techniques of famous photographers, which are described in the text;
• create a series of journalistic photographs in different genres for the preparation of photographic bands of printed or electronic press;
• photography skills in different genres (reportage, portrait, genre sketch, landscape, etude;
• The skills of the bildredaktor at the imposition of photojournalistic texts (illustrations and photo comments) on a photo band of printed or electronic media.
Epic and lyric-dramatic genres as a generic characteristic of ways to reflect life
The greatest uncertainty in the science of art (we refer it to photographic creation) is the notion genre , which usually denotes any specific structural modifications, except for species and generic ones.
View - this is the most common concept, denoting a formal community of activities. For example, photo journalism is a kind of journalistic creativity, photography is a kind of artistic activity, a kind of art. The notion genus is applicable to the next level of classification of the phenomena of a particular activity. In art, the reflection of reality has been and continues to occur in the framework of such genera as epic , lyrics and drama. Finally, genre - is the next level of classification. It is based on a certain type of image of a person, an event, a phenomenon, the life process itself, a certain way of transferring the character and actions of a person, the communities of people surrounding animate and inanimate nature.
It must be said that some theorists extend the domain of the genre as a way of mapping reality to art, but in this case the concept becomes immeasurably broad and hinders the concrete analysis of works.
Thus, in the literature as a form of artistic creativity, the kind of activity closest to journalism, the following genres have historically been defined and exist:
story, novel, novel (belong to the epic kind);
- drama, comedy, tragedy (refer to dramatic
- poem, ballad, elegy, ode, lyrical poem (refer to the lyrical genus).
It should be noted, firstly, that the boundaries between genera and genres are sometimes difficult to conduct, they are purely formal, speculative, "classificatory". Secondly, this remark must be made for the reason that photojournalism is a synthesis of verbal and visual creativity. Genres of journalism in many respects have origins in the genres of literature, as well as genres of photojournalism - in the genres of photo-11 art.
Painting, in turn, is divided into a genre for monumental and easel, and the latter - for the easel painting, landscape, portrait, still life, sketch, genre picture. Tautology in the latter case speaks about the use of the term genre in two senses - general (as the definition of the image) and concrete (the designation of a certain eventual event of event-non-event, situational, incidental) with a lyrical, comic, dramatic shade.
Graphic art has its genres: drawing, poster, caricature, book illustration, industrial and design graphics.
Photographic art in its inception has used not only the principles of the representation of reality, which have been shaped in the fine arts for centuries, according to the genres of the latter. There are also "monumental canvases" in photojournalism-turns in newspapers and magazines devoted to both social and advertising-entertaining subjects. There are special photo projects, designed both for publication in magazines (usually glossy-glamorous), and for exhibition expositions. There are landscapes, portraits, still lifes, genre sketches.
However, if we talk about the species and the nature of photojournalism (not photo art!), she is certainly a child of journalism, in which there are also genres such as information, information note, reportage, essay, commentary, essay, feuilleton, pamphlet . With all these genres in direct and direct communication is photo creation, photojournalism, which, like journalism, is divided into information, journalistic and analytical genres.
All these genres, in addition to those who came from painting, also have photo and journalism in their combat and artistic arsenal. To them it is necessary to add genres borrowed from decorative and applied art, design art: collage, editing, composition, photo-illustration, photo installation.
A distinctive feature of this textbook from previously published ones is the consideration of genres of photojournalism in the categories of general aesthetic classification of genres - but to the genres of artistic activity. However, one and the same genre can be considered within the framework of both an epic kind (for example, a reportage) and a lyric-dramatic one - depending on the content of the information that it bears.
Let's characterize this information contained in the text of the photo from the point of view of the theory of mass communication, information theory and cybernetics, which treat this information as removable uncertainty.
- We expected something, but did not know exactly what it really is, and finally learned.
We know about some fact, phenomenon, object or object, not deep enough, superficially. Photography opens up new sides to this well-known reality.
About a certain new (event, phenomenon, trend, life fact), we became aware only of the expressively expressive text of the photograph. It turned out that this new happened (manifested) there and then, where and when we did not expect it at all. The photojournalist removes (in a direct, not figurative sense) by clicking the camera and uncertainty, and generally white, blind spots of being.
As already mentioned, information - is a process of change. Texts of CM and one of the most important means - photographs, if they meet the ideas of humanism, bring to us those changes that are socially significant (give new knowledge, sensation as a big or small discovery, reveal the truth, admit to good and beauty) humanly curious, aesthetically unusual and possess the uniqueness that makes them works of art.
Information is a symbol of diversity. "The transition from the interpretation of information as the opposite of uncertainty to the interpretation of this as the opposite of identity is dictated by the entire course of development of our knowledge." The unit of diversity in cybernetics is bits. The greater the number of elements that are different from one another, the more this set contains information.
However, in addition to numbers and values , information has a value (or utility). These qualities of information affect behavior people, making their decisions, organizing their own lives and society.
As you can see, the processes of obtaining and functioning of information are the same for technical cybernetics and social life. In this text-book on photojournalism, these philosophical processes are presented in a simple and simplistic way, but it is important for the author that the students understand the methodological principle by which he classifies the genres of photojournalism.
It has already become an axiom that photojournalism should not be limited to one fixation of change, a reflection of the diversity of facts, events and phenomena of life, i.e. an empirical type of mapping of social processes. However, this axiom has a unique continuation in the history of United States photojournalism.
On the one hand, there is no doubt that the photo should be valuable. However, on the other hand, the ideology occupies a niche of values (in one form or another) corresponding to time, to the state and social structure. This led photojournalism - the most observant, sharp-sighted
and an impartial form of reflection of reality - from its actual destiny.
What is this purpose? It is the education of man by the image of man, and not by the faded pattern of the stilted hero, the education of an image of the humanized, humanistic world, and not by the decoration and declaration of the latter. In this regard, the genres of photojournalism were considered and interpreted in a straightforward and schematic way, depending on the ideological functions they were supposed to carry.
Some genres were supposed to be only empirical and include "bare" information: records, reasons, object launches, receptions, opening and closing of congresses. However, even here, without guile, there was an ideology.
Other genres could afford, along with empiricism and some (within the limits of allowed) theorizing.
The third were allowed into the "holy of holies" - in the category of artistic journalism. This over-ranged set did not allow the publication of, for example, many photographs of front-line correspondents about the days of the retreat of 1941, shot and burned villages, the "window truth" of the war years in its historical time, when the drama of the war was taking place.
The value aspect of information, understood in the sense of an ideological dosage of truth, justification of one indisputable truth, has led and continues to lead to the fact that information by virtue of planting only one meaning of an event loses much both in its absolute quantity and in its social and aesthetic quality , in other words, loses its effectiveness in influencing the viewer. Insincere information leads to instability and unpredictability of the latter's behavior. It also loses in the effectiveness of the actions and actions of the person who received the information.
Ideologized information can not be diverse, objective, like life itself: both joyful, and sorrowful, and heroic, and tragic, and lyrical, and comedic.
However, the value niche should not be empty to please the unlimited liberalization of thought. Spiritually meaningful, and not only material quality of a person's life should become a measure of the value of photo information.
University lecture course and discipline "Photojournalism", read by the author of this book, is based on the generic classification of genres, one for all creative processes, reflecting reality artistically and documentarily. Epos can be both a novel, and one tele- or photo-frame of an old, recent or modern history of society, of United States history. The same can be said about drama and lyrics. There is a dramatic report, a lyrical essay, a photo sketch.
All genres of photojournalism are informational , and all are more or less artistic and valuable , except boring. The value in them is the desire to comprehend the truth, reflection of good and beauty with kind and beautiful means.
New information also carries new changes. Any photo information in print, on television, on the Internet should be of public and artistic value for us, at least for a moment to touch our good feelings, to excite high emotions. To make such a much compelling conclusion of the author prompts the following.
Photography as one of the technical ways of reflecting reality has many directions. Their definition in a concise form was given by the author of works on the aesthetics of M. Kagan, according to the model of which modern photography includes eight directions: documentary, chronicle, political-journalistic, research, intimate-communicative, memorial, advertising, design, artistic-exotic . Photojournalism absorbs in some way all these directions, even the last one. This is indicated, for example, by photo projects presented by glossy magazines at the International Moscow Festivals and Fobiennale. A question may arise about an intimate and communicative direction, but M. Kagan, the author of the definition of this model of photography as a culture, foresaw the development of this branch of photography, which she received in the conditions of liberalization of the modern press, the increase in the number of glossy glamorous magazines, and especially with the development the possibilities of the Internet and integrative journalism. The last term introduced by us, denotes the whole complex of verbal and visual texts, functioning and output via the Internet printed and electronic media, stationary and mobile screens and displays. The basis of these texts are electronic versions of newspapers and magazines, actually Internet publications. A reserve of new meanings for integrative journalism is the blogosphere.
In any case, one should not forget, let alone minimize, the importance of the value orientations of photographic texts used about photojournalism in its various genres used in classical and integrative journalism.
From the point of view of the method of fixing materials of reality, the correlation of value (depth and reflectivity of reflection) in them and the quantitative (breadth and subject) of information parameters, the genres of journalism are divided into informational , analytical and artistic-publicistic .
In the conditions of modern press development, which has acquired a qualitatively and quantitatively new type in the conditions of liberalization of socio-economic relations, in comparison with the Soviet press, it is possible to add intimate-communicative genres (erotic portraits, sketches, photographs of "life by surprise" "Predominantly naturalistic or erotic content).
In the classification I '. Chudakov's concept the analytic genre of photojournalism is omitted, he leaves only information-publicistic (photo-information, photo essay, photo-illustration), and artistic and journalistic genres (photo essay , photo series, photo posters). We believe that the genre structure proposed by G. Chudakov is optimally correlated with our general aesthetic approach to the genus classification of the genres of photojournalism. It is not necessary to supplement only the category of intimnocommunicative genres, , introduced by us, as well as the category of decorative and applied genres existing in the visual arts.
The works created within the framework of these genre formations are for the most part devoid of deep semantic content. It is also possible to expand the general system of modern genres of photojournalism with such entities as photo-story and photoproject , which appeared in journalistic work in the last 20-30 years.
Since many journalistic and amateur photographs eventually become historical documents, in the 1980s, The main archive management under the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Document Management and Archival Affairs made a serious attempt to typologize photographic documents. From the point of view of the content, the semantic information contained in the photo documents, the scientists of the Institute distinguish three groups, of which the most informative is represented by renaming images. The group of the least informative includes photoorientation, photo collages, photo-photos, etc. Intermediate place in this typology is occupied by landscapes, still lifes, everyday photo-pictures, "made by a hidden camera for revealing the philosophical essence of phenomena". However, in the latter case, along with other authorial settings, photographs of these genres contain a certain amount of semantic information.
In the survey of archivist document experts, there are many valuable comments on the division of photographs into views (from the point of view of the subject) and the genres (in terms of the target focus of the survey). Inside the genres themselves, a classification that emanates from the functions of a particular genre and the corresponding methods of photography is of interest. Particularly detailed here is the genre of the photo portrait. It is interesting to note that this type of tinologization, species and genre classification is now used on many pages and Internet portals. However, in general, in photojournalism, the genre typology has a structure that has developed over many decades, in accordance with which, with few exceptions, our training course is also built.
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